MSc in Health Sciences (Document taken from the student handbook) Regulations, assessment and feedback



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MSc in Health Sciences
(Document taken from the student handbook)
Regulations, assessment and feedback:
Standards of academic conduct

The University requires all students to maintain high standards of academic conduct and, in particular, to avoid conduct amounting to cheating in examinations, the fabrication of research results or plagiarism.


Cheating in examinations
Cheating in examinations includes: copying from or conferring with other candidates; the possession or use of unauthorized material or equipment; and the impersonation of an examination candidate. Candidates, who knowingly permit themselves to be impersonated, or their work to be copied, will be regarded as cheating. Any student suspected of cheating in examinations will be dealt with under the University’s Assessment Irregularities Procedure and may also be subject to disciplinary action in accordance with the University’s Disciplinary Procedures.
The fabrication of research results
The fabrication of research results includes: claims, which cannot reasonably be justified, to have obtained specific or general results; false claims in relation to experiments, interviews, procedures or any other research activity; and the omission of statements in relation to data, results, experiments, interviews or procedures, where such omission cannot reasonably be justified. Any student who is suspected of having fabricated research results in relation to submitted and assessed work which contributes to an examination or degree result, will be dealt with under the University’s Assessment Irregularities Procedure and may also be subject to disciplinary action as determined by the Registrar in accordance with the University’s Disciplinary Procedures.
Plagiarism
Plagiarism is defined by the University, in its Procedure for Assessment Irregularities as: “the unacknowledged use of another person's ideas, words or work either verbatim or in substance without specific acknowledgement. For the avoidance of doubt, plagiarism may occur in an examination script as well as in assessed coursework, projects, reports and like work and may involve the use of material downloaded from electronic sources such as the internet. Further, the inclusion of a source in a bibliography is not of itself a sufficient attribution of another's work.” [http://www.ncl.ac.uk/spo/Assess_Irregularities.pdf].
At one extreme, plagiarism is simply a form of cheating, such as where the whole or a significant part of work submitted towards an examination or degree is the unacknowledged work of another, copied slavishly from a book or research paper. At the other extreme, plagiarism may occur accidentally, through poor standards of scholarship, or may concern insignificant parts of submitted work.
Students are sometimes unclear as to what use may be made of the work of others in the field without raising concerns about plagiarism. Any student who is in doubt on

this matter should consult his or her tutor or module leader. In most cases, the adoption of appropriate standards of scholarship will avoid any such concerns. The following general guidelines may assist:


1. Passages copied verbatim from the work of another must be enclosed in quotation marks. A full reference to the original source must be provided. The substitution of a few words in an otherwise verbatim passage will not obviate the need to use quotation marks and to provide a full reference.
2. Students must always give due acknowledgement to the sources of ideas or data which are not their own and are not truly in the public domain (for example, because they are novel or controversial) or are not widely held or widely recognised.
3. Ideas and data which are the student’s own or are truly in the public domain may be included without attribution, but should be expressed in the student’s own words.
4. Students must take care to distinguish between their own ideas or work and those of others. Any ambiguity in such a distinction could give rise to a suspicion of plagiarism.
5. Where the student’s work is the result of collaborative research, the student must take care to acknowledge the source of data, analysis or procedures which are not their own.
Students who are suspected of having made the unacknowledged use of another person’s ideas, words or work in submitted and assessed work which contributes to an examination or degree result, will be dealt with under the University’s Assessment Irregularities Procedure and may also be subject to disciplinary action in accordance with the University’s Disciplinary Procedures. The procedure is available at www.ncl.ac.uk/spo/#docs.

(This document is given out at the induction and is posted on Blackboard)


Health Sciences


REFERENCING: A GUIDE FOR STUDENTS SUBMITTING WORK FOR THE MSC, POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA OR POSTGRADUATE CERTIFICATE IN HEALTH SCIENCES
(Submitted work includes essays, projects and dissertations.)

Revised, September 2006



Why you need this Guide

Referencing your work and providing a full reference list of the sources upon which it is based are elementary requirements for submitted work at university. You are engaged in academic study and inquiry and you are expected to comply with the normal standards and conventions governing academic work. Once you have graduated, you may not continue in higher education and you may not become an author. But, in whatever career you pursue, you will almost certainly have to produce written work of some sort, such as reports, and you will be expected to indicate the sources upon which that work is based. So learning how to reference and to provide reference lists is a skill that will serve you after as well as during your time at university. You may choose to use a bibliographic software program to help organise your references. Be aware that programs such as ‘Endnote’ are helpful tools for organising and using references, but you still need to understand how to reference so that you are able to do it correctly and are able to correct any errors that may be generated by bibliographic software programs.



What is a reference?

A reference indicates the source from which you have derived an idea or argument or piece of information. The reference gives full details of the source, so that it is traceable by someone who reads your work.


When you should reference

Quotations, long or short, should always be referenced. But even if you do not quote verbatim from a source, you should acknowledge through a reference the source from which you have taken an idea, argument or piece of information. Deciding when to reference, and when not, requires a measure of common sense judgement. You would not be expected, for example, to provide a reference for matters of common knowledge (e.g. the sun rises in the east and sets in the west; the NHS came into being in 1948; Epidemiological studies focus on population based characteristics). But when you take an idea or information from a specific source (e.g. diabetic retinopathy is the cause of blindness in 5% of blind people worldwide; psychosocial stimulation in early childhood reduces antisocial behaviour and delinquency in adolescence; only 15% of the population of China can afford medical insurance), you must indicate what your source is. When you read books and articles, carefully take note of the way in which authors provide references. That will enable you to develop a sense of how you should reference your own work.


Why are references necessary?

You should reference so that you acknowledge what you have derived from others and do not falsely present their work as your own. If you fail to acknowledge your debts to the work of other, you will be guilty of plagiarism (on which, see below). However, providing references is not merely a matter of honesty. In writing an essay, project or dissertation, you will present information, make claims, cite arguments, and so on. Providing references is a way of indicating that what you say is based upon the relevant literature and that the claims you make are grounded in scholarly sources, so that what you say is well founded; you have not simply made it up or engaged in unfounded speculation. This does not mean that every sentence you write has to be referenced; your work will include ideas, arguments and suggestions that are authentically your own. It means simply that, in so far as your work is based upon a particular source, you should indicate what that source is. Students are strongly urged to reference with accuracy, failure to do so may result in marks being deducted.



What is a reference list and what is a bibliography?

A reference list should be provided at the end of your essay, project or dissertation and should list all the sources that you have used. In other disciplines a bibliography may be requested, and you may see the term ‘bibliography’ used like ‘reference list’. A bibliography however, is an alphabetical list of all the sources that have been drawn upon in writing an essay, project or dissertation, including references that have not explicitly been referred to in the text. In Health Sciences should only ever use a reference list and whatever sources you use, you will need to reference this in the body of your work (called a citation) as well as in the reference list at the end of you essay, project or dissertation.


Styles for citations and reference lists
There are two basic styles: one uses footnotes or endnotes (eg. Vancouver), the others uses ‘in-text’ references (eg. Harvard). For any particular piece of work, you should use one or other style; you should not mix them. The Vancouver and Harvard systems should be used in Health Sciences and are explained in this Guide. Before you compile your references check with your module leader/tutor if a particular style is preferred. You will find in books and journals many variations on these two basic styles, reflecting the different detailed conventions adopted by different publishers.
The Guide is not comprehensive and includes only the types of sources you will most commonly use for good quality work: journal articles, books, book sections and internet resources (however, be aware that if using internet sources you must select carefully and use only credible, preferably refereed sources. Sites such as ‘Wikipedia’ are not acceptable for university assignments). Decide which of the two styles you will use and check how you should cite the relevant item (book, journal article, etc) in the body of your work and in your reference list. You will probably find it is easiest to mimic the examples below and you will quickly learn how to cite sources so that you will not need constantly to refer to the Guide. More detailed information on referencing is available and you may find it useful to print copies of these guides to keep handy when writing. Go to:
www.library.uq.edu.au/training/citation/vancouv.pdf

www.library.uq.edu.au/training/citation/harvard_6.pdf
Plagiarism
Plagiarism is presenting someone else's arguments, concepts and ideas (e.g. lectures) or written work (e.g. books, articles, theses, dissertations, essays, Internet resources) as one’s own by not providing proper acknowledgement through appropriate references and – when direct quotations are involved – quotation marks. It is not enough to alter material from a source by a few changes, insertions or omissions. The inclusion of near verbatim matter without clear, detailed and specific acknowledgement counts as plagiarism.
Plagiarism is a serious offence – indeed, perhaps the most serious academic offence for a student -- and will be dealt with in accordance with the University’s General Regulations (section K8). Penalties range from having the piece of work in which there is plagiarism fail to being unable to graduate altogether. Plagiarism is unacceptable in presentations as well as in submitted written work. Please read section 10 of your MSc handbook for further information about plagiarism.
Being guilty of plagiarism is not dependent on the amount of material that is improperly acknowledged. While the greater the amount the more grave the offence, improperly acknowledging as little as a distinctive phrase or a sentence can comprise plagiarism.
This Guide provides direction on how to reference your material properly, depending upon which of the two approved and required styles you choose. To avoid plagiarism you must show from where you got the information, ideas and language you use in your argument. Only by following the referencing requirement set out here to the last detail can you be sure of avoiding this problem.
Proper referencing is made easier if you keep good records of your sources when you read and take notes from material you are using in your research:
When you take notes, always record with those notes the name of the author, title, place and date of publication, publisher and the relevant page(s).
When quoting directly from an article, book or other source ensure that you have used quotation marks – or, where applicable (see p. 4 of the guide), an indented quotation – in addition to a Harvard or Vancouver reference.
When you paraphrase material in your notes, always make sure that when you reproduce this in the essay, you cite the source.
If you are reading about one writer in another writer's piece, always cite the piece (the secondary source) you are actually using: do not cite the original unless you have consulted it.
Related to plagiarism is the use of identical work for more than one piece of assessment in the same module, or for another piece of work in another module. You may not submit the same piece of work for more than one assessment. While we encourage students to explore the intersection between different topics, and to build on and develop work you have already done, these aims cannot be used as an excuse for cutting corners and using the same work more than once. If information researched for one module is applicable to another, it must be properly referenced.

REFERENCE STYLE 1 – VANCOUVER

The Vancouver style is commonly used for medical and scientific journals. In the Vancouver style, citations within the text of your essay/paper are usually identified by Arabic numbers in round or square brackets, or by superscript numbers, for example


… the suggestion that "shared decision making may be difficult in practice" [1] is further documented in several qualitative studies of routine general practice [2-5]

Or

Smith 1 has argued that "shared decision making may be difficult in practice". Complications of shared decision making are documented in several qualitative studies of routine general practice 2-5



This applies to references in text, tables and figures.
At the end of the paper you should provide a reference list in numerical order that they are used for example


  1. Younis N, Soran HF, Farook S. The prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus: recent advances. QJM 2004;97(7): 451-55.

  2. Pollock R, Unwin N, Connolly V. Knowledge and practice of foot care in people with diabetes. Diabetes Res Clin Pract 2004;64(2): 113-7.



Vancouver in more detail: use the following guide to help you write references correctly. If there are sources not listed here, for example newspaper articles, please refer to the more detailed guide at

www.library.uq.edu.au/training/citation/vancouv.pdf

Journal articles


Examples:

Asencio G, Toro G, Burns P, Pimentel D, Peraza HD, Rivera C, et al. Using a multisectoral approach to assess HIV/AIDS services in the western region of Puerto Rico. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2006;96(6):995-1000.


Edwards A, Elwyn G, Mulley A. Explaining risks: turning numerical data into meaningful pictures. BMJ 2002;324(7341):827-30.


  • Use the abbreviated form for journal titles – see the following guide:

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/tsd/serials/terms_cond.html

(note: if using Endnote see information in the next section on abbreviated forms and endnote)



  • Only first words of the article title and words that normally begin with a capital letter are capitalised.

  • If more than 6 authors write et al. after the sixth author

  • If the journal has continuous page numbering, you may omit month/issue number

  • Note formatting; use of commas, full stops etc.


Books

Examples:

Marmot MG, Elliott P. Coronary heart disease epidemiology: from aetiology to public health. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2005.
Brownson RC, Remington PL, Davis JR, Mogensen CE, Standl E, Goleman D, et al. Chronic disease epidemiology and control. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association; 1993.
Goleman D, Gurin J, editors. Mind, body medicine: how to use your mind for better health. New York: Consumer Reports Books; 1993.


  • Author/Editor/Compiler's surname Initials. Title of the book. # ed.[if not 1st] Place of publication: Publisher's name; Year of publication.

  • Only first words of the article title and words that normally begin with a capital letter are capitalised. No italics or underlining

  • Note formatting; use of commas, full stops etc.



Chapter of part of a book


Example

Charmaz K. Grounded theory: objectivist and constructivist methods. In: Lincoln YS, Denzin NK, editors. Handbook of qualitative research. 2nd ed. London: Sage Publications; 2000. p. 509-35.




  • Author/Editor/Compiler's surname Initials. Title of the chapter. In: Author/Editor/Compiler's surname Initials. Title of the book. # ed.[if not 1st] Place of publication: Publisher's name; Year of publication. Page numbers of chapter.



Internet/electronic resources


Examples:

Department of Health. National Service Framework for Children, Young People and Maternity Services; 2004 [viewed 2005 September 5]; Available from: http://www.dh.gov.uk/assetRoot/04/08/92/22/04089222.pdf.


Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [serial online]. 2002 Jun [viewed 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 3 p.]. Available from: http://www.nursingworld.org/AJN/2002/june/Wawatch.htm


  • For example, websites like the Department of Health, or electronic journals.

  • Basically the same format as print sources, but because electronic sources are likely to change over time, you must cite when you accessed the information, and the web address.

  • Note in the second example the use of [about 3p.], this lets the reader know how many web pages the article or reference refers to.



Reference list

You should include all of the sources that you have drawn on for your essay, project or dissertation in your reference list. Any specific material you have used from authors must be referenced in the text and not simply included in the reference list.


The examples given above would appear in a reference list as follows.


REFERENCING STYLE 2 - HARVARD

The second style of referencing you may use is known variously as the author-date system or the Harvard system or ‘In-text’ referencing. In this system, there are no numbered notes for references; instead, references are given in the text and full details of those references are given in the list at the end of the essay, project or dissertation. Footnotes or endnotes can be used along with the author-date system, but they would be used to make observations on, or to clarify points in, the main text; they would not be used to cite references.


To give a reference using this system, you give the author’s last name, the year of publication, and the page number(s), all within brackets, immediately after the quotation or the point whose source you acknowledge. For example,
In this paper we draw on the analytic perspectives of ethnomethodology and conversation analysis (Garfinkel, 1967; Sacks, 1995).
Mander (1992, p.172) argues that medical professionals have colonised pain in labour in masculine terms as something ‘to be defeated’.

If you refer to a source in general, rather than to any particular part of it, do not include page numbers. E.g.


In a survey of 150 women recently diagnosed with breast cancer all participants reported routine self-examination (Beaver et al. 1996).

You can omit the author’s name from the bracketed reference, if you give that reference immediately after the author’s name in the text. E.g.


Beaver et al. (1996) surveyed 150 women recently diagnosed with breast cancer; all participants reported routine self-examination.
If you refer to two or more sources, include those within the same brackets. E.g.
(Beaver et al. 1996; Devries 2004)
If you refer to different publications of an author, both or all of which were published in the same year, add a lower case letter to the year to distinguish them. E.g.

(Elwyn 2002a; Elwyn 2002b)


Harvard in more detail: use the following guide to help you write references correctly. If there are sources not listed here, for example newspaper articles, please refer to the more detailed guide at

www.library.uq.edu.au/training/citation/harvard_6.pdf

Reference list using the Harvard system

You should include all of the sources that you have drawn on for your essay, project or dissertation in your reference list. Any specific material you have used from authors must be referenced in the text and not simply included in the reference list.


The reference list should be compiled alphabetically according to authors’ last names. The examples given below are distinguished by type of source (book, article, chapter, etc.) to indicate how you cite differently for different types of source. But, in presenting a reference list of written sources, you should provide a single list organised alphabetically according to the authors’ names, rather than one list for books, another for articles, and so on.

Journal article


Examples:

Asencio, G, et al. 2006, 'Using a multisectoral approach to assess HIV/AIDS services in the western region of Puerto Rico.' Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, vol. 96, no. 6, pp. 995-1000.


Edwards, A, et al. 2002, 'Explaining risks: turning numerical data into meaningful pictures', British Medical Journal, vol. 324, no. 7341, pp. 827-30.


  • Use the full form for journal titles

  • Only first words of the article title and words that normally begin with a capital letter are capitalised.

  • Title of the article in single quotation marks

  • Title of the journal is either italicised or underlined

  • Note formatting; use of commas, full stops etc.

Book


Examples

Marmot, MG & Elliott, P 2005, Coronary heart disease epidemiology: from aetiology to public health, 2nd edn, Oxford University Press, New York.


Brownson, RC et al. 1993, Chronic disease epidemiology and control, American Public Health Association, Washington, DC.
Goleman, D & Gurin, J (eds) 1993, Mind, body medicine: how to use your mind for better health, Consumer Reports Books, Yonkers, NY.


  • Author’s last name, initial(s) year of publication, Title of Book, publisher’s name, place of publication.



Chapter in an edited volume


Example

Charmaz, K 2000, 'Grounded theory: objectivist and constructivist methods', in YS Lincoln & NK Denzin (eds), Handbook of qualitative research, 2nd edn, Sage Publications, London, pp. 509-35.



  • Author’s last name, initial(s) year of publication, ‘Title of chapter’, in initial and last name of editor, (ed.) [or eds if plural] Title of Book, publisher’s name, place of publication, pp. [pages].



Internet sources


Examples

Department of Health 2004, National Service Framework for Children, Young People and Maternity Services, viewed September 5 2005, .


Abood, S 2002, Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role, viewed Aug 12 2002, .


  • For example, websites like the Department of Health, or electronic journals.

  • Basically the same format as print sources, but because electronic sources are likely to change over time, you must cite when you accessed the information, and the web address.


Reference list example

REFERENCING USING ENDNOTE
Endnote is a bibliographic software program that is accessible to all students on campus through the ISS windows 2000 clusters and is a useful tool for organising and using references. When used correctly it can significantly reduce the time taken to organise and compile reference lists and in-text referencing. It is a powerful tool for storing and organising your references, and you may even use it to record in your own words, summaries and ideas about articles you have read (use the notes section for this).
The library is a good source of information on endnote including training, accessibility issues and updates on campus, and support. For further details see:

http://www.ncl.ac.uk/library/workshops_endnote.php

The library also runs regular introductory courses on endnote and you are strongly advised to participate in one of these sessions. However there are also many good self-help introductions to endnote available through web sources. For example:


http://www.library.uq.edu.au/endnote/how_use.html
For Health Sciences we offer the following advice to students using endnote and recommend the University of Queensland on-line resources on endnote as a comprehensive source of information and support. In addition to the information on referencing above, you may find the following information useful.
Inputting information into endnote

It is important when using endnote that you input information in a form that the computer program can recognise in order that it will reformat it according to the style you desire. Consistency is key. You may find that if you download references direct from university libraries or databases into your endnote library that the formats may need to be altered. Not all ‘ filters’ for downloading references use the same formatting thus it is important to check any references that you download very carefully. Capitalisation and different uses of punctuation are key areas that can cause problems when you come to output your reference lists. You should always check all references carefully, however if you are using the same databases or universities regularly you may be able to download a filter that will format the information correctly. See



http://www.library.uq.edu.au/endnote/filters.html
Revisions to styles

It is important to note that styles such as Vancouver and Harvard may be slightly different between universities and different versions of endnote styles. The most important thing is to be consistent with the style you use. For Health Sciences we recommend that you do the following:


On your H drive, create a folder called ‘bibliographies’ in which to store your endnote libraries

In the bibliographies folder, create a sub-folder called ‘styles’


Then, go to the following site

http://www.library.uq.edu.au/endnote/styles.html
Scroll down until you see a table of styles with download links.

1. For Harvard

Go to the latest edition of AGPS Style, check which version of endnote you have on your computer and follow the instructions to download the appropriate version. Save to your ‘styles’ folder.

2. For Vancouver

Go to the latest edition of AGPS Style, check which version of endnote you have on your computer and follow the instructions to download the appropriate version. Save to your ‘styles’ folder.
Once you have saved the styles you wish to use (and you may save multiple styles and select which to wish to use depending on your requirements), you need to open your endnote library and create a link to the styles. To do this:
Open your endnote library

1. From the Edit menu, choose Preferences.

2. Click the Folder Locations tab.

3. In the Styles section, click the Select Folder button.

4. In the dialog that appears, open the styles folder that you have created.

5. Click Choose.


To use the styles

  1. Go to Edit/outputstyles/open style manager

  2. Select ‘mark all’ and close the dialogue box

You are now able to format your bibliographies according to any of the style you have in your styles folder. To do this, go to Edit/output styles and select which style you wish to use. You can see a preview of how the style will appear under the library (if the preview does not appear select ‘show preview’ on the bottom right of the open dialogue box).


The Vancouver style and abbreviated forms

The following site offers a download option that enables you to configure your endnote libraries to automatically recognise and abbreviate journal titles according to your needs. Follow the instructions as given.


http://www.library.uq.edu.au/endnote/medical_journal_titles_6.html

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