Wrap in a cold, wet sheet and fan until their temperature falls, then replace wet sheet with a dry one
Monitor casualty carefully
If the casualty's temperature rises again, repeat cooling actions.
An open fracture will typically be self evident due to the exposed bone. The following clues suggest you are dealing with a probable closed fracture:
The athlete felt a bone break or heard a "snap";
The athlete feels a grating sensation when he/she moves a limb;
One limb appears to be a different length, shape or size than the other, or is improperly angulated;
Reddening of the skin around a fracture may appear shortly after the injury is sustained;
The athlete may not be able to move a limb or part of a limb (e.g., the arm, but not the fingers), or to do so produces intense pain;
Loss of a pulse at the end of the extremity;
Loss of sensation at the end of the extremity;
Numbness or tingling sensations;
Involuntary muscle spasms;
Other unusual pain, such as intense pain in the rib cage when a patient takes a deep breath or coughs.
Ice On A Fracture Usually Makes It Throb Worse…
Any suspected fracture should always be splinted before the athlete is allowed to move.
Splint the joint above and below the affected area.
How to Splint:
1. Check pulse. Then remove clothing from the injured part. Don't force a limb out of the clothing, though. You may need to cut clothing off with scissors to prevent causing the athlete any additional pain.
2. Apply a cold compress or an ice pack wrapped in cloth.
3. Place a splint (or boards) on the injured part by keeping the injured limb in the position you find it. Add soft padding around the injured part placing something firm (like a board or rolled-up newspapers) next to the injured part, making sure it's long enough to go past the joints above and below the injury keeping the splint in place with first-aid tape. Re-check pulse.
4. Seek medical care, and don't allow the athlete to eat or drink anything, in case medication or surgery is needed.
Check CSM’s before and after splinting
Splint should include joint or bone above or below
Use blankets, boards, and bandages, or an uninjured body part
Triangular bandage for sling
Types of splints
Wrist, Arm & Shoulder
Sling and Swath
Ankle and Lower Leg
Concussions do not always involve a loss of consciousness. ANY traumatic blow to the head or to another part of the body (which causes a whiplash effect to the head) should be considered as a mechanism of concussion injury. While headache is the most common symptom of concussion, all people will experience concussion differently. Therefore, all of the potential signs and symptoms of concussion should be considered. A symptom checklist can assist the evaluator in making a more objective return to play decision.
If a player sustains any signs or symptoms of concussion, he/she must be pulled from play. Only an athletic trainer or a physician may clear the athlete to return to play.
Concussion Signs and Symptoms
Loss of orientation
Dazed or Confused
Numbness or tingling
Ringing in the ears
Feeling “in a fog”
Feeling “slowed down”
Sensitivity to light
change in personality
Sensitivity to noise
Loss of consciousness
ALL ATHLETES WHO GET “ROCKED” AND EXHIBIT ANY OF THESE SIGNS OR SYMPTOMS SHOULD BE REFERRED IMMEDIATELY TO THE ATHLETIC TRAINER AND/OR A PHYSICIAN!!!
Coaches need to know that research indicates high school aged athletes take from 7-15 days to fully recover from a Grade 1, or mild, concussion (a “bell ringer”). Returning the athlete to play too soon following even a mild concussion can lead to death.
Athletes that are not fully recovered from an initial concussion are significantly vulnerable for recurrent, cumulative, and even catastrophic consequences of a second concussive injury. Such difficulties are prevented if the athlete is allowed time to recover from concussion and return to play decisions are carefully made. No athlete should return to sport or other at-risk participation when symptoms of concussion are present and recovery is ongoing. In summary, the best way to prevent difficulties with concussion is to manage the injury properly when it does occur.
First Aid for Dehydration
When your body is dehydrated, it doesn't have as much water and fluids as it should. Dehydration may be caused by not drinking enough fluids, losing too much fluid, or both. Depending on how much of the body's fluid is not replenished or is lost; dehydration can be mild, moderate, or severe. Severe dehydration is a life-threatening emergency. Vomiting, diarrhea, excessive urine output, excessive sweating, and fever all cause fluid loss in the body. Nausea, loss of appetite during illness, and sore throat or mouth sores may cause you to not drink enough fluids.
Symptoms of dehydration include:
Dry or sticky mouth
Decreased or no urine output
Urine that appears dark yellow
Lack of tearing
Lethargy and coma (in severe dehydration)
In infants, the soft spot on the top of the head (fontanelle) will be markedly sunken
Children and the elderly have a higher risk of developing dehydration.
You can correct mild dehydration by the following methods:
Frequent small amounts of fluid, rather than drinking a large amount of fluid all at once, which may cause vomiting. Electrolyte solutions are especially effective, but avoid sport drinks that contain sugar that may cause or worsen diarrhea. Also avoid plain water for rehydrating infants and children; instead, use commercial electrolyte solutions such as Pedialyte.
Hospitalization and intravenous fluids are sometimes necessary for moderate to severe dehydration, as well as to treat the cause of the dehydration. Call 911 for symptoms including:
Lack of tears
In an infant less than two months old, diarrhea or vomiting, little or no urine output in an eight-hour period, sunken eyes, dry skin that stays up like a tent when pinched into a fold (called skin tenting), dry mouth or eyes, sunken soft spot (fontanelle), rapid heartbeat, blood in the stool or vomit, or listlessness and inactiveness.
A test for dehydration is to pull on the skin and see if it stays up like a tent
Everyone should drink plenty of fluid every day and more during hot weather and while exercising. While ill, don't wait for signs of dehydration; attempt to push fluids or get medical attention.
Ice injured part
If an athlete has an allergic reaction, it is important that he/she gets medical treatment immediately.
If the athlete experiences breathing difficulty and and/or if he/she has an Epi-Pen, get it for them and have him/her give themselves an injection. Do not do it for them. If they cannot do it themselves, call 9-1-1.
If the athlete’s reaction is minor (hives, itching, irritation, etc.), contact parent. In most cases, a Benadryl will fix the problem but as a coach, you cannot give that medicine to the athlete.
Only athletes who have been diagnosed with asthma should use inhalers;
Athletes with asthma should only be allowed to use their own inhaler;
If trouble persists, call 9-1-1.
Dental - Broken Tooth
If an athlete gets a tooth knocked out (or broken off)
Keep the tooth;
Put the tooth in a cup of milk (only enough to cover tooth). If milk is unavailable, use water;
Have athlete chew gum and put over the exposed tooth in mouth (to prevent nerve irritation);
Send to dentist – don’t forget to send the tooth.
Symptoms: rapid onset of altered mental status, intoxicated appearance, elevated heart rate, cold and clammy skin, hunger, seizures, anxiousness
What to Do: Ask the athlete. The athlete will direct you (is he/she hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic?). Does he/she want juice? Sugar? Get him/her what they need.
• Clean thoroughly. Irrigate with saline and Betadine;
• Place petroleum jelly pad over blister to avoid continuous rubbing;
• Wrap with pre-wrap and soft tape;
• Watch for inflammation (redness) and warmth, and possibly streaking (long term). These are signs of
• If infection develops, refer to physician immediately for antibiotics.
Never cut away the top skin off a blister if it’s soft.
The skin helps to provide a protective barrier. Watch for Shock
Excessive bleeding can lead to shock. Don’t waste time trying to find a dressing;
Use gloved hand and apply direct pressure over the wound;
Elevate the extremity;
Keep applying steady, firm pressure until the bleeding is controlled;
Once bleeding is controlled, apply a dressing firmly in place (pressure bandage);
Refer to Emergency Room for further treatment.
NEVER apply white athletic tape around muscle. This eventually kills muscle cells and places unnecessary stress on bones – potentially causing stress fractures. Only use stretch elastic tape (adhesive) around muscle bellies.
Activity: Introduce different types of tape
Demonstrate and Practice different types of taping
Demonstrate and practice splinting various body parts
Taping is used for sports injuries and offers numerous benefits. Taping assists in the retention of wound dressings. It stabilizes compression to prevent internal and external hemorrhaging. And it supports recent injuries to prevent additional damage that may result from further athletic activity. Modern adhesive linen tape is best to use for taping sports injuries due to its adhesion qualities. When taping injuries, it's best to have the assistance of a qualified professional but in the event that you can't get to one in time, follow a few simple procedures to tape injuries properly.
Tips and Warnings
When taping an injury, get the assistance of a qualified athletic trainer or personal trainer. If in doubt of taping procedures, splint the injury with a piece of wood or cardbord and go to the nearest emergency medical facility.
When wrapping the foot, avoid wrapping the tape so tightly as to hamper the action of the ankle. Check for capillary refill after taping by squeezing the external portion of the wrapped limb. If wrapped loosely, the area should be pink instead of white or blue. If an athlete has a history of tape blisters avoid application of tape adherent when taping an ankle.