National health standards and elements



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Personal Safety

  • Assess scene safety

  • Obtain consent

  • Use barrier devices

  • Get support from others


Scene Safety

  • Responding when unsafe:

    • DO NOT ENTER

    • Activate EMS

    • Prevent others from entering

  • Responding when safe:




  1. Approach, Identify, and Get Permission to Treat the Victims(s)

1. Identify yourself (my name is . . .)

2. Explain you know First Aid/CPR

3. Ask permission to treat (can I help?)
Good Samaritan Laws

“ A helper of those who are in trouble”




Obtaining Consent

“To give formal permission”



  • Keep victim informed of your actions

  • Responsive:

    • State name

    • Level of experience

    • Ask if you can help

  • Unresponsive

    • Consent is implied

    • Assume that victim would want help

  • Children

    • Attempt parent/guardian consent

    • Consent is implied if no parent/guardian present


Disease Transmission

Risk of Disease Transmission is Low



  • Barrier Devices: Face mask or shield, gloves, clothing

  • Wash Immediately after giving care with soap and water or other cleansing method

  • Avoid bodily fluids: Treat all bodily fluids as if they are infected

    • Use ¼ c bleach + 1 gal water to clean spills


Breathing Devices

  • Face Mask

  • Face Shield

  • First Aid Kit

  • Wall Dispenser


II. Primary Survey

Life - Threatening? Treat the things that are going to kill the victim first . . .

Possible head, neck, spinal injuries

** Activate EMS (911) if it hasn’t been done already **



  1. Initial Assessment (A,B,Cs) To examine something in order to judge or evaluate it.

    1. Airway

      1. Choking

      2. Asthma

      3. Drowning

    2. Breathing

    3. Circulation

      1. Heart Attack

      2. Bleeding

  1. Look for Life Threatening Emergencies

  1. When to Activate EMS

    1. Unresponsiveness

    2. Severe Bleeding

    3. Shock

    4. Threat to A,B,Cs

  1. How to Call EMS

    1. 1st choice

      1. Send bystanders

    2. 2nd choice

      1. Call yourself

  2. Provide Care

    1. Assess conditions and needs

    2. Respond with proper skill

III. Patient Exam

Treat injuries that are not life - threatening next . . .

A. Total Body Survey (TBS) brief head to toe examination of victims body

B. Vital Signs pulse, respirations, LOC (level of consciousness)

C. History Questions

S - signs and symptoms

A - allergies

M - medications

P - past medical problems

L - last intake (food/liquid)

E - events prior to accident
IV. Continued Care

Continuation of what you’ve already been doing

- monitor vitals

- shock treatment

- re-do secondary assessment

- evaluate interventions such as bleeding control and shock treatments, etc.

** continue to do all of this until EMS arrives to relieve you **
Mock Scenario

Instructions: Working individually, create an imaginary emergency situation . . . Then, using your notes and new knowledge of the Emergency Action Principles, explain the steps that would need to be taken if you were the first person to arrive on the scene. List everything that would need to be done to maintain the victim(s) lives until EMS arrived.

Use scenarios, such as the following, to facilitate a large group discussion about how first aid could be applied. Have students listen for the type of injury, the environmental context (e.g., cold, fire, remote location) personal safety concerns (e.g., hazards such as explosive material) and sources of assistance available to them. Teachers may choose to complete with the class for one of the scenarios. Remember your Emergency Actions – 4 steps)

You are walking down a grid road. An operator has been thrown from an overturned tractor, or riding lawnmower –(depending on the students and their environment). When you arrive at the scene, the casualty is lying downhill from the still running tractor. You smell gas. Describe what steps you would take to help the operator and why you would take these actions.
While at the park with friend you see a child on the ground bleeding from his nose. He is crying loudly and other children are watching him. There are no adults in the area. Several dogs are gathering around the scene. Describe what steps you would take to help the child and why you would take these actions.
You are at a restaurant, eating lunch with several friends. One of your friends begins clutching her throat. Her face begins turning red and her eyes are watering. She is obviously panicking. Describe what steps you would take to help your friend and why you would take these actions.
You are babysitting your three-year-old cousin. While playing in the living room he trips and strikes his head against the coffee table. A bump begins to form immediately and the child is crying. Describe what steps you would take to help your cousin and why you would take these actions.
A sobbing child approaches you when you are on surveillance duty. She tells you she was just stung by 4 or 5 bees and her left arm really hurts. Describe what steps you would take to help the young child and why you would take these actions.
You are on break in the concession area. A young woman approaches you saying her friend is behaving very strangely. You and the woman approach the friend who is sitting down. She is conscious. Immediately you notice a medical identification bracelet on her wrist. Describe what steps you would take to help the young woman and why you would take these actions.
You are conducting patron surveillance. An older adult has been exercising in about shoulder deep water. As you continue to scan you see him suddenly stop what he is doing; he looks confused and seems to be having trouble with one side of his body. Describe what steps you would take to help this older adult and why you would take these actions.
Facilitate a large group discussion about the scenarios above by asking questions such as:

• What environmental factors influence how you respond to the situation (e.g., distance from help, your knowledge and experience)?

• What personal safety concerns exist? Emphasize never putting yourself in danger.

FIRST AID AT THE SCENE OF AN AUTO ACCIDENT

Assess conditions



  • Remain calm. Assess the scene and seriousness of the collision. Determine what happened, how many people and vehicles are involved and the exact location



Make safe

  • Make sure you stay safe: keep off the road. If you need to stop or warn approaching cars, signal to them from the pavement. Wear fluorescent reflective clothing use warning triangles, flashing lights and hazard warning lights. Don’t smoke

  • If you are in a car and you come across an accident, first park safely and turn off the engine before you get out to help. Use a hazard triangle if necessary.

  • Consider the safety of others. Immobilize the vehicle/s, look out for hazards - leaking fuel, chemicals, broken glass or shed loads – guide uninjured passengers to a place of safety


Assess casualties

  • How many casualties are there? What is the severity of the injuries? Is anyone trapped? Is there a danger of fire?


Call for help – 911
FIRST AID: YOU & THE CASUALTY

  • Your aim is to establish trust and not make assumptions.

  • Listen to what the person and others are telling you.

  • Show respect and promote their dignity.

  • We all react differently to different situations; consider their different needs and risks.

  • Can they hear you? Do they understand? Consider who else can help. Remember people may have impairment or English may not be their first language.

  • Think of what support you might need at the time and afterwards.


RESCUING AND MOVING

  • Only move to protect from further harm or to provide special care (CPR).

  • Stabilize any suspected bone, neck, or spinal injuries


Shoulder Drag

  • Short distance over a rough surface

  • Stabilize victims head with forearms




Ankle Drag

  • Fastest method for short distance

  • Over a smooth surface


Blanket Pull

  • Roll victim onto a blanket

  • Pull from behind the victim’s head



One-Person Carry

  • Human Crutch

  • Cradle Carry

  • Firefighters Carry

  • Pack Strap Carry

  • Piggy Back Carry






Two Person Carries

  • Two-Person Assist

  • Two-Handed Seat Carry

  • Four-Handed Seat Carry

  • Extremity Carry

  • Chair Carry


How Well Prepared for Emergencies Are You?

On a separate piece of paper, answer each question true or false.

1. I have a well-stocked medicine chest (or my family does).

2. I carry a first-aid kit in my car (or my family does).

3. My (my family’s) emergency supplies include waterless antiseptic hand cleansers and gloves to protect us from exposure to blood.

4. I own an up-to-date first-aid manual, and can get my hands on it when I need it.

5. I have taken a first-aid course.

6. I know how to give CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation).

7. I know how to perform the Heimlich maneuver.

8. On the scene of an accident, I know what to do first, second, third, and forth.

9. I know the emergency telephone # for my area.

10. I know how to determine whether I should attempt a rescue or whether the attempt might threaten my own life.


Scoring

Give yourself 1 point for each true answer.

8 - 10: Excellent. You are well prepared for emergencies.

6 - 7: Good. You are better prepared than average, but you may want to fill in the gaps in your knowledge.



4 - 5: Fair. You are on your way to becoming a competent manager of emergencies, but need to learn more.

Below 4: Poor. You have much to learn. A good way to begin is to start reading up on basic first-aid in a text book or manual. Or you could take a class on first-aid.

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