Murrieta Mesa High School Research Paper Handbook



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Research Paper Handbook



Murrieta Mesa High School
Research Paper Handbook

Table of Contents


Research Paper Project Overview ……………………………………………..….…3

Plagiarism ……………………………………………..…………………………..4-5

Parent Letter………………………………….……………………………………. 6

Research Paper Checklist ………………………………………………..…………..7

MLA Format for Research Papers …………………………………………………..8

Finding and Evaluating Web Sources ……………………………………......…...9-10

Depths of Complexity ……………………………………………………….…11-12

Works Cited Page …………………………………………………........……….13-14

Bibliography/Notecards……………………………………………………..……..15

Annotating for a Research Paper …………………………………………….….…16

Précis Writing ………………………………………………………………….17-19

Controlling Idea ………………………………………………………………….. 20

Rhetoric ……………………………………………………………………….21-24

Counterargument ……………………………………………………...………..25-27

Thesis Statement ………………………………………………....…….……….28-29

Introductions ……………………………………………………………….….…..30

Schaffer Method Body Paragraphs …………………………………….…...………31

Beyond Schaffer Method……………………………………..…………………32-33

Body Paragraph Template …………………………………………...………….….34

Integrating Quotes …………………………………………………...…………35-37

Transitions ……………………………………………………..………………38-39

Peer Editing ……………………………………………………………...….….40-41

Rubric..…………………………………………………………………………......42

State Standards …………………………………………………………………….43



Research Project Overview
Project Overview:
Students will develop writing that demonstrates a command of standard American English as well as research, organization, and drafting strategies. Students should select a specific topic that has a “provable” component to it. Do not create a report that solely gives information on a topic. Pick a topic from the given list and prove something specific regarding impact and/or significance.

Project requirements:


CP English II


  1. 2-4 page length.

  2. MLA format.

  3. 3 source minimum.

  4. All sources must be cited in the body of the essay.

  5. Students will include a works cited page at the end of their essay.







Advanced English II


  1. 3-5 page length.

  2. MLA format.

  3. 5 source minimum.

  4. All sources must be cited in the body of the essay.

  5. Students will include a works cited page at the end of their essay.

Research Material Options:


Print

Web

Other

  • Books

  • Magazines

  • Newspapers

  • Educational publications/pamphlets




  • EBSCO

  • Online periodicals (nytimes.com; latimes.com; msnbc.com; foxnews.com; etc.

  • Any other online source must be validated by teacher




  • Documentaries

  • Personal interviews (must be with someone who is an expert on the topic; must be validated by teacher).

Plagiarism
58.3% of high school students let someone else copy their work in 1969, and 97.5% did so in 1989”-- The State of Americans: This Generation and the Next
30% of a large sampling of Berkeley students were recently caught plagiarizing directly from the Internet”-- results of a Turnitin.com test, conducted from April-May 2000
Plagiarism is passing off the work of someone else as your own. See the handbook regarding consequences.

Material is probably common knowledge if . . .

  • You find the same information undocumented in at least five other sources

  • You think it is information that your readers will already know

  • You think a person could easily find the information with general reference sources

Need to Document

No Need to Document

  • When you are using or referring to somebody else’s words or ideas from a magazine, book, newspaper, song, TV program, movie, Web page, computer program, letter, advertisement, or any other medium

  • When you use information gained through interviewing another person

  • When you copy the exact words or a "unique phrase" from somewhere

  • When you reprint any diagrams, illustrations, charts, and pictures

  • When you use ideas that others have given you in conversations or over email

  • When you use any statistic

  • When you are writing your own experiences, your own observations, your own insights, your own thoughts, your own conclusions about a subject

  • When you are using "common knowledge" — folklore, common sense observations, shared information within your field of study or cultural group

  • When you are compiling generally accepted facts

  • When you are writing up your own experimental results

When Researching and Notetaking

Action during the writing process

Appearance on the finished product

  • Mark everything that is someone else’s words with a big Q (for quote) or with big quotation marks

  • Indicate in your notes which ideas are taken from sources (S) and which are your own insights (ME)

  • Record all of the relevant documentation information in your notes

Proofread and check with your notes (or photocopies of sources) to make sure that anything taken from your notes is acknowledged by using any of the following methods:

  • Integrated Quote with an in text citation

  • Paraphrasing with and in text citation

  • Large Quotation method

Making Sure You Are Safe





Action during the writing process

Appearance on the finished product

When paraphrasing and summarizing

  • First, write your paraphrase and summary without looking at the original text, so you rely only on your memory.

  • Next, check your version with the original for content, accuracy, and mistakenly borrowed phrases

  • Begin your summary with a statement giving credit to the source: According to Jonathan Kozol, ...

  • Put any unique words or phrases that you cannot change, or do not want to change, in quotation marks: ... "savage inequalities" exist throughout our educational system (Kozol).

When quoting directly

  • Keep the person’s name near the quote in your notes, and in your paper

  • Select those direct quotes that make the most impact in your paper -- too many direct quotes may lessen your credibility and interfere with your style

  • Mention the person’s name either at the beginning of the quote, in the middle, or at the end

  • Put quotation marks around the text that you are quoting

  • Indicate added phrases in brackets ([ ]) and omitted text with ellipses (. . .)


Dear Parent/Guardian,

Your student will soon begin the research paper in his/her English class. This research paper constitutes a large percentage of your student’s final semester grade; it is a mandatory requirement for ALL grade levels.

It is imperative that you and your student understand that failure to complete the assignment or a failing grade on the assignment will almost certainly result in an “F” grade for the semester. Because the research paper is a vital part of your student’s semester grade, your student will be given adequate time to research and complete the assignment. Be advised that your student may need to conduct research on his/her own time; please plan accordingly.

Additionally, note the plagiarism policy for the FIRST OFFENSE according to the handbook:


  • Student earns a referral to the counselor

  • LOSS OF ALL CREDITS FOR THE ASSIGNMENT or test with NO MAKE-UP PERMITTED

  • Conference with the student, parent/guardian, teacher, and counselor.

If you desire, you can find copies a copy of the research packet and research assignment on my website. If you have any questions, please feel free to contact me at:


Phone: _____________________________________________
Email: ______________________________________________

Respectfully,

Research Paper Notification

Parents/Guardians and students: please print and sign your name below to indicate that you have read and understand the importance of the research paper and the consequences of an incomplete or “F” grade.





______________________________

______________________________

______________

Print Student Name

Student Signature

Date

______________________________



______________________________



______________



Print Parent/Guardian Name

Parent/Guardian Signature

Date

Research Paper Checklist





Research Step

Due Date

 Topic Selection


 Parent/Guardian Signature Form
 Controlling Idea:
 Research Obtained
 Works Cited
 Annotations complete
 Thesis Statement:
 Rough Introduction
 Outline
 Rough Body ¶ + Transition
 Rough Draft
 Final Draft


______________


______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________
______________

MLA Format for Research Papers


Printing or Typing:

  1. Must be typed

  2. Times New Roman Font Only

  3. 12 point font

  4. Use only one side of the paper (do not print on the back)


Margins:

  1. One inch margins throughout the entire paper

  2. Indent the first word of a paragraph on half inch (five spaces or one Tab space)

  3. Indent long format quotations one inch (ten spaces) from the left margin


Spacing:

  1. Double Space throughout the entire paper including quotations, notes, heading, and list of works cited.


PAGE ONE

½”




Title is centered, but there is no additional formatting whatsoever

Jordan 1


Everything is double spaced, including the heading.

Michael Jordan
Mr. Wuchner
Advanced English II, Period 1
1”

1”

27 Sept. 2008
School Uniforms Benefit Students
Everyone has unfortunately seen the tragic headlines screaming of the death

of a teenager who was killed for a pair of sneakers or jewelry or designer jacket. In




MIDDLE PAGES

½”
Jordan 2
1”

1”

this type of violence happens far too frequently and the public has begun trying more aggressively to get the politicians to focus more on making the lives of


Finding and Evaluating Sources




TIP: Use the Works Cited every time you find a new source


Your information search:

Print Search

Electronic Search




  1. Start with a reliable encyclopedia to get background information on as many different aspects of your topic as possible

  2. Look in the works cited at the end of the article for suggestions for further research

  3. Find and review as many of the sources in the bibliography section as possible.

  4. Review the works cited section (found in the back of the book) for each of those sources

  5. Find and review as many of the sources in those bibliography pages as possible

  6. Etc.







  1. Log onto the EBSCO database

  2. Search for articles with important key words in and surrounding your topic

  3. Find and review as many articles as you can and decide which ones are applicable.

  4. Print with the print icon, choosing MLA format (if at school you will have to use the Email or Save icons, choosing MLA format

  5. Find and review as many sources in the bibliography section as possible. You may search for the title with quotation marks using Google.

  6. Repeat for reliable news sites

  7. As a last resort search Google, but be extremely selective.




DO NOT FORGET




  1. DO A SOURCE QUALITY CHECK FOR ALL ARTICLES

  2. PHOTOCOPY ALL ARTICLES OR APPROPRIATE BOOK SECTIONS

  3. CREATE A SOURCE CARD FOR ALL ARTICLES

  4. HIGHLIGHT PHOTOCOPY AND ANNOTATE ALL SOURCES




  1. DO A SOURCE QUALITY CHECK FOR ALL ARTICLES

  2. PRINT ALL ARTICLES

  3. CREATE A SOURCE CARD FOR ALL ARTICLES

  4. HIGHLIGHT PRINTED ARTICLE AND ANNOTATE ALL SOURCES





Source Quality Check:

Every book, periodical article, or other resource should be evaluated to determine its quality and its relevance to your topic and the nature of your assignment. Use the criteria below to help you evaluate resources.



  • What are the author's education and experience? Look for information about the author in the publication itself.

  • Who is the audience for the publication (scholarly or general)?

  • Is the publication primary or secondary in nature? 

  • Does it provide general background information or in-depth information on a specific topic? Which do you need? 

  • How extensive is the bibliography? Can you use these references to find more information?

  • What is the publication date? 

  • How up-to-date are the citations in the bibliography? 

  • How current do you need for your topic? 


Determine whether the information is fact, opinion or propaganda. 

  • Are there footnotes to show the source of the facts or quotes?

  • Does the publisher have a particular bias?

  • Are opinions or propaganda easy to recognize?

  • Do the words and phrases play to your emotions or bias the content?

http://library.csun.edu/mwoodley/Scholarly.html

Questions:



  1. Where do you commonly find the publication date in a book?

  2. How do you determine who the “audience” is for this book?

  3. What is a bibliography?


How to Read a Web Address:

Domain Name

The domain name can give you a good idea about the accuracy and reliability of the information you will find at that web address. The domain is found after the http:// and www. to the first forward slash /.



Extensions

Examples: .com and .net.

You probably know quite a few already. Extensions are intended to show the type of establishment that owns and publishes the domain.

.edu Educational organization .k12 US school site

.sch School site .mil military institution

.com Company .org organization

.gov Government agency .net Network

New extensions to look for are: .biz, .name, .pro, .info. All are used for commercial purposes.

Extensions can also include country codes such as .uk, .ca, .za, etc.
Personal Web Pages

A personal page is a Web site created by an individual. The Web site may contain useful information and links to important resources and helpful facts, but often these pages offer highly biased opinions and are not recommended.

The presence of a name in the URL such as bsmith and a tilde ~ or % or the word users or people or members frequently means you are on a personal web site. Even if the site has the extension, .edu, you still need to look out for personal pages. Ask yourself “who is the author and what are their credentials?”
Depths of Complexity
Depths of Complexity: to examine an issue or question critically and thoroughly, it must be done from many different perspectives. The following are 19 possible perspectives.


  1. Ethical concerns

  2. Societal, Global implications

  3. Individual concerns: psychological, physical, emotional

  4. Family concerns

  5. Economics

  6. Religious

  1. Medical benefits/concerns

  2. Humane/Inhumane

  3. Race relations

  4. Safety

  5. Environmental concerns

  6. Pretext (false reasons)

  7. Cultural impact

  1. Mankind’s responsibility for a better future

  2. Scientific concerns

  3. Education

  4. Legal

  5. Political implications (media politics)

  6. Military concerns


Peel the Onion:


  1. Choose a “depth of complexity” item that is affected by your topic

  2. Create a chain reaction graphic organizer for each depth of complexity you chose

    1. Think of as many starting points for each depth of complexity as possible

    2. Go as far as possible from each starting point.

  3. Repeat for each new depth of complexity.


Thesis: the Point of View or opinion you have about your topic. It is an argument. You must take a side. Make a defensible statement.
Topic Sentences: the topic of each body paragraph. This is the first sentence in each body paragraph.

  1. Simply state what the paragraph will be about and how it helps prove your thesis

  2. Simple and clear is okay.


Working Outline: Thesis + 5 topic sentences

Brainstorming Practice/Example


Topic: September 11
Depths of Complexity:

  1. Economics

  2. ?


Peeling the Onion: create a graphic organizer for all 6 depths of complexity

Creating Your Works Cited Page




  • Basic Set Up

    1. Font is Times New Roman

    2. Double spaced

      1. Select “Format” at the top of the page

        1. Select “Paragraph” from the menu

          1. Find “Line Spacing

            1. Select “Double Space”

  • Setting up the header

    1. Select “View” at the top of the page

      1. Select “Header and Footer” (a box will appear at the top of the page

      2. Move the cursor all the way to the right of the box

    2. Select “Insert

      1. Choose “Insert Page numbers

      2. A dialogue box will appear; choose the following.

        1. Position = top of the page

        2. Alignment = right

        3. Show number on first page

  • Add the Title centered (no special formatting i.e. word art, big font, new font, underlining, bold, etc.)

  • Press return and move the cursor all the way to the left

  • Create “Hanging Indentation

    1. On the ruler at the top of the page, drag the middle arrow (the hanging indent arrow) over half an inch.

    2. Everything will now automatically be indented correctly.



Sample works cited page

Wuchner 3


Works Cited

Atkins, Ryan S. “The Way to write good citations.” Los Angeles Times. 12 July 1998: B2. Print.

Grabe, Mark. "Writing Research Papers is Great." Time 44.2 (2005): 409-421. EBSCO. Web. 28 May 2006.

Johnson, Ryan S. The Way to Write a Quality Citation. New York: Really Big Publisher, 1980. Print.


Works Cited Information



BOOKS

Last Name, First Name. The Title of the Book Goes Right Here. City of Publishing: Publisher, Date of Publication. Medium.

Johnson, Ryan S. The Way to Write a Quality Citation. New York: Really Big Publisher, 1980. Print.
PART OF A BOOK (ESSAY COLLECTION, ETC.)

Lastname, First name. "Title of Essay." Title of Collection. Ed. Editor's Name(s). Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Pages. Medium.

Johnson, Ryan S. “This is a Great Essay.” The Collected Essays. Ed. Ron Wilson. New York: Really Big Publishing, 1987. Print.
ONLINE SUBSCRIPTION DATABASE (EBSCO)

Lastname, Firstname. “Title of Article.” Magazine Name Volume #.Issue # (year): Page #s. Database Service. Medium. Date Accessed.

Grabe, Mark. "Writing Research Papers is Great." Time 44.2 (2005): 409-421. EBSCO. Web. 28 May 2006.
ONLINE PERIODICAL (NEWSPAPER OR MAGAZINE)

Last Name, First Name. “Name of the Article.” Name of Website. Website Publisher, Date of Publication. Medium. Date accessed.

Ingle, Ryan S. “How to Cite an Online Source.” Latimes.com. Los Angeles Times, 14 Jan. 2004. Web. 18 Feb. 2006.
INTERVIEW

Name of person interviewed. Personal Interview. Date of interview.


Williams, Robert. Personal interview. 28 August 1999.
PRINT PERIODICAL (NEWSPAPER OR MAGAZINE)

Last Name, First Name. “Name of Article.” Newspaper or Magazine Name. Date: Page(s). Medium.

Atkins, Ryan S. “The Way to write good citations.” Los Angeles Times. 12 July 1998: B2. Print.

FOR MORE INFO: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/01/

Note card/Bibliography Card System

Bibliography Card: contains works cited information; one needed per source; identified by a new right hand corner letter and the number 1.
Source Letter

+

Number 1





Web A1
Grabe, Mark. "Writing Research Papers is Great." Time 44.2 (2005): 409-421. EBSCO. Web. 28 May 2006.

Medium





Works Cited Info


Note card: contains the fact that you could use as a concrete detail in your essay.


Research Papers A2
“Writing research papers is an indispensible skill.”

Direct Quote 14


Subject


Source letter

+

Note #






Note from the source

Type of note
(either direct quote, summary, or paraphrase).

Page number (if available)

Annotating for a Research Paper


Highlight and annotate (write a note in the margin of the text):

  1. Identify and label the structure of the article. Circle these annotations to distinguish them from the others.

  2. Highlight and define any words you don’t know

  3. Identify any passage of rhetorical significance

  4. Highlight any passage that you believe to be important for any reason

  5. Highlight and annotate anything that you question.


Example:


happening as a natural consequence


Tone: informal, not politically correct.
Tone: sarcastic, to seem like an “everyman.”
laughing in a mocking way
How big are things now?
Portions the problems

It's portion distortion that makes America fat




1 It was probably inevitable that one day people would start suing McDonald's for making them fat. That day came last summer, when New York lawyer Samuel Hirsch filed several lawsuits against McDonald's, as well as four other fast-food companies, on the grounds that they had failed to adequately disclose the bad health effects of their menus.

2 One of the suits involves a Bronx teenager who tips the scale at 400 pounds and whose mother, in papers filed in U.S. District Court in Manhattan, said, "I always believed McDonald's food was healthy for my son."

3 Uh-huh. And the tooth fairy really put that dollar under his pillow. But once you've stopped sniggering at our litigious society, remember that it once

seemed equally ludicrous that smokers could successfully sue tobacco companies for their addiction to cigarettes.



4 And while nobody is claiming that Big Macs are addictive - at least not yet - the restaurant industry and food packagers have clearly helped give many Americans the roly-poly shape they have today. This is not to say that the folks in the food industry want us to be fat. But make no mistake: When they do well

economically, we gain weight.



5 It wasn't always thus. Readers of a certain age can remember a time when a trip to McDonald's seemed like a treat and when a small bag of French fries, a plain burger and a 12-ounce Coke seemed like a full meal. Fast food wasn't any healthier back then; we simply ate a lot less of it.
Browlee, Shannon. “It’s Portion Distortion That Makes America Fat.” The Sacramento Bee. 5 Jan. 2003. Print.

Intro: Lawsuits



structural
Tone creates designed to create credibility (ethos)

rhetoric
prone to sue a lot.
Thesis: fast food industry to blame, at least in part, for America’s obesity problem.
General fact to illustrate shift in portion size
Portions grew

Rhetorical Précis Writing
Rhetorical Précis Writing

A rhetorical précis analyzes both the content (the what) and the delivery (the how) of a unit of spoken or written discourse. It is a highly structured four-sentence paragraph blending summary and analysis. Each of the four sentences requires specific information; students are expected to use brief quotations (to convey a sense of the author’s style and tone) and to include a terminal bibliographic reference. Practicing this sort of writing fosters precision in both reading and writing, forcing a writer to employ a variety of sentence structures and to develop a discerning eye for connotative shades of meaning.






Take a look at the overall format

  1. 1) Name of author, 2) credibility, 3) genre and title of work 4) date after title in parenthesis 5) MLA parenthetical documentation (if available), 6) a rhetorically accurate verb (such as “assert,” “argue,” “suggest,” “imply,” “claim,” etc.), 7) and a THAT clause containing the major assertion (thesis statement) of the work.

  2. An explanation of how the author develops and/or supports the thesis, usually in chronological order.

  3. A statement of the author’s purpose followed by an “in order to” phrase.

  4. A description of the intended audience and/or the relationship the author establishes with the audience.

Now take a closer look:

  1. THE FIRST SENCENCE identifies the essay’s author and title, provides the article’s date in parentheses, uses some form of the verb says (claims, asserts, suggests, argues ---) followed by that, and the essay’s thesis (paraphrased or quoted).

EXAMPLE: In “The Ugly Truth about Beauty (1998), Dave Barry, a syndicated columnist, argues that “… women generally do not think of their looks in the same way that men do” (4).

  1. THE SECOND SENTENCE conveys the author’s support for the thesis (the way in which the author develops the essay); the trick is to convey a good sense of the breadth of the author’s support/examples, usually in chronological order.

EXAMPLE: Barry illuminates this discrepancy by juxtaposing men’s perceptions of their looks (“average-looking”) with women’s (“not good enough”), by contrasting female role models (Barbie, Cindy Crawford) with male role models (He-Man, Buzz- Off), and by comparing men’s interests (the Super Bowl, lawn care) with women’s (manicures).

  1. THE THIRD SENTENCE analyzes the author’s purpose using an in order to statement:

EXAMPLE: He exaggerates and stereotypes these differences in order to prevent women from so eagerly accepting society’s expectations of them; in fact, Barry claims that men who want women who “look like Cindy Crawford” are “idiots” (10), implying that women who adhere to the Crawford standard are fools as well.

  1. THE FOURTH SENTENCE describes the essay’s target audience and characterizes the author’s relationship with that audience --- or the essay’s tone:

EXAMPLE: Barry ostensibly addresses men in this essay because he opens and closes the essay directly addressing men (as in “If you’re a man …”) and offering to give them advice in a mockingly conspiratorial fashion; however, by using humor to poke fun at both men and women’s perceptions of themselves, Barry makes his essay palatable to both genders and hopes to convince women to stop obsessively “thinking they need to look like Barbie” (8).
Put it all together and it looks darn smart:

In “The Ugly Truth about Beauty (1998), Dave Barry, a syndicated humor columnist, argues that “ … women generally do not think of their looks in the same way that men do” (4). Barry illuminates this discrepancy by juxtaposing men’s perceptions of their looks (“average-looking”) with women’s (“not good enough”), by contrasting female role models (Barbie, Cindy Crawford) with male role models (He-Man, Buzz-Off), and by comparing men’s interests (the Super Bowl, lawn care) with women’s (manicures). He exaggerates and stereotypes these differences in order to prevent women from so eagerly accepting society’s expectations of them; in fact, Barry claims that men who want women who “look like Cindy Crawford” are “idiots”(10), implying that women who adhere to the Crawford standard are fools as well. Barry ostensibly addresses men in this essay because he opens and closes the essay directly addressing men (as in “If you’re a man …”) and offering to give them advice in a mockingly conspiratorial fashion; however, by using humor to poke fun at both men and women’s perceptions of themselves, Barry makes his essay palatable to both genders and hopes to convince women to stop obsessively “thinking they need to look like Barbie” (8).


Barry, Dave. “The Ugly Truth about Beauty.” Mirror on America: Short Essays and Images from Popular Culture. 2nd ed. Eds. Joan T Mims and Elizabeth M. Nollen. NY: Bedford, 2003. 109-12.
Verb Bank

Here is a list of verbs you might find helpful. It is by no means a required or exhaustive list.

Remember that you must always strive to employ the most connotatively precise words you can.


adjures

advances

advises

asks


asserts

begs


beseeches

cajoles


cheers

chimes


commands

complains

confides

conveys


counsels

crows


declares

decrees


decries

demands


describes

dictates

directs

discloses

divulges

elucidates

employs

encourages

entreats

espouses

exclaims

exhorts


explains

gripes


groans

grouses


grumbles

hails


hints

illustrates

implies

implores

inquire

insinuates

instructs

intimates

invokes

justifies

laments

mandates

mocks

muses


orders

pleads


ponders

pontificates

proclaims

pronounces

proposes

queries


rationalizes

recommends

recounts

relates


reports

requests


reveals

sighs


sings

snarls


sneers

states


submits

suggests

summons

wails


whimpers

whines


wields

wonders

Adapted with gratitude from Tracy Duckart’s Instructional Website at Humboldt State University

Rhetorical Précis Fill in the Blank

In “______________________” (_______) ______________________, _________________,
Title of Article Date Author’s full name author’s credibility

1

2

3

4


_______________ that_________________________________________________________.
verb Article’s thesis. Use direct quotation, including citation, if possible

____________________ ______________ this by ___________________________________.


Author’s last name verb how the author makes/supports the thesis

He/She ________________________________ in order to _____________________________.


Brief summary of support author’s purpose

_____________________________ addresses ________________________________ because


Author’s last name intended audience

_____________________________________________________________________________ .


How you know the intended audience and why did the author choose that focus for the topic

Controlling Idea

Controlling Idea:

I believe that ______________________________________________________________




Reason One

Reason Two

Counter Argument






What kind of concrete details did you find as support for each subtopic?
Subtopic One Subtopic Two Counter Argument



































CONTEXT/PLAN



TOOLS

APPEALS

[EMOTION (PATHOS), REASON (LOGOS), CHARACTER (ETHOS)]

Structure of the appeals



Purpose of the structure

TONE

(What is the tone? Does it vary? If so, why? What is the rhetorical purpose for the shift?)
RHETORICAL DEVICES THAT ASSIST APPEALS and/or TONE




PURPOSE

What does the author want the audience to know after reading or hearing this writing?



* irony

* juxtaposition

* motif

* pronouns



* rhetorical

question

* satire

* structure



* syllogism

Note: By no means is this a list of all rhetorical devices, and by no means do the devices have to fall into advanced or basic categories; many will fluctuate given the writer’s style, audience and purpose.

AUDIENCE


To whom is this piece of writing addressed? What bias does this person or group have?

AUTHOR


Who is the writer or the speaker?

What opinion does he/she have?

What background knowledge does the writer have about the topic?



Rhetorical Analysis Tips




Usage (grammatical)

Synonyms

(to use instead of the Greek words)


Commentary (CM)

Ethos

Is created for the speaker

  • Credibility

  • Trust

  • Trustworthiness




Explains why the CD makes the speaker more credible or trustworthy and how it enables the speaker to achieve his or her purpose.


Pathos

Is created in the audience

  • Emotional appeal




Explains the emotion(s) evoked by the CD and how it/they enable(s) the speaker to achieve his or her purpose.


Logos

Is created through logic

  • Logic

  • Argument

  • Reasoning

  • Calculation

  • Way of thinking

  • Analysis




Explains the validity and effectiveness (or lack thereof due to fallacies) of the logic of the argument and how it enables the speaker to achieve his or her purpose.


Additional Notes

  1. Be sure to think of the appeals (ethos, pathos, logos) in regards to the speech structure. Why were they introduced where they were introduced? How does that contribute to the effectiveness (or lack there of) of the speech as a whole.




  1. For all of the above whenever possible, include mention of the rhetorical devices used by the speaker to attempt to create the appeals (ethos, pathos, logos).




Rhetorical Terms
Rhetoric Defined: the art of using words to persuade in writing or speaking; good writers and speakers seek to persuade and convince their intended audience through sound logic and clear reasoning. This process of rhetorical theory is often referred to as “argumentation” or “persuasion,” and it is a process that requires logical reasoning in order to sway the thinking of the audience.
From Rhetoric [Aristotle (384 – 322 BC)]

  • “Let Rhetoric be defined as an ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion.”

  • “Of the truths provided through speech there are three species: for some are in the character (ethos) of the speaker, and some in disposing (pathos) the listener in some way, and some in the argument itself (logos), by showing or seeming to show something.”

  1. Ethos: the persona of the speaker.

  2. Pathos: the emotions of the listener.

  3. Logos: the logic of the argument.


Common Rhetorical Devices: devices that enhance the logic of the argument.

  1. Emotional appeal: appeal the emotions of the audience such as love, fear, etc.

  2. Ethical appeal: appeal to the sense of moral values (right and wrong) of the audience.

  3. Concession: to concede (give in) to a point of the other side or to allow the reader to make up his or her own mind. You will typically follow this by explaining why the concession is not as important as the other side would have the reader believe, which is called the counterargument

  4. Counterargument: defensive tactic in which the writer addresses and neutralizes points they think the other side will make. You will “turn against” your side for a moment only to “turn back” to explain why the other side is wrong (“Counter-Argument”).

  5. Loaded words: words with strong positive or negative connotations.

  6. Analogy: Reasoning or arguing from parallel cases [using similar situations as examples to prove your point; teachers use them all the time]. A simile is an expressed analogy; a metaphor is an implied one.

  7. Anecdote: telling a story that helps bring the argument to life.

  8. Deduction: method of reasoning wherein a conclusion is derived from comparison of general to particular premises.
    -"Sherlock Holmes and John Watson were on a camping and hiking trip.  They had gone to bed and were lying there looking up at the sky.  Holmes said, 'Watson, look up. What do you see?' 
    'Well, I see thousands of stars.'
    'And what does that mean to you?'
    'Well, I guess it means we will have another nice day tomorrow.  What does it mean to you, Holmes?'
    'To me, it means someone has stolen our tent.'"
    (“Glossary of…”)

  9. Hyperbole: exaggeration to prove a point.

  10. Understatement: to deliberately make a situation seem less important or serious than it is.

  11. Parallelism: repetition of structure to emphasize key points, statements, or words.

  12. Rhetorical Questions: the answer is obvious, and therefore, the question itself is inherently persuasive, yet the writer or speaker may answer the rhetorical question for emphasis.


Logical Fallacies: errors in reasoning that the writer should avoid because they make his/her argument invalid. Writers can generally avoid fallacies by:

  1. Not claiming too much – keep arguments focused on specific topics.

  2. Not oversimplifying complex issues – most often easy solutions don’t work.

  3. Supporting arguments with concrete evidence and details.


Common Rhetorical Fallacies:

  1. Ad hominem: attacking the individual instead of the argument

  2. Ad populum (bandwagon): the misconception that widespread occurrence of something makes an idea true or right.

  3. Begging the question: taking for granted something that really needs proving, which leads to circular arguments.

  4. Either/Or reasoning: the tendency to see an issue as only having two sides.

  5. Hasty generalizations: drawing a conclusion based on only one or two cases.

  6. Appeal to authority or prestige: the misconception that because someone is famous or in a position of authority, their ideas are automatically true or right.

  7. Non sequitur: an inference or conclusion that does not follow established premises or evidence

  8. Post hoc, ergo propter hoc: assuming that an incident that precedes another is the cause of the second.

  9. Red herring: the introduction of a secondary subject to divert attention away from the main subject.

  10. Poisoning the well: using loaded language to taint the topic before it is even mentioned.

  11. Straw man: caricaturing, or misrepresenting an opposing view in an exaggerated way, so it is easy to refute.

“Counter-Argument.” The Writing Center at Harvard University. Harvard University, 31 Oct. 2007. Web. 5 Oct. 2009.

“Glossary of Rhetorical Terms.” Armstrong Atlantic State University Website. Armstrong Atlantic State University, 15 May 2007. Web. 5 Oct. 2009.

Weston, Anthony. A Rulebook for Arguments. Indianapolis: Hacket Publishing Company Inc., 2000.


Counter-Argument

When you write an academic essay, you make an argument: you propose a thesis and offer some reasoning, using evidence, that suggests why the thesis is true. When you counter-argue, you consider a possible argument against your thesis or some aspect of your reasoning. This is a good way to test your ideas when drafting, while you still have time to revise them. And in the finished essay, it can be a persuasive and (in both senses of the word) disarming tactic. It allows you to anticipate doubts and pre-empt objections that a skeptical reader might have; it presents you as the kind of person who weighs alternatives before arguing for one, who confronts difficulties instead of sweeping them under the rug, who is more interested in discovering the truth than winning a point.

Not every objection is worth entertaining, of course, and you shouldn't include one just to include one. But some imagining of other views, or of resistance to one's own, occurs in most good essays. And instructors are glad to encounter counter-argument in student papers, even if they haven't specifically asked for it.

The Turn Against

Counter-argument in an essay has two stages: you turn against your argument to challenge it and then you turn back to re-affirm it. You first imagine a skeptical reader, or cite an actual source, who might resist your argument by pointing out



    • a problem with your demonstration, e.g. that a different conclusion could be drawn from the same facts, a key assumption is unwarranted, a key term is used unfairly, certain evidence is ignored or played down;

    • one or more disadvantages or practical drawbacks to what you propose;

    • an alternative explanation or proposal that makes more sense.

You introduce this turn against with a phrase like One might object here that... or It might seem that... or It's true that... or Admittedly,... or Of course,... or with an anticipated challenging question: But how...? or But why...? or But isn't this just...? or But if this is so, what about...? Then you state the case against yourself as briefly but as clearly and forcefully as you can, pointing to evidence where possible. (An obviously feeble or perfunctory counter-argument does more harm than good.)

The Turn Back

Your return to your own argument—which you announce with a but, yet, however, nevertheless or still—must likewise involve careful reasoning, not a flippant (or nervous) dismissal. In reasoning about the proposed counter-argument, you may



    • refute it, showing why it is mistaken—an apparent but not real problem;

    • acknowledge its validity or plausibility, but suggest why on balance it's relatively less important or less likely than what you propose, and thus doesn't overturn it;

    • concede its force and complicate your idea accordingly—restate your thesis in a more exact, qualified, or nuanced way that takes account of the objection, or start a new section in which you consider your topic in light of it. This will work if the counter-argument concerns only an aspect of your argument; if it undermines your whole case, you need a new thesis.

“Counter-Argument.” The Writing Center at Harvard University. Harvard University, 31 Oct. 2007. Web. 5 Oct. 2009.

Where to Put a Counter-Argument

Counter-argument can appear anywhere in the essay, but it most commonly appears



    • as part of your introduction—before you propose your thesis—where the existence of a different view is the motive for your essay, the reason it needs writing;

    • as a section or paragraph just after your introduction, in which you lay out the expected reaction or standard position before turning away to develop your own;

    • as a quick move within a paragraph, where you imagine a counter-argument not to your main idea but to the sub-idea that the paragraph is arguing or is about to argue;

    • as a section or paragraph just before the conclusion of your essay, in which you imagine what someone might object to what you have argued.

But watch that you don't overdo it. A turn into counter-argument here and there will sharpen and energize your essay, but too many such turns will have the reverse effect by obscuring your main idea or suggesting that you're ambivalent.

Counter-Argument in Pre-Writing and Revising

Good thinking constantly questions itself, as Socrates observed long ago. But at some point in the process of composing an essay, you need to switch off the questioning in your head and make a case. Having such an inner conversation during the drafting stage, however, can help you settle on a case worth making. As you consider possible theses and begin to work on your draft, ask yourself how an intelligent person might plausibly disagree with you or see matters differently. When you can imagine an intelligent disagreement, you have an arguable idea.

And, of course, the disagreeing reader doesn't need to be in your head: if, as you're starting work on an essay, you ask a few people around you what they think of topic X (or of your idea about X) and keep alert for uncongenial remarks in class discussion and in assigned readings, you'll encounter a useful disagreement somewhere. Awareness of this disagreement, however you use it in your essay, will force you to sharpen your own thinking as you compose. If you come to find the counter-argument truer than your thesis, consider making it your thesis and turning your original thesis into a counter-argument. If you manage to draft an essay without imagining a counter-argument, make yourself imagine one before you revise and see if you can integrate it.

Copyright 1999, Gordon Harvey (adapted from The Academic Essay: A Brief Anatomy), for the Writing Center at Harvard University

“Counter-Argument.” The Writing Center at Harvard University. Harvard University, 31 Oct. 2007. Web. 5 Oct. 2009.


Developing a Counterargument Paragraph


State your claim (what is your opinion about the topic?)

Define your terms.

Anticipate your opposition (why do some people disagree with you about the topic?)



Concede to or rebut your opposition (explain why they are partly right, or explain why they are wrong).


Support your claim building ethos (explain why you are someone who might know about this topic)



Support your claim using logos (give some evidence or examples to support your opinion).


Support your claim using pathos (give your reader a reason to agree with you that touches their heart or appeals to their values).

Thesis Information


What to include in your thesis statement

  1. The topic

  2. Your Point of View concerning your topic


What does a strong thesis do that a weak one does not do?

  1. A strong thesis takes some sort of a stand

  2. A strong thesis justifies discussion

  3. A strong thesis expresses one main idea

  4. A strong thesis statement is specific

How to Tell a Strong Thesis Sentence from a Weak One.

1. A strong thesis takes some sort of stand.

Remember that your thesis needs to show your conclusions about a subject. For example, if you are writing a paper for a class on fitness, you might be asked to choose a popular weight-loss product to evaluate. Here are two thesis statements:



There are some negative and positive aspects to the Banana Herb Tea Supplement.

This is a weak thesis. First, it fails to take a stand. Second, the phrase “negative and positive aspects” is vague.



Because Banana Herb Tea Supplement promotes rapid weight loss that results in the loss of muscle and lean body mass, it poses a potential danger to customers.

This is a strong thesis because it takes a stand.



2. A strong thesis justifies discussion.

Your thesis should indicate the point of the discussion. If your assignment is to write a paper on kinship systems, using your own family as an example, you might come up with either of these two thesis statements:



My family is an extended family.

This is a weak thesis because it states an observation. Your reader won’t be able to tell the point of the statement, and will probably stop reading.



While most American families would view consanguineal marriage as a threat to the nuclear family structure, many Iranian families, like my own, believe that these marriages help reinforce kinship ties in an extended family.

This is a strong thesis because it shows how your experience contradicts a widely-accepted view. A good strategy for creating a strong thesis is to show that the topic is controversial. Readers will be interested in reading the rest of the essay to see how you support your point.



3. A strong thesis expresses one main idea.

Readers need to be able to see that your paper has one main point. If your thesis expresses more than one idea, then you might confuse your readers about the subject of your paper. For example:



Companies need to exploit the marketing potential of the Internet, and web pages can provide both advertising and customer support.

This is a weak thesis statement because the reader can’t decide whether the paper is about marketing on the Internet or web pages. To revise the thesis, the relationship between the two ideas needs to become more clear. One way to revise the thesis would be to write:



Because the Internet is filled with tremendous marketing potential, companies should exploit this potential by using web pages that offer both advertising and customer support.

This is a strong thesis because it shows that the two ideas are related. Hint: a great many clear and engaging thesis statements contain words like “because,” “since,” “so,” “although,” “unless,” and “however.”



4. A strong thesis statement is specific.

A thesis statement should show exactly what your paper will be about, and will help you keep your paper to a manageable topic. For example, if you write a paper on hunger, you might say:



World hunger has many causes and effects.

This is a weak thesis statement for two major reasons. First, “world hunger” can’t be discussed thoroughly in five or ten pages. Second, "many causes and effects" is vague. You should be able to identify specific causes and effects. A revised thesis might look like this:



Hunger persists in Appalachia because jobs are scarce and farming in the infertile soil is rarely profitable.

This is a strong thesis because it narrows the subject to a more specific and manageable topic and it also identifies the specific causes for the existence of hunger.

“How to Write a Thesis Statement.” Writing Tutorial Services. Indiana University, n.d. web. 1 Oct. 2009.

Introductions





Intro Parts

Practical Advice

Movie Example

1. Hook

  • Catches the readers attention

  • Don’t mention the topic

The Establishing Shot

2. Connecting Info

  • Connects the Hook to the Thesis

  • Mention the topic, but not the point of view
Zooming in

3. Thesis

  • Tells the reader what the paper is about

  • Mention the topic and the point of view

Focusing in on the first scene. The story starts.

Possible Hooks (dress code prompt):

  1. Connected Concept: choose a concept that is related to the topic and make that concept seem important.

Clothing and fashion is for many people the way they most enjoy expressing themselves. Through clothing, they are able to create the image of themselves that they show to the world. They can be anyone they choose, which is empowering and important, especially for those who might feel powerless. One such group that often feels powerless is teenagers, and now the high school is creating a strict dress code that severely limits the clothing students can wear. Despite the claim that the dress code makes the student population safer, it will in reality do more harm than good.




  1. Anecdote/Analogy/Imagine…: set the scene and illustrate the importance of the topic, using a scenario or story that is related to the topic.

Imagine a world in which people are stripped of the ability to make choices of their own, even for little things. Anything that makes them stand out is banned, forbidden, supposedly for their own good. An environment so stifling is enticing to virtually no one. One environment that could soon become similarly restrictive for its inhabitants is high school should the new, much stricter dress code be implemented. Despite the claim that the dress code makes the student population safer, it will in reality do more harm than good.




  1. Startling information/quote/ statistic: the information must be true and verifiable, and it doesn’t need to be completely new to your readers. It must, however, illustrate clearly the point you want to make.

“Big brother is watching,” a line from George Orwell’s novel 1984, is one of the most chilling lines in literature because it sums up the philosophy behind the horrifying totalitarian regime central to the novel (2). The people who populate that book are broken down to the point that they have no mind or desires of their own. They exist and survive not as individuals but as part of a great collective, a collective completely bereft of any of the characteristics that make us human. Though obviously not as a extreme as the government in 1984, the leaders of one institution, high school administrators, are planning in a smaller way through their new, stricter dress code to do something similar. Despite the claim that the dress code makes the student population safer, it will in reality do more harm than good.

Schaffer Method Body Paragraphs


Argument Paragraph

  1. Topic Sentence

    1. Concrete Detail

      1. Commentary

      2. Commentary

    2. Concrete Detail

      1. Commentary

      2. Commentary

    3. Etc.

    4. Closing Sentence

Counter-Argument Paragraph

  1. The turn against

    1. Concrete detail

      1. Commentary

      2. Commentary

    2. The Turn back

    3. Concrete detail

      1. Commentary

      2. Commentary

    4. Concrete detail

      1. Commentary

      2. Commentary

    5. Etc.

    6. Closing Sentence

Terms Defined:

TS: topic sentence; tells the reader what the paragraph is going to prove; includes a transition (except for the first body paragraph of the essay)

CD: concrete details; proves the TS; integrated quotation, summary, or paraphrase; a fact from a source

CM: commentary; explanation of why the CD proves the TS; your words.

CS: closing sentence; wraps up the paragraph, usually including the seed for the transition in the TS of the next body paragraph
Regular Body Paragraph

Being knowledgeable about the research process is invaluable experience and will help you get a better job in the future. Ron Ronalds, a prominent education professor, stated that “students are better able to collect and organize data after having completed the research process” (15). Many jobs require that information be gathered, analyzed, and acted upon. Your skills with research methods will enable you to perform this function effectively and quickly. Mr. John Johnston, a business executive, indicated in an interview that management notices when people can competently manage information (27). Getting noticed by management for a job well done is a good thing. It could mean a promotion, more prestige, and a bigger paycheck. Later on in life students will be thankful they have taken this process seriously.


Counter-argument Paragraph

Some people believe that research skills are not needed after high school. Jessica Jess made a point when she wrote that “[the research paper] will enable you to graduate, but then you will never use the skill again” (45). How many research papers do you write after high school after all? It is certainly not a common endeavor in the work place. What she doesn’t seem to realize is how often one uses the skills one learns in the research process, even if the task isn’t specifically called a research paper. One must remember that students learn more in a research paper than just how to write a paper (Reynolds 8). They learn how to gather and organize information. They also learn how to formulate and support a great argument. In addition the College Board reminds one that research papers themselves are very common after high school and that many classes require lengthy research projects (“Preparing for College is…” 7). Having a solid background in research then can make one’s college experience a great deal easier, knowing already know how the process works. One will most likely do better on projects and hopefully will get a better grade in the class. Research skills give one an advantage later in life and should be taken seriously.

Beyond Schaffer Method: the Quotation Sandwich


Here is the statement (one or more sentences) that explains my background/situation (CONTEXT).
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________



Here is my integrated quotation.
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Here is commentary, explaining why/how my quote proves the topic sentence
______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________


Quotation Sandwich Example


Many people are lamenting the fact that American public schools in general seem to be experiencing a drop in rigorous educational achievement, and there are many programs popping up that are hoping to address and solve the issue. Lori Aratani of the Washington Post helps clarify one such project:

The American Diploma Project could mesh with another experimental program in Maryland designed to raise graduation standards for public school students. The Maryland Scholars program is a voluntary initiative launched in 2003 that encourages students to take more difficult classes. It is showing promising results in two school systems, those of Frederick and Harford counties, which are trying out the new approach.

Projects like that explained above by Lori Aratani give one reason to hope that some sort of solution is possible. One need now only wonder about the feasibility of adapting like programs for many distinct school districts across the country. One also must take into account the fact that what works for one school district might not work for another.



This is only one chunk, including one concrete detail and its commentary

Aratani, Lori. "For Students, a New Program Offers Possible Leg Up in Life." The Washington Post (2006). EBSCO. Web. 6 November 2007.







Subject: what are you writing about in this paragraph






























Topic Sentence: (what are you saying about the subject













Supporting Evidence: Quotes that support your topic sentence (2 of 3 must be from different sources



































Murrieta Mesa HS Sophomore Research Packet 33










































( )

( )

( )




Developing Commentary: how the quote relates to main ide








































































































































Concluding Sentence:









Using Your Sources



Direct Quotation

Summary

Paraphrase

Summary/Direct Quote Hybrid

  • Using the exact wording of the original source.

  • Source must be cited in the in text citation or as an introduction to the quote

  • Page number, if available, is always to be put in the parenthesis

  • When you put someone else’s idea into your own words.

  • Usually focused on one specific idea and a shortened version

  • Includes an in text citation at the end of the summary and the author’s name at the beginning of the passage




  • Mainly used to simplify complex language

  • Putting someone else’s ideas into your own words

  • About the same length as the original passage

  • Includes an in text citation at the end of the paraphrase and the author’s name at the beginning of the citation

  • Combination of a summary (your words) and a direct quote

  • A more sophisticated approach

  • Includes an in text citation




Type

Examples

Direct Quotation

Lori Aratani of the Washington Post stated that “The American Diploma Project could mesh with another experimental program in Maryland designed to raise graduation standards for public school students. The Maryland Scholars program is a voluntary initiative launched in 2003 that encourages students to take more difficult classes. It is showing promising results in two school systems, those of Frederick and Harford counties, which are trying out the new approach.”

Aratani, Lori. "For Students, a New Program Offers Possible Leg Up in Life." The Washington Post (2006). EBSCO. Web. 6 November 2007.



Summary

Lori Aratani of the Washington Post reports that the Maryland Scholars program has showed promising results and could possibly merge with the American Diploma Project with the hopes of increasing student graduation standards.


Paraphrase


Lori Aratani of the Washington Post reports that a merging of the American diploma project and the Maryland Scholars programs could possibly raise graduation standards. The Maryland Scholars program has already had success by encouraging students to take more difficult classes. Schools in Frederick and Harford counties have begun using the new approach.

Summary /

Direct Quote Hybrid

Lori Aratani of the Washington Post reports that a merging of the American diploma project and the Maryland Scholars are “showing promising results” by “[encouraging] students to take more difficult classes.”


INTEGRATED Sources (direct quotes, summaries, and paraphrases):
Always use first time source is cited



Four parts of an integrated quotation

  1. “Your Intro,” including credibility 1st time source is used

  2. Quote

  3. Citation (parenthesis)

  4. Punctuation




Two types of integrated quotations

  1. Author’s name in “your intro”

  2. Author’s name in the parenthesis



EXAMPLES
Appositive phrase

Author in “your intro”


  • The first time the author is quoted (credibility included).
    Direct

    Quote


    • John Anderson, a writing professor at Harvard University, states that “writing research papers in high school is vital for success at the university level” (15).

    • John Anderson, a writing professor at Harvard University, did research in which he studied a group of high school students over five years and came to the conclusion that research papers in high school raise overall test scores (15).
      Summary/ Paraphrase



The only difference is no “ “



  • After the first time the author is quoted (credibility not needed).
    Direct

    Quote


    • Anderson reminds one that “writing research papers in high school is vital for success at the university level” (15).

    • Anderson in an additional study, which followed a group of high school students over five years, came to the conclusion that research papers in high school raise overall test scores (15).
      Summary/

      Paraphrase

      Do not use for summary or paraphrase


Author in parenthesis


  • Always after the first time the author is quoted (credibility not needed).
    Direct

    Quote


    • It is stated that “the senior project is successful in helping students succeed in college” (Wuchner 27).




Your Intro” Starter Phrases

Author in the Intro


Author in Citation (parenthesis)

  • Author’s name reminds one that “quote” (#).

  • Author’s name makes a good point when s/he states that “quote” (#).

  • Author’s name remarks that it is important to remember “quote” (#).

  • Author’s name states that “quote” (#).

  • Author’s name says that “quote” (#).

  • Author’s name indicates that “quote” (#).

  • Author’s name believes that “quote” (#).

  • Author’s name wrote that “quote” (#).

  • It is important to remember that “quote” (Lastname #).

  • One must not forget that “quote” (Lastname #).

  • Of vital importance is the fact that “quote” (Lastname #).

  • Interesting is the fact that “quote” (Lastname #).

  • It was stated that “quote” (Lastname #).

  • It has been argued that “quote” (Lastname #).

  • One might be interested to know that “quote” (Lastname #).


INDIRECT QUOTATION (A QUOTE WITHIN YOUR SOURCE, 2ND HAND QUOTE)

  • The first time the author is quoted (credibility included).
    Indirect

    Quote


    • John Anderson, a writing professor at Harvard University, states that “writing research papers in high school is vital for success at the university level” (qtd. in Smith 15).
      Indirect

      Summary/ Paraphrase

      Person who said quote

      Author of the source


    • John Anderson, a writing professor at Harvard University, did research in which he studied a group of high school students over five years and came to the conclusion that research papers in high school raise overall test scores (qtd. in Smith 15).


LONG QUOTES (4 LINES OR MORE):

Four parts of an integrated quotation

  1. “Your Intro,” including credibility 1st time source is used

  2. Quote

  3. Citation

  4. Punctuation




Two types of integrated quotations

  1. Author’s name in “your intro”

  2. Author’s name in the parenthesis





EXAMPLES

John Anderson, a Harvard University professor, stated with great eloquence why refusing to complete the research paper would be devastating:


Intro = complete thought

Research papers are more than necessary for students to complete in each year of high school. It is a skill that will be required repeatedly in nearly every college class they will take. Students cannot survive in a college environment without a firm grasp of the research paper. One needs the skill to succeed. (41)

The following illustrates very clearly why refusing to complete the research paper would be devastating:

Research papers are more than necessary for students to complete in each year of high school. It is a skill that will be required repeatedly in nearly every college class they will take. Students cannot survive in a college environment without a firm grasp of the research paper. One needs the skill to succeed. (Wuchner 41)


No quotation marks and indent whole quote 1”

CHANGING DIRECT QUOTATIONS

  1. Use an ellipses […] (brackets included) to indicate you left out part of the quote

    1. It is interesting that “[…] the research paper is so important” (Wuchner 41).

  2. Use brackets [ ] to change a word

    1. “Before graduating high school, I had to complete a research paper.”

    2. Wuchner stated that “before graduating high school, [he] had to complete a research paper” (12).



CITATION HELP


Example:

  • (Last Name Pg. #) - (Wuchner 27)

If no author:

  • (First Few Words of Title…” Pg #) - (The Senior Project…” 27)

If no page number: leave that part blank

  • (Wuchner) - (“The Senior Project is Fun…”)

Transitions



Transitions Basics:

  1. Do not consciously transition in the closing sentence of a body paragraph.

  2. Transition in the Topic sentence of the next paragraph.

  3. Find a word, phrase, or idea in the closing sentence that you can also use in the topic sentence of the next paragraph to LINK the two together.


Transition example:


CS

It is therefore surprising that young people often don’t know how the media is manipulating what they see. Transitional Link


TS

This manipulation of body image gives people false perceptions of the human body, creating pathological thoughts of shame that can lead to self-destructive behaviors such as self-starvation.

Transitional Words
To improve your writing you need to make sure that your ideas, both in sentences and paragraphs, stick together or have coherence and that the gap between ideas is bridged smoothly. One way to do this is by using transitions - words or phrases or techniques that help bring two ideas together. Transitional words and phrases represent one way of gaining coherence. Certain words help continue an idea, indicate a shift of though or contrast, or sum up a conclusion. Check the following list of words to find those that will pull your sentences and paragraphs together.


For continuing a common line of reasoning:

consequently


clearly, then
furthermore
additionally
and
in addition
moreover
because
besides that
in the same way
following this further
also
pursuing this further
in the light of the... it is easy to see that


For opening a paragraph initially or for general use:

admittedly


assuredly
certainly
granted
no doubt
nobody denies
obviously
of course
to be sure
true
undoubtedly
unquestionably
generally speaking
in general
at this level
in this situation

Transitional chains, to use in separating sections of a paragraph which is arranged chronologically:

first... second... third...


generally... furthermore... finally
in the first place... also... lastly
in the first place... pursuing this further... finally
to be sure... additionally... lastly
in the first place... just in the same way... finally
basically... similarly... as well

Sequence or time

after
afterwards


as soon as
at first
at last
before
before long
finally
first... second... third
in the first place
in the meantime
later
meanwhile
next
soon
then

To change the line of reasoning (contrast):

however
on the other hand


but
yet
nevertheless
on the contrary


To signal a conclusion:

therefore


this
hence
in final analysis
in conclusion
in final consideration
indeed

For the final points of a paragraph or essay:

finally
lastly




To restate a point within a paragraph in another way or in a more exacting way:

in other words


point in fact
specifically

Research Paper: Peer Editing Checklist


Use this checklist to help you determine if you are lacking any important parts or format requirements in your research paper. If you check “no” for ANY of the topics, you MUST provide a suggestion for improvement.


General Format: should be consistent throughout the paper

Yes

No

  1. Font is Times New Roman







  1. Double Spaced







  1. Heading is correct







  1. Header is correct







  1. Margins are 1”







Suggestions for improvements:


Introduction

Yes

No

  1. Engaging, interesting hook







  1. Provides background information to prepare the reader







  1. Has a thesis statement







  1. Thesis statement contains an opinion







  1. Thesis statement is clearly stated







Suggestions for improvements:


Body Paragraphs

Yes

No

1. Has a topic sentence







2. Topic sentence contains a transition (except for body ¶ 1)







3. Concrete details (at least two per ¶) in MLA format







4. Has commentary that effectively explains the concrete detail







5. Has a concluding sentence







6. Argument well thought out and effective







Suggestions for improvements:


Conclusion

Yes

No

1. Restates the thesis and important points from the essay







2. Provides the “so what,” or why this preceding information is important







Suggestions for improvement:


Works Cited page

Yes

No

1. Header







2. Title with no embellishment







3. Double spaced







4. Indented correctly (indent every line except for the first of each entry).







5. Entries alphabetized







6. Each entry formatted according to MLA format







Suggestions for improvements:


General

Yes

No

1. Does the paper have any sentences or parts that seem out of place? Underline them and note them as such.







2. Does the order of the paper make sense? Change parts where the sequence doesn’t seem to work.







3. Do the body paragraphs help prove the thesis statement?







Suggestions for improvement:


What was done well in the essay?


EAP Essay Scoring Rubric

Characteristic

5

4

3

2

1

0

Response to topic

Addresses the topic clearly and responds effectively to all aspects of the task.

Addresses the topic clearly, but may respond to some aspects of the task more effectively than others.

Addresses the topic, but may slight some aspects of the task.

Distorts or neglects aspects of the task.

Indicates confusion about the topic or neglects important aspects of the task.

Suggests an inability to comprehend the question or to respond meaningfully to the topic.

Understanding and use of the passage


Demonstrates a thorough critical understanding of the passage in developing an insightful response.

Demonstrates a sound critical understanding of the passage in developing a well-reasoned response.

Demonstrates a generally accurate understanding of the passage in developing a sensible response.

Demonstrates some understanding of the passage, but may misconstrue parts of it or make limited use of it in developing a weak response.

Demonstrates very poor understanding of the main points of the passage, does not use the passage appropriately in developing a response, or may not use the passage at all.

Demonstrates little or no ability to understand the passage or to use it in developing a response.

Quality and clarity of thought

Explores the issues thoughtfully and in depth.

Shows some depth and complexity of thought.

May treat the topic simplistically or repetitively.

Lacks focus or demonstrates confused or simplistic thinking.

Lacks focus and coherence and often fails to communicate ideas.

Is unfocused, illogical, or incoherent.

Organization, development, and support


Is coherently organized and developed, with ideas supported by apt reasons and well-chosen examples.

Is well organized and developed, with ideas supported by appropriate reasons and examples.

Is adequately organized and developed, generally supporting ideas with reasons and examples.

Is poorly organized and developed, presenting generalizations without adequate support or presenting details without generalizations.

Has very weak organization and development, providing simplistic generalizations without support.

Is disorganized and undeveloped, providing little or no relevant support.

Syntax and command of language


Has fluent style marked by syntactic variety and a clear command of language.

Displays some syntactic variety and facility in the use of language.

Demonstrates adequate use of syntax and language.

Has limited control of syntax and vocabulary.

Has inadequate control of syntax and vocabulary.

Lacks basic control of syntax and vocabulary.

Grammar, usage, and mechanics

Is generally free from errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics.

May have a few errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics.

May have some errors, but generally demonstrates control of grammar, usage, and mechanics.

Has an accumulation of errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics that sometimes interfere with meaning.

Is marred by numerous errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics that frequently interfere with meaning.

Has serious and persistent errors in grammar, usage, and mechanics that severely interfere with meaning.

Standards Addressed
Writing 1.0 Research and Technology
1.3: use clear research questions and suitable research methods (e.g. library, electronic media, personal interview) to elicit and present evidence from primary and secondary sources.
1.5: synthesize information from multiple sources and identify complexities and discrepancies in the information and the different perspective found in each medium (e.g. almanacs, microfiche, news sources, in-depth field studies, speeches, journals, technical documents).
1.6: integrate quotations and citations into a written text while maintaining the flow of ideas.
1.7: use appropriate conventions for documentation in the text, nbotes, and bibliographies by adhering to those in style manuals (e.g. Modern Language Association Handbook, The Chicago Manual of Style).

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