National health standards and elements



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Sunburn


Sunburn is caused by overexposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays, either directly from the sun or by light reflected from snow at high altitudes.

Symptoms

Reddened skin, which may be sore or itchy.

First aid aims



  • Remove casualty from sun

  • Relieve discomfort

Actions

  • Bring the casualty indoors out of sun's rays

  • Give plenty of cold drinks

  • Cool skin by sponging with cold water

  • Apply 100% aloe or after-sun cream to the affected skin

Further action

If the casualty seems dizzy, has a headache or a temperature, they may have heatstroke.



Sunburn

  • Prevention

    • Avoid prolonged sun exposure

    • Use sunscreen

    • Wear hats and sunglasses

  • Prevent further damage

    • Keep cool

    • Avoid further exposure


FIRST AID JELLYFISH STINGS


Jellyfish Stings

Jellyfish are bell-shaped, gelatinous marine creatures with tentacles that are sometimes longer than three feet. Jellyfish venom oftentimes triggers allergic reactions with symptoms including rash, intense, stinging pain, and raised welts. Symptoms may then progress to include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, back and abdominal pain, fever, chills and sweating, and swelling of the lymph nodes. In severe reactions, a person may have difficulty breathing, slip into a coma, and even die.

Anyone with severe symptoms such as intense pain, chest pain, or shortness of breath needs immediate medical attention. Call 911, manage signs of shock, and begin CPR

For other reactions take the following steps:



  • Rinse the sting with seawater, not fresh water, as the latter will increase pain. Don't apply ice packs or rub the area. Irrigate eye stings with one gallon of fresh water.

  • Apply acetic acid 5% (white vinegar) or isopropyl alcohol; use one-fourth strength vinegar for mouth stings, but do not use vinegar in the case of any oral swelling or difficulty swallowing.

  • Remove any tentacles carefully with tweezers while wearing gloves.

  • Apply a paste of baking soda, mud, or shaving cream to the injury, then shave the area with a knife or razor and reapply vinegar or alcohol. The paste will prevent additional toxin discharge during the shaving.

  • Minimize movement of affected area to reduce spread of the poison. (For box jellyfish stings, wrap the extremity similar to wrapping a sprained ankle, making sure that toes and fingers are still pink, and leave bandaged until you receive medical attention.)

  • Take OTC pain relievers as directed and apply 1% hydrocortisone cream two to three times daily, or use antihistamines such as Benadryl to relieve itching.

Your doctor may prescribe topical and oral steroids, and if you continue to have redness and irritation after two to three days, it may be a sign of bacterial infection of the injury and you need to see your doctor. Be aware that allergic reactions to jellyfish stings may occur up to four weeks afterward, so watch for any signs.


BEACH UNDERTOW AND CURRENTS


Beach Undertows & Currents

An undertow is a type of ocean current which is caused by waves breaking on the shore. Most undertows are quite mild and not dangerous, as long as swimmers keep their heads, although some have been known to be powerful enough to sweep swimmers out to sea. Incidentally, an undertow is not the same thing as a rip current, although the two currents are both caused by breaking waves on the shore.

To understand how an undertow works, think about what happens when waves break on shore. The water obviously has to go somewhere, and this is what causes an undertow: as waves break, water from previous waves runs underneath them, creating a gentle current which runs back out to sea. When there is heavy wave action, the undertow may not be able to get out, and as a result the water builds up and looks for a weak point in the breaking waves. When the water finds a weak point, it pushes out to sea, creating a rip current.

Most undertows are not very strong, and the risk of an undertow is most severe for inexperienced swimmers who are standing or swimming near breaking waves. An undertow can pull someone underwater for a few seconds, but if the swimmer remains calm and swims towards the surface, he or she should be ok. The undertow is not usually strong enough to prevent the swimmer from returning to shore, unlike a rip current, which will carry the swimmer out to sea.

When swimmers encounter strong undertows, the tempting thing to do is to push towards the shore in the hopes of breaking through the undertow. This is actually a terrible idea, as swimmers can tire themselves out before they reach the shoreline. The best thing to do is to swim parallel to the shore, testing for a weak point in the undertow which will allow the swimmer to get back to shore, and the same technique works for rip currents. If a swimmer tires, he or she should tread water and float in the hopes that a rescuer will arrive soon.

If you are visiting an area with unfamiliar waters, it is a good idea to ask about prevailing currents. Locals can warn you about areas with especially strong undertows, or areas where rip currents often arise. As a general rule, the steeper the slope that the waves approach on, the stronger the resulting undertow; long shallow approaches create much less wave velocity, generating a much more gentle undertow.


HOMEWORK:

  • Create a first aid kit including the necessary materials discussed in class

  • Write scenarios regarding emergency situations: to be role played by the students

  • Actively promote the good habits of first aid techniques in everyday life

  • Promote the habit of noticing emergencies and assisting those in need

  • Create "Check, Call, Care" posters to be displayed around school

  • Create "How to..." (ex: treat a small wound, burn, give the Heimlich Maneuver, etc.) posters

ASSESSMENT IDEAS:

  • Quizzes

  • Class work

  • Participation

  • Demonstration


RESOURCES:

  • American Red Cross Workbook/Textbook: First Aid: Responding to Emergencies; Second Edition



FIRST AID ASSESSMENT
Name _____________________________________ Date _________


  1. How many people die each year due to choking?

  2. Should you slap a choking victim on his/her back?

  3. Back blows should only be used on what type of choking victims?

  4. What is the universal sign for choking?

  5. When performing the Heimlich maneuver on a choking victim, which direction

should you pull?


  1. When does lethal brain damage start to occur in a choking victim?

  2. After attempting to dilute or neutralize ingested poison, what should you do for the

victim?


  1. In what two situations should you NOT induce vomiting?

  2. What are two types of fractures?

  3. What are two signs of a closed fracture?

  4. Where should pressure be applied to an open fracture

  5. How should we treat a minor burn?

  6. Why do we feel so little pain in a major burn?

  7. How should we treat chemical burns?

  8. What is the first step to control bleeding?

  9. After applying direct pressure, what would you do to control bleeding?

  10. If after 2 days a victim continues to have swelling and pain in a wound, what should

he or she do?


FIRST AID ANSWER SHEET
1. How many people die each year due to choking? 3-5 thousand.

2. Should you slap a choking victim on his/her back? No.

3. Back blows should only be used on what type of choking victims? Infants or small

children.

4. What is the universal sign for choking? Clutching at the neck.

5. When performing the Heimlich maneuver on a choking victim, which direction should you

pull? Inward and upward.

6. When does lethal brain damage start to occur in a choking victim?

4-6 min.

7. After attempting to dilute or neutralize ingested poison, what should you do for the victim?



Call Poison Control Center.

8. In what two situations should you NOT induce vomiting? When corrosive poisons



have been ingested, or the victim is unconscious.

9. What are two types of fractures? Open and closed.

10. What are two signs of a closed fracture? The victim heard it crack, significant pain

to the area, or swelling to the area.

11 Where should pressure be applied to an open fracture? Above the wound.

12. How should we treat a minor burn? Ice cubes wrapped in a clean cloth.

13. Why do we feel so little pain in a major burn? All the nerve endings have been



destroyed.

14. How should we treat chemical burns? Flush them with water for 5-7 minutes and



get medical assistance if necessary.

15. What is the first step to control bleeding? Apply direct pressure on the cut.

16. After applying direct pressure, what would you do to control bleeding? Elevate the

injured area above the heart.

17. If after 2 days, a victim continues to have swelling and pain in a wound, what should he or



she do? Seek further medical attention.


First Aid- immediate, temporary care given to an ill or injured person until Professional medical care can be provided


  1. What are the 3 Cs?


C___________________ C___________________ C___________________


  1. What are 3 universal precautions? And why are they important?










  1. Name 4 types of open wounds and explain what they are.


















  1. _________Should bandages be tight enough to cut off circulation? (yes or no)




  1. _________Should I pull an embedded object out of any body part? (yes or no)

  2. What do you do if blood soaks all the way through the bandage?



  1. Describe how pressure should be applied and how to position the wound.



  1. What types of burns are there? (don’t list the degrees)









  1. What are the three degrees of burns and what is their severity?














  1. What things should/could be done before you see a doctor for the burn?


Lesson 2: Injury Prevention
NATIONAL HEALTH STANDARDS AND ELEMENTS:

Standard 1: Students will comprehend concepts related to health promotion and disease prevention to enhance health.

Standard 2: Students will analyze the influence of family, peers, culture, media, technology, and other factors on health behaviors.

Standard 3: Students will demonstrate the ability to access valid information, products, and services to enhance health.

Standard 4: Students will demonstrate the ability to use interpersonal communication skills to enhance health and avoid or reduce health risks.

Standard 5: Students will demonstrate the ability to use decision-making skills to enhance health.

Standard 6: Students will demonstrate the ability to use goal-setting skills to enhance health.

Standard 7: Students will demonstrate the ability to practice health-enhancing behaviors and avoid or reduce health risks.

Standard 8: Students will demonstrate the ability to advocate for personal, family, and community health.
GOALS:

  • Students will acquire the knowledge and ability necessary to create and maintain a safe and healthy environment.


ENDURING UNDERSTANDINGS:

  • To be able to make an informed decision and be aware of the consequences of that decision.

  • Students will understand when to use basic life saving skills.

OBJECTIVES:

  • Students will describe the mechanisms behind common sports injuries.

  • Students will identify risks of sports injuries during physical activity.

  • Students will describe how to prevent sports injury during their activities.

  • Students will recognize strains and sprains.

  • Students will understand the RICE principle.

  • Students will understand the importance of reflexes and what they are.

  • Students will understand the use and how to tape particular injuries

  • Students will understand the use of tape vs. ace wraps vs. splints


MATERIALS:

Non- latex gloves; Reflex hammers; Washable marker; Gauze; Roller Gauze bandage; Tape; Ace Wraps; Scissors; Splints; Slings


KEY TERMS:

Biomechanics Recovery Strains Sprains

Mechanisms
BIG IDEAS:


  • Students will build health skills and knowledge in the area of injury prevention and safety.


ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:

What is the difference between healthy and unhealthy risks?

Why do we sometimes take risks that can cause harm to ourselves or others?

Why is making the right decision in an emergency important and how can that decision influence the situation?


JOURNALING ACTIVITIES:

  • Tell them you would like them to write about a time when they felt either in physical danger or emotional distress. Ask them to write how they felt during the experience and how their bodies responded physically and emotionally.


INSTRUCTIONAL ACTIVITIES:


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