National health standards and elements



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First Aid Kit

  • Describe why and where you should

take your first aid kit.

in a first aid kit.
ACTIVITY:

  • First aid kit activity-students will be asked to pick 20 items off of list of 40 or so items to put in first aid kit.

Students must put an explanation with each item on why it is necessary to the kit and what it would be used for.

Activated Charcoal (for poisoning emergencies) Adhesive strip bandages - assorted sizes Adhesive tape Alcohol wipes Antacid Antibiotic ointment Baking soda Calamine lotion Cotton balls Cotton swabs Decongestant tablets & spray Diarrhea medication Disposable latex or vinyl gloves Elastic bandages Face mask for CPR First aid guide Flashlight Gauze pads Household ammonia Hydrocortisone cream .5% Hydrogen Peroxide Hypoallergenic tape Ice Packs Insect repellent Insect sting swabs Matches Meat tenderizer (for insect bites) Needles for splinters Non-adhesive pads Over-the-counter pain medication [aspirin] Paper & pencil Pre-wrap Safety pins Salt Scissors Soap Space blanket Sugar or glucose solution Thermometer Tongue blades Triangular bandages Tweezers Waterproof tape






First Aid Kit. Follow the lesson plan at http://www.eduref.org which guides you through the following activities:

  1. Have student groups brainstorm on items that should be in a first aid kit,

  2. Have student groups select first aid kit items from materials that include both items that should/should not be included,

  3. Have the groups identify each item’s use, and

  4. Have students revise their original lists.

Work on the vocabulary for the first aid items. Have students read the labels on the first aid items. What warnings are there? What is the item used for? What is the dosage? Is the product safe for children as well as adults?


Your First Aid Kit

Everyone should have a well-stocked first aid kit handy at home, in the car and in the workplace.

The contents of your kit will vary depending upon the number of people it is designed to protect as well as special circumstances where it will be used.

For example, a first aid kit in a factory where there may be danger of flying debris getting into the eye should certainly have a sterile eyewash solution in its kit. If a family member is a known diabetic, your kit at home should have glucose or sugar solution.

When assembling your first aid kit, whether for use in the home, car or at work, you should consider possible injuries you are likely to encounter and then select kit contents to treat those conditions.

It's also important to check your kit periodically to restock items that have been used and to replace items that are out-of-date.



It's also advisable at home and at work to have both a stationary kit, stored in a cabinet or drawer, as well as a compact portable kit that can be taken quickly to the site of an emergency.

Recommended Contents for a First Aid Kit
[Modify to suit your particular needs]

  • Emergency phone number list-phone numbers that would be necessary in case of emergency such as fire, ambulance, poison control, emergency contact, and directions to house will be compiled for each student on his or her own and ready to be put by their phone.




  • Emergency scenario exercise-students will get in groups and act out emergency and what to do when first one on scene, and what actions would be taken.




  • First aid procedures for injuries such as wounds, bites & stings, shock, broken bones, severe bleeding, & poisoning will be studied.




  • First Aid Booklet. Introduce this activity by showing pictures of poison ivy. See if anyone in the class recognizes the plant and knows the name. Prepare a page for the first aid booklet as a demonstration. Name the problem (Poison Ivy) and write approximately 5-7 important steps to take. Consult one or more of the following websites to get your information. Include a drawing of poison ivy.




  • http://www.aocd.org/skin/dermatologic_diseases/poison_ivy_dermati.html

  • http://www.healthy.net/clinic/firstaid/

  • http://www.surviveoutdoors.com/emergency/poisonivy.asp

  • http://www.drgreene.com/21_148.html

  • http://gorp.com/gorp/eclectic/family/expert/poison_ivy2.htm

  • http://www.ou.edu/oupd/pivyp.htm



FIRST AID BOOKLET ACTIVITY:

  • Divide your class into groups or two or three. Ask each group to research one first aid topic and prepare 1-2 pages that include treatment instructions and picture(s) or drawing(s). Each group may then present/explain “their” ailment and the treatment to the class and answer questions. Compile all pages into a class first-aid booklet.


GUEST LECTURER:

  • Students will have chance to listen to EMT, school nurse, and other first hand accounts of what it is like to be the first responder and their experiences. Students will learn the importance of the first responder as a link in the chain of command in treating emergency situations.

TOP SEVEN FIRST AID MISCONCEPTIONS:

  1. You should put butter or cream on a burn. The only thing you should put on a burn is cold water - keep the butter for cooking. Put the affected area under cold running water for at least ten minutes.

  2. If you can’t move a limb, it must be broken (or if you can move a limb, it can’t be broken). The only accurate way to diagnose a broken limb is to x-ray it. If you suspect a broken bone try to support the injury with a cushion or items of clothing to prevent unnecessary movement. As soon as possible call 999.

  3. The best way to treat bleeding is to put the wound under a tap. If you put a bleeding wound under a tap you wash away the body's clotting agents and make it bleed more. Instead put pressure on the wound with whatever is available to stop or slow down the flow of blood. As soon as possible call 999. Keep pressure on the wound until help arrives.

  4. Nosebleeds are best treated by putting the head back. If you put the head back during a nosebleed, all the blood goes down the back of the airway. Instead advise them to tilt their head forwards and ask the person to pinch the end of their nose and breathe through their mouth.

  5. If someone has swallowed a poison you should make them be sick. This won’t help and with some poisons if it burnt on the way down, it will burn on the way up. The best thing to do is get medical advice and find out what poison was taken, at what time and how much.

  6. If you perform CPR on someone whose heart is beating you can damage their heart. It's difficult in emergency situations for non-medics to assess whether a person’s heart is beating. Although not ideal the evidence is that it isn’t dangerous to do chest compressions on a casualty whose heart is beating.

  7. You need lots of training to do first aid. You don’t - what you mostly need is common sense. You can learn enough first aid in a few minutes to save someone's life – whether it’s from a book, attending a course or watching videos online. You need lots of expensive equipment to do first aid. You don’t need any equipment to do first aid, there are lots of ways to improvise anything you need.

Remember... anyone can save a life!

Begin by discussing with the class how skills in first aid might prevent an injury from becoming more serious. Types of injury include minor burns, minor cuts, concussions, broken bones and sprains.


PREVENTION of Injury / Accidents
An action or actions taken to stop somebody from doing something or to stop something from happening

Precautions to prevent risk



    • Bleeding

    • Burns

    • Poisoning

    • Cold and heat related

Injury Prevention



  • Basic Precautions

    • Behave safely around hazards

    • Follow safety guidelines

    • Use safety equipment

    • Protect yourself




  • Injuries Are Not Accidents, And Are Therefore Predictable and Preventable




FIRST AID BURNS



Is an injury involving the skin, including muscles, bones, nerves

and blood vessels. This results from heat, chemicals, electricity

or solar or other forms of radiation.

Overview


  • 1st Degree

  • 2nd Degree

  • 3rd Degree


COMMON CAUSES

1. Carelessness with match and cigarette smoking.

2. Scald from hot liquid.

3. Defective heating, cooking and electrical equipment.

4. Immersion in overheated bath water.

5. Use of such chemicals as lye, strong acids and strong detergents.


Caring for Burns

  • Cool water and compresses

    • Reduce further damage

    • Alleviate pain

    • Aid healing process

  • No creams until burn has cooled

  • Activate EMS and monitor victims of severe burns

Burn Care Precautions



  • Use clean coverings to protect burned areas

  • Do NOT remove materials that stick to a burn

  • Do NOT apply water to 3rd or sever 2nd degree burns

  • Do NOT break blisters

1st Degree Burns



  • Sunburn, hot object, or household chemical

    • Damage to epidermis

    • Swelling and tenderness

    • Red and dry

    • Usually painful

RESPOND:

  • Cool Area

    • Water or cool cloths until pain ceases

  • Assist with medication

    • Ibuprofen, aloe vera, moisturizer

  • Monitor and care

    • Elevate arms or legs if burned

2nd Degree Burns



  • Partial Thickness: can be very painful

    • Damage to several layers beneath the epidermis

    • Red and swollen and may blister and weep

    • Leave blisters intact

RESPOND:


  • Small <20% of body

    • Cool with water

    • Assist with medication (topical cream and ibuprofen)

    • Bandage and protect: lightly-dry, non-sticking bandage

  • Large >20% of body

3rd Degree Burn



  • Full Thickness

    • Penetrate all layers of skin and damage tissue of fat, muscle, bone, or nerves

    • Leathery, waxy, pearly gray, or charred appearance

    • Often painless since nerves are damaged

    • Pain usually comes from surrounding tissue


RESPOND:

  • Do NOT apply cold water

  • Bandage and protect

    • Dry, non-stick, sterile dressing to reduce oxygen to the wound

    • Do not remove items stuck to burn

    • Care for shock

    • Activate EMS-get medical help immediately



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