National health standards and elements


Signals of a Heart Attack



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Signals of a Heart Attack

  • Persistent chest pain (3-5 minutes); may come and go

  • Discomfort, pain in arm, back, stomach

  • Discomfort, pressure that spreads to shoulder, neck, or jaw

  • Dizziness, nausea

  • Trouble breathing

  • Pale, ashen, sweating


In a medical emergency, a victim’s life depends on a specific series of actions called the chain of survival.
CPR can save the life of a person whose heartbeat or breathing has stopped.

Giving CPR as soon as possible is a crucial link in the chain of survival.


Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

A first-aid procedure that combines rescue breathing and chest compressions to supply oxygen to the body until normal body functions can resume


CPR for Infants and Children

Check to see if the child is breathing before calling 911.

If the child is not breathing, give five cycles of CPR—about two minutes’ worth—before making the call.

When performing rescue breathing on a baby, place your mouth over the baby’s nose and mouth at the same time—not the mouth only, as for an adult.



Do not use a face mask designed for adult CPR when performing CPR on an infant.

CPR for Adults

Before performing CPR on an adult, check to see if the person is conscious.

Tap the victim on the shoulder while shouting, “Are you okay?”

If the victim doesn’t respond, start the chain of survival by calling 911.

Then begin performing the steps for CPR.
ACTIVITY:

Students will access the Internet and type in the address http://www.bethebeat.heart.org/. They will explore the website and answer questions on the student handout. By answering all the questions correctly, students will become familiar with the learning activities on the website.


Webquest:

Instructions: Today, you are going to join the American Heart Association’s new online sudden cardiac arrest awareness campaign by logging into the website www.bethebeat.heart.org. Next you will explore the website and discover all the features the website has to offer, including videos, games, quizzes, songs, sharing with others, heart health animations, avatars, and more!

As you explore the website look for answers to the questions below:

1. How many beats per minute are given for CPR?

2. Customize the screen color by choosing blue, purple, green, orange, or ___________.

3. What information do you need to send this website to a friend? ______________and

___________________

4. What social networks are available on this website? Facebook, YouTube,

_______________, and __________________

5. Click on the VIDEO GALLERY. In the video Hands-Only CPR, what sport are they

playing? ____________________

6. Click on the VIDEO GALLERY. In the video Using an AED, what type of class are the students taking? ________________________

7. Click on the VIDEO GALLERY. In the video That’s CPR, what skill does rapper MC LARS rap about? _____________________

8. How many wallpapers are available for you to download? _____________

9. What is Twitter? Twitter is a ______________ ___________________ that lets you keep in touch with people through the exchange of quick, frequent answers to one simple question:

_______________ _____________________?

10. Give the name of a heart hero: ___________________

11. Give the name of a person whose heart has been rescued: _________________

12. How many printables are available? _______

13. Give 1 example of a song that contains 100 beats per minute: _________________________

14. The types of downloads available are wallpapers, banners and graphics, ________________, and ____________________.

15. Complete this mission statement from the American Heart Association: “We’re starting an

underground movement for teens...our mission is to get a whole new generation of

_____________________trained in ___________ and ___________.

16. What are 3 ways to earn points and prizes on this website?








17. What are the 4 steps for building an avatar?











18. In Heart Trek Games, what is the first game?

19. What is your favorite feature of the “Be the Beat” website?

20. Name 1 lifesaving piece of information you learned today on “Be the Beat."
ANSWER KEY

1. How many beats per minute is given for CPR? 100

2. Customize the screen color by choosing blue, purple, green, orange, or black.

3. What information do you need to send this website to a friend? Name and e-mail

4. What social networks are available on this website? Facebook, YouTube,

Twitter, and MySpace

5. Click on the VIDEO GALLERY. In the video Hands-Only CPR, what sport are they

playing? Baseball/Softball

6. Click on the VIDEO GALLERY. In the video Using an AED, what type of class are the students taking? Self-defense

7. Click on the VIDEO GALLERY. In the video That’s CPR, what skill does rapper MC LARS rap about? Lifesaving

8. How many wallpapers are available for you to download? 4

9. What is Twitter? Twitter is a social network that lets you keep in touch with people through the exchange of quick, frequent answers to one simple question: What's happening?

10. Give the name of a heart hero: Derek

11. Give the name of a person whose heart has been rescued: Matt

12. How many printables are available? 6

13. Give one example of a song that contains 100 beats per minute: Man In the Mirror, Stayin’ Alive (see PDF for more options)

14. The types of downloads available are wallpapers, banners and graphics, avatars, and widgets.

15. Complete this mission statement from the American Heart Association: “We’re starting an

underground movement for teens...our mission is to get a whole new generation of lifesavers

trained in CPR and AED.

16. What are 3 ways to earn points and prizes on this website?

Playing games

Clicking on hidden factoids

Answering follow-up questions

17. What are the 4 steps for building an avatar?

Select a heart

Select a color

Select graphics

About Me

18. In Heart Trek Games, what is the first game? Race to the Phone

19. What is your favorite feature of “Be the Beat” website? (opinion)

20. Name one lifesaving piece of information you learned today on “Be the Beat.”

(Answers vary.)
CPR SITUATION ASSESSMENT

The following are actual situations that have happened in area high schools. These can be used to practice assessment and rescue actions. You can choose any of the following to be used with the situation assessment form (six steps):



  1. During a soccer game, a player hits his head on a sprinkler causing a deep gash on this temple. He is unconscious.

  2. A student is found with a knife in his chest. There is pink frothing around the blade left in his chest. He is unconscious and has labored breathing.

  3. A student with a depressed level of consciousness is lying on the bleachers. Her friend said she is bulimic and took some pills after vomiting. She becomes unconscious and is not breathing.

  4. A student hit his head on the side of the deep pool. He is floating face down on the surface of the water. He is a jaundiced-gray-blue color. There is no breathing, but the heart is beating.

  5. A softball hit from a bat hits a student’s head. Student is unconscious. There is bluing of the lips and a large discolored bump forms on the forehead. Student stops breathing after the initial assessment.

  6. A boy is punched in the chest by another student. The victim passes out immediately. He is not breathing. There is no heartbeat.

  7. A student cuts class. He hides under the bleachers and binges on alcohol. He is later found by students on the ground, face down in a pool of vomit. He is not breathing.

  8. Severe asthmatic attack—Wheezing—slight bluing of the lips. Victim passes out. He is breathing occasionally with loud throaty sounds.

The following are more scenarios you can use with your class for assessment:

  1. At lunch, two friends are throwing grapes in the air and catching them in their mouth. One friend begins choking on a grape.

  2. You arrive home from school; your mom is slumped over at the kitchen table. Milk and cookies are sprawled on the table.

  3. You are baby-sitting a small boy. He is playing with Legos. The next time you check on him, he is unconscious and his color is blue.

  4. Your younger brother is stuffing marshmallows in his mouth saying, “Chubby Bunny.” He suddenly has bulging eyes and becomes blue in the face.

  5. your older brother chokes on a piece of hard candy. He is clutching his throat.

  6. You witness a friend having a seizure. After the seizure, she remains unconscious, her color is gray and you cannot open her mouth.

  7. At a family picnic, your uncle begins choking on the fruit salad. You do the Heimlich Manuever, but he collapses, unconscious.

  8. A friend begins choking at a restaurant. His face is red and his eyes are showing fear.

  9. A pregnant aunt is choking and giving you the universal choking sign. She lapses into unconsciousness.

  10. You witness a car accident, there is McDonald’s food thrown all over the roadway. One victim is blue and not breathing.

  11. You are jogging alone at the park. You trip on a rock in the path and begin to choke on the wad of gum in your mouth. You cannot breath and nobody is in sight.

  12. Your 75 year old grandmother becomes pale and sweaty and complains of chest discomfort


Discuss the following with students:

  • On average less than one third of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims receive bystander CPR. CPR can double or triple a person’s chance of surviving cardiac arrest.

  • Most bystanders are worried they might do something wrong or make things worse.

  • Hands-Only CPR is an alternative method of CPR using only chest compressions for cases of an adult witnessed sudden cardiac arrest.


ACTIVITY:

  • Students will access the Internet and type in the address http://www.bethebeat.heart.org/.

  • On the website they will go to the VIDEO GALLERY and click on the video Hands-Only CPR. As they watch the video they will answer questions on the student handout. Answers will be discussed in class once the students complete the handout.

  • Students will use Microsoft Word, Word Art, Google Images, Bing Images, Clip Art, or free-hand to create a Hands-Only CPR "Skill Card" that contains the emergency response steps, how to perform Hands-Only CPR, and where to find more information about the American Heart Association's website Be the Beat.

CPR

CPR stands for Cardio Pulmonary Resuscitation and is used to help someone who is not breathing or who's heart has stopped beating (cardiac arrest). The chief causes of cardiac arrest are heart attack, drowning, drug overdose, choking and electrocution. Steps:



  1. Survey the scene - look for live electrical wires, smoke, chemicals, strong smells (the only thing worse than one person down is two).

  2. Check for breathing - Shout, "Are you ok?"

  3. Look (is the chest moving?)

  4. Listen (can you hear breathing?)

  5. Feel (is air coming out of the mouth?)

  6. Tilt the head back, open the mouth and check whether anything is blocking the airway.

  7. Plug the nose, seal the mouth with yours, give two deep breaths, waiting one second between each

  8. If the chest does not rise, something is blocking the airway. Retilt the head, look for and remove foreign objects.

  9. If the chest does rise, oxygen is reaching the lungs. Follow immediately with chest compressions. Lock your elbows, interlock your fingers, and place your palm two fingers above the person's sternum (lowest part of the ribcage). Keeping your fingers extended, pump 30 times to a depths of roughly 5cm, keeping your body weight on your arms. Count "one and two and three..." in order to maintain proper compression speed.

  10. Repeat artificial respiration and compressions, at a ratio of 2:30 (note, for babies breaths should be shallow and compressions are soft), 4 times, then re-check (look, listen, feel) the person for signs of circulation/respiration. If the person has not responded, continue CPR until help arrives. If the person does respond, position them in the recovery position (lying sideways with top leg bent forward and mouth turned as to not choke on vomit).

Note: CPR, in most cases, will not restart someone's heart. However, CPR prevents brain damage by maintaining the flow of oxygenated blood to the brain. Therefore, its main purpose is not to revive a person but to extend the window of opportunity that a medical professional has of reviving a person (brain damage occurs after 4 minutes of not receiving oxygenated blood and the damage becomes irreversible after 7 minutes).


FIRST AID : SHOCK


Shock

Shock is a life-threatening secondary condition that can result from a large burn, loss of a lot of blood, severe illness, internal bleeding or dehydration. Shock occurs when not enough blood reaches your body's vital organs. Signs:

  • Pale, cold, sweaty skin

  • Rapid, weak pulse

  • Shallow, fast breathing

  • Confusion, weakness, dizziness, faintness, or loss of consciousness

Steps:

  1. Lay the person down on their back with their legs slightly raised.

  2. Stop any bleeding.

  3. Cover the person with a blanket, keep them warm but not hot.

  4. Speak calmly and reassuringly to them, ask the person questions in order to keep them from falling asleep.

  5. Note: the person should NOT be given anything to drink or eat


FIRST AID : CHOKING





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