Modern history of japan (1868-1953)

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JAPAN (1868-1953)



JAPAN (1868-1953)

Edited by :

K. T. S. Sarao


Published by:


221, Rama Market, Pitam Pura,

New Delhi-110034



First Edition 1999
K. T. S. Sarao

(No part of this publication ca,n be reproduced in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the author and the publishers)

ISBN -81 -87116-11-0

Price : Rs. 120/-

Laser Typeset by :

Macnid Software Services

221, Rama Market, Pitam Pura

Delhi -110034, Phone : 7025503


PhD(DU); PhD(Cantab); FRAS(London)
Off: Head, Deptt. of Buddhist Studies

University of Delhi, Delhi-110007

Res: B-194, MP Enclave,

Opp. Chander Lok, Pitam Pura

Delhi- 110 034

Tel: Res: 7189084




The idea of bringing out an edited text book in Hindi on the Modern History of Japan, was mooted more than a decade ago. But unfortunately not many people took any interest in it. Hardly anybody was prepared to write in Hindi! Finally, I was asked by some friends to do the job. This was towards the beginning of academic session 1990-91. About thirty teachers teaching Far Eastern history in various colleges were contacted. Most of whom agreed to write chapters for the book, but only in English. Only two or three were prepared to supply the Hindi version of their chapters. Unfortunately even these commitments were not kept by most. Of the original contributors only five honoured the promise to submit their chapters. Others simply

played a game of hide and seek till I gave up. This resulted in terrible time losses apart from the personal difficulty which I had to face in chasing around some of them. So new contributors and then still more contributors had to be found. In the end, it was felt that promises are basically made to be broken. Two years were wasted only in collecting chapters written in English. Some of the chapters were utterly awful and had to be dropped, and still some of the chapters are bad and perhaps shall have to be dropped in the next edition.
After the material was collected from different contributors, began the work of getting the chapters translated into Hindi. With the exception of six contributors, others failed to supply the Hindi translation. Of these six translated chapters, the translation of only two contributors was acceptable. The translation supplied by other contributors had to be discarded as careless and nonsensical. No funds were available for getting the material translated from an expert. Thus, the only way out was that I should translate the chapters all by myself. Honestly, my Hindi is quite bad, it being my fourth language. I have taken help from friends, especially my wife Sunita. But still it goes without saying that there are too many errors. This edition is only a limited one with 300 copies published out of which 200 shall be passed around as complimentary and for suggestions and comments for improvement.
To say the least, this book suffers from various shortcomings. Some chapters are substandard and shall have to be either seriously revised or dropped altogether. Further, the translation is quite faulty despite my best efforts. I shall be much obliged if you could please give suggestions for improvement so that a proper usable edition could be brough out. Critical comments shall be gratefully acknowledged.
Three precious years have been basically wasted in bringing this limited edition out. In the meanwhile, I have shifted from KM. College to the Department of Buddhist Studies. There were one or two other very important reasons for the delay.
Though, some minor topics in the shape of appendices have been included, there have been some others, which with some regret, had to be excluded. I must, however, make one thing quite clear. This book is not and cannot aspire to be a work of scholarship even in the vaguest sense. No such claims have been made that it is a monograph. It is only a text-book for B.A. (Hons) students.
I wish to take this opportunity to express my gratitude to Prof (Ms) P Bhatia, the Head of the Department of History for at least three things. First, for resurrecting the idea of doing something about the want of a text-book on the Far Eastern History, both in Hindi and English. Second, making sure that it finally sees the light of the day. Third and above all, her
willingness to help. In this sense major portion of the credit should go to her. However, needless to say, the errors and fallacies that may have perpetrated this text are largely mine, and perhaps to an extent that of the individual contributors.
Three others persons without whose help it would have been impossible to complete this task are my wife Sunita, Dr R.K. Rana (Dept of Buddhist Studies) and Ashwini Shankar (Deshbandhu College). Their contribution has been simply overwhelming, to say the least. Of course, I shall be failing in my duty, if I do not record my gratitude to those colleagues of mine, who have contributed their chapters to this book. Some of my friends particularly Meenlochna Vatts (Delhi College of Arts and Commerce), Anita Khatri (S.P.M. College), G. Balatchandirane (Deptt. of Chinese & Japanese Studies), Rajiv Ranjan (Deptt. of Chinese & Japanese Studies), Amrit Kaur Basra (Delhi College of Arts and Commerce), Anita Sharma (Deptt. of Chinese & Japanese Studies), Sanjay Verma (Kirori Mai College), Pooja Vijh (Dayal Singh College), Ashwani Shankar (Deshbandhu College), Shalini Singhal (College of Vocational Studies), Surendra Singh Chawla (B.R. Ambedkar College), -Indra Narain Singh (Deptt. of Buddhist Studies) took keen interest in the final realization of this project and I much appreciate their help. My students, including Vaishali Abbi, Shivani Dahiya and San tosh Kumar Rai also deserve my appreciation for the odd jobs

that they did for me in the preparation of this book.

Lastly, I am indebted to Jarnail. Anu, Neha, Nidhi Kanika and above all Kaniska for keeping me sane while the book was being prepared.
New Delhi K.T.S. SARAO

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