Multiple choice. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question



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PSB3340

Exam 3
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MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1) Pure alexia refers to

A) word deafness.

B) the inability to write.

C) pure word blindness.

D) difficulties in spelling.

E) the inability to read words.
2) Which of the following is NOT an effect of opiate administration?

A) reinforcement

B) lowered body temperature

C) increased activity

D) sedation

E) analgesia


3) The normal rhythm and stress found in speech is called

A) grammatical flow.

B) prosody.

C) aural intonation.

D) syntax.

E) circumlocution


4) Which of the following is a characteristic of autistic disorder?

A) abnormal interests and behaviors

B) inability to relate to point of view taken by others

C) lack of imaginative ability

D) poorly developed social skills

E) All of the above are correct.


5) The situation or stimulus in the environment that is perceived as being threatening or aversive is

A) stressful.

B) a stressor.

C) an immune response.

D) stress.

E) a fight-or-flight response.


6) Recordings from place cells in the hippocampus indicate they respond to which of the following?

A) specific locations in space

B) the strength of a stimulus

C) individual faces

D) whether a stimulus predicts that a reward is coming

E) sequences of events


7) People with retrograde amnesia cannot

A) transform their short-term memories into long-term memories.

B) recall childhood experiences.

C) recall events that occurred prior to the brain injury.

D) remember stressful or traumatic events.

E) learn new information.


8) The harmful effects of alcohol on learning and memory may reflect

A) an upregulation of GABA transmission in brain.

B) damage to cholinergic cells in the hippocampus.

C) loss of glial cells in layers 4-6 of the cortex.

D) interference with NMDA receptors and long-term potentiation.

E) release of GABA within the cerebellum.


9) People with Broca's aphasia would have the most difficulty

A) recognizing complex geometrical forms.

B) understanding speech.

C) saying function words.

D) saying content words.

E) spelling content words.


10) The monoamine hypothesis states that depression is caused by

A) excessive activity of dopamine synapses.

B) insufficient activity of monoaminergic neurons.

C) loss of cells within the prefrontal cortex.

D) excessive activity of serotonin synapses.

E) overactivity of monoaminergic neurons


11) In a conditioned emotional response (CER) study, a tone is paired with a foot shock for a rat. After several trials, the tone alone is a CS that can elicit fear emotional responses. Which of the following is true of the anatomy of this fear response?

A) Damage to the lateral nucleus of the amygdala impairs perceptual learning, but not CER learning.

B) The central nucleus of the amygdala integrates the pairing of tone and shock information.

C) Damage to the central nucleus of the amygdala impairs perceptual learning, but not CER learning.

D) Tone information is relayed directly to the central nucleus of the amygdala.

E) The lateral nucleus of the amygdala integrates the pairing of tone and shock information.


12) The ability to recognize a series of photos that you looked at a month ago is an example of

A) perceptual learning.

B) stimulus-response learning.

C) classical conditioning.

D) intermodal learning.

E) extinction.


13) Damage to Wernicke's area produces a problem in

A) reading lips.

B) speaking.

C) recognizing nonspeech sounds.

D) understanding speech.

E) hearing.


14) An obsession is a ________ , while a compulsion is a ________.

A) learned behavior; delusional thought

B) delusion; feeling of emotion

C) form of species-typical behavior; learned behavior

D) thought; behavior

E) recurring feeling of anxiety; form of intense euphoria


15) Which of the following is true of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)?

A) ADHD interferes with learning.

B) ADHD is usually discovered at school.

C) Boys are 10 times more likely to be classified as ADHD than are girls.

D) ADHD can persist into adulthood.

E) All of the above are correct.


16) Memory for events and facts that we can think and talk about is referred to as

A) motor memory.

B) declarative memory.

C) nondeclarative memories.

D) procedural memory.

E) Hebbian memory.


17) Intense electrical stimulation of axons within the hippocampal formation results in

A) long-term potentiation of presynaptic neurons.

B) axoaxonic inhibition of presynaptic neurons.

C) long-term potentiation of postsynaptic neurons.

D) recurrent inhibition of the stimulated axons.

E) B and C are correct.


18) ________ refers to a compulsion to take a drug.

A) Homeostasis

B) Craving

C) Allostasis

D) Drug tolerance

E) Withdrawal


19) A key characteristic of anxiety disorders is

A) the absence of REM brain waves during the awake phase.

B) a high level of dopamine receptors within the nucleus accumbens.

C) an inability to control euphoria.

D) the presence of unfounded feelings of fear and dread.

E) an impulsive desire to mate that occurs at inappropriate times.


20) NMDA receptors are activated by the endogenous transmitter

A) norepinephrine.

B) GABA.

C) glutamate.

D) serotonin.

E) acetylcholine.


21) Which of the following statements about cocaine is NOT true?

A) Damage to the nucleus accumbens impairs cocaine reinforcement.

B) Rats will self-administer cocaine into their vascular system.

C) Cocaine abuse can produce psychosis.

D) Drugs that block dopamine receptors within the nucleus accumbens impairs cocaine reinforcement.

E) Cocaine administration decreases dopamine within the nucleus accumbens.


22) Which of the following is true of short-term memory?

A) Short-term memory is impaired by repetition of verbal material.

B) Immediate memory is distinct from short-term memory.

C) Short-term memory has a limited capacity.

D) Immediate memory precedes short-term memory.

E) Short-term memory has an unlimited capacity.


23) Which of the following is a primary disturbance in comprehension or production of speech that is caused by brain damage?

A) dysgraphia

B) alexia

C) aphasia

D) agraphia

E) autism


24) The positive symptoms of schizophrenia are reversed by drugs that are

A) dopamine receptor antagonists.

B) dopamine receptor agonists.

C) antagonists at GABA receptors.

D) similar in structure to benzodiazepines.

E) agonists at serotonin receptors.


25) The increase in synaptic strength that occurs in long-term potentiation is due to a modification of the cell that includes

A) more postsynaptic GABA contacts.

B) more postsynaptic NMDA receptors.

C) fewer presynaptic GABA contacts.

D) more postsynaptic AMPA receptors.

E) fewer synaptic connections.


26) The positive symptoms of schizophrenia may be caused by

A) a single recessive gene.

B) an imbalance of norepinephrine in the brain.

C) excessive activity in dopamine circuits in the brain.

D) poor parenting.

E) a degenerative disorder of the brain.


27) The ventral stream of visual association cortex continues into the inferior temporal cortex and carries information relating to ________ .

A) object density

B) object location

C) object shape

D) object color

E) object recognition


28) The two types of symptoms noted in schizophrenia include

A) delusions and profound sadness.

B) delusions and hallucinations.

C) thought disorder and impaired language ability.

D) positive symptoms and negative symptoms.

E) hallucinations and social withdrawal.


29) Decreased sensitivity to a drug after repeated use is termed

A) euphoria.

B) physical dependence.

C) psychic dependence.

D) tolerance.

E) addiction.


30) Mania refers to feelings of

A) distance and loneliness.

B) pride.

C) extreme sadness.

D) extreme elation.

E) anxiety.


TRUE/FALSE. Bubble "A" for True, "B" for False.

31) Two forms of perceptual learning are classical conditioning and instrumental conditioning.


32) Speech is lateralized in the right hemisphere in the majority of people.
33) People with anterograde amnesia are better able to learn new motor skills than new facts or words.
34) The brains of schizophrenic patients show an enhanced release of dopamine after treatment with amphetamine.
35) All natural reinforcers that have been studied cause release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens.
36) A compulsion is a behavior that a person cannot keep from performing.
ESSAY. Only answer two (2) of the following essay questions. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

37) Explain how drugs of abuse may act via the same substrate engaged by natural rewards. Give two examples of such drugs and where they have their einforcing actions.


38) Compare and contrast the symptoms noted in Broca's aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia.

39) Describe the four basic forms of learning: a) perceptual learning; b) stimulus-response learning; c) motor learning. Give a brief example of each in your answer.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1) E
2) C


3) B
4) E
5) B
6) A
7) C
8) D
9) C
10) B
11) B
12) A
13) D
14) D
15) E
16) B
17) C
18) B
19) D
20) C
21) E
22) C
23) C
24) A
25) D
26) C
27) E
28) D
29) D
30) D
True and False

31) FALSE


32) FALSE
33) TRUE
34) TRUE
35) TRUE
36) TRUE

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