If you stub your toe, how does the impulse travel through your nervous system allowing you to pull your toe back and jump up and down in pain? Explain how this process occurs (including the process of neural transmission) using the following terms in context:
Scoring Guide: (1.5 Points Each) __________ Point 1: Sensory Neuron: Students should explain that sensory neurons in the toe fire in response to stubbing your toe.
__________ Point 2: Peripheral Nervous System: Students should explain that messages from the rest of the body (including the sensory neuronal impulses that fired when the toe was stubbed) travel through the PNS on their way to the brain.
__________Point 3: Central Nervous System: Students should explain that sensory impulses from the rest of the body (including the message from the stubbed toe) travel up the spinal cord to the brain.
__________Point 4: Interneuron: Students should explain that this group of specialized neurons allow messages to travel within the brain.
__________ Point 5: Motor Neurons: Students should explain that the brain sends messages to muscles through motor neurons (including the message to jump up and down in pain).
__________ Point 6: Action Potential: Students should explain that electrical charges begin in the dendrite travel within neurons during neural transmission and that in order to “fire” a neuron must meet the threshold to begin the action potential sending a chemical signal in a chain reaction down the neurons axon.
__________ Point 7: Myelin Sheath: Students should explain that neural messages will be transported faster along nerves that are insulated by a myelin sheath (Including the message of pain and response to the stubbed toe) that allows neural impulses to travel down an axon from node to node rather than more slowly along an axon that lacks this insulation.
__________ Point 8: Neurotransmitter: Students should explain that neurotransmitters are released in response to an action potential and these neurotransmitters are chemicals that carry the neural message across the synapse to other neurons during neural transmission allowing for one nerve to communicate with another.
__________ Point 9: Synapse: Students should explain that neural transmission involves neurotransmitters flowing into the synapse, the gap between neurons, and once crossed these neurotransmitters may bind to receptors on the next neural cell causing it to fire.
__________Point 10: Response Organization: Students response was well ordered and clearly explained the neural transmission process using all required terms in an order that is consistent with the question and the processes of the nervous system in response to pain.