Методическое пособие по английскому языку для студентов 4 курса, обучающихся по программе бакалавриата



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Part One

Questions 1-12

  • You will hear a college lecturer talking to a class of business students about a supermarket chain.

  • As you listen, for questions 1-12, complete the notes, using up to three words or a number. After you have listened once, replay the recording.


WILLIAMS SUPERMARKET CHAIN

  1. Initially, Sharon Tucker was Williams's

  2. The company's programme of its outlets was unsuccessful.

  3. Last six months: \ 0% increase in

  4. Tucker decided against policy of used by rivals.

  5. The high-low strategy that Tucker introduced is usually called " ".

  6. Williams calls its special offers the company's" ".

  7. The company delivers to homes in the area of the stores.

  8. Example of special offer: for half normal price.

  9. Difficult to ensure that are adequate to cope with demand.

  1. Success of sales strategy is due to planning and the fact that…………………. is not centralised.

  1. Williams is now concentrating on selling

12 Williams is planning to extend ………………………..of stores.
Part Two

Questions 13-22

  • You will hear five people talking about a mistake they made at work, and about how they responded afterwards.

  • For each extract there are two tasks. For Task One, choose the mistake that each person made, from the list A-H. For Task Two, choose the way in which they responded afterwards from the list A-H.

  • After you have listened once, replay the recording.


Task One - What mistake did they make?

  • For questions 13-17, match the extracts with the mistake that each person says they made, listed A-H.

  • For each extract, choose the mistake that the person made.

  • Write one letter (A-H) next to the number of the extract.




13

14

15

16

17

A

I forgot to include some costs.

В

I didn't calculate the cash flow.

С

I miscalculated a time schedule.

D

I appointed the wrong person.

E

I gave out-of-date information.

F

I didn't check someone else's work adequately.

G

I complained through inappropriate channels.

H

I didn't allow for a rise in the inflation rate.


Task Two - How did they respond?

  • For questions 18-22, match the extracts with how each speaker says they responded afterwards, listed A-H.

  • For each extract, choose the response.

  • Write one letter (A-H) next to the number of the extract.




18

19

20

21

22

A

by having my work checked by someone else

В

by becoming less impulsive

С

by accepting that 1 was responsible for others

D

by setting timetables for projects

E

by setting up regular meetings

F

by resigning from the company

G

by introducing a regular written update

H

by arranging to change jobs within the company


PART THREE

  • You will hear a discussion between two managers, Jane and Oliver, about recent changes within the company where they work.

  • For each question (23-30), mark one letter (А, В or C) for the correct answer.

  • After you have listened once, replay the recording.




  1. Jane says the changes are being introduced in response to

A a decrease in sales.

В the threat of a takeover.

С the level of staff turnover.

  1. Jane says the ideas for the changes

A were initiated by the leadership group.

В resulted from the expansion of the team system.

С were developed in conjunction with a firm of management consultants.

  1. Referring to the skills audit, what problem does she mention?

A Its findings were not acted upon.

В It included too many details.

С Its results were inaccurate.

  1. What criticism of the new divisional targets does she make?

A They focus exclusively on product sales.

В They are too high for her department.

С They ignore seasonal fluctuations.

  1. She says the suggestions scheme would be better if suggestions were

A financially rewarded.

В more widely publicised.

С encouraged from temporary staff.

  1. Who does she say performance reviews should take into account?

A suppliers

В competitors

С customers

  1. She expects the new training programmes to be popular because they

A provide a wider choice of topics.

В involve a greater use of technology.

С have more flexible timetables.

  1. She believes that, within a year, the various changes will be

A fully integrated into company practice.

В subject to a review process.

С adopted by competitors.


Appendices
Appendix 1 Common European Framework


Council of Europe Framework Level

Equivalent Main Suite Exam




A1




Elementary

A2

Key English Test (KET)

Preliminary

B1

Preliminary English Test (PET)

Intermediate

B2

First Certificate in English (FCE)

Upper-Intermediate

C1

Certificate in Advanced English (CAE)

Advanced

C2

Certificate of Proficiency in English (CPE)

Proficiency


Appendix 2 What is special about academic English?
A Everyday words and academic uses

Many words in academic English are the same as everyday vocabulary, but they are often also used with a slightly different meaning, which may be specialised.




everyday or academic use

meaning

academic use

meaning

Standards of discipline in

schools have declined.


ability to control oneself or other people

Nanotechnology is a relatively new discipline.

area of study

Underline your family name on the form.

draw a line under it

The research underlines the

importance of international trade agreements.

gives emphasis to

The lake was frozen solid.

not liquid or gas

We have no solid evidence that radiation has caused the problem.

certain or safe; of a good standard


B Vocabulary and academic style

In writing, academics use many expressions which are neutral, but they also use rather formal expressions which are not common in everyday language. Knowing whether an expression is formal or just neutral is important.



neutral

more formal

neutral

more formal

in short, briefly, basically

in sum, to sum up

try

attempt

only

sole(ly)

mainly/mostly

primarily

almost / more or less

virtually

typical of

characteristic of

However, very informal vocabulary may be used in spoken academic styles in classes and lectures. Learn to understand such language when you hear it but be careful not to use it in essays and written assignments. Here are some examples of teachers using informal language. 'OK. Have a shot at doing task number 3.' [more formal: Try/Attempt to do ...] 'There's no way schools can be held responsible for failures of government policy.' [more formal: Schools cannot in any way be held ...] • Academic language tries to be clear and precise, so it is important to keep a vocabulary notebook (see page 8) and learn the differences between similar words, as well as typical word combinations (underlined here).

The building is a prime example of f 920s architecture, [excellent in quality or value] The group's primary concern is to protect human rights, [main / most important]
C Noun phrases

Academic language puts a lot of information into noun phrases rather than spreading it out over a whole sentence. For example, instead of saying Radiation was accidentally released over a 24-hour period, damaging a wide area for a long time, an academic might say The accidental release of radiation over a 24-hour period caused widespread long-term damage. It is therefore important to learn the different forms of a word, for example:




noun

verb

adjective(s)

adverb(s)

accident




accidental

accidentally

quantity/quantification

quantify

quantitative/quantifiable

quantitatively/quantifiably

Finally, be aware of 'chunks' or phrases which occur frequently, and learn them as whole units. Examples: in terms of, in addition, for the most part, in the case of, etc. (See Unit 16.)


Appendix 3 Abbreviations

Abbreviations are frequently found in an academic context. Here are some which are common in academic writing.




abbreviation

stands for

example or comment

e.g.

for example (from Latin, exempli gratia)

Many large mammals, e.g. the African elephant, the black rhino and the white rhino ...

i.e.

that is (from Latin, id est)

Higher earners, i.e. those with a monthly salary in excess of £3,000 ...

etc.

and so on (from Latin, et cetera)

Smaller European countries - Slovenia, Slovakia, Estonia, etc. - had different interests.

NB

note carefully (from Latin, noto bene)

NBYou must answer all the questions on this page.

et al

and others (from Latin, et alii)

used when giving bibliographical reference, e.g. as mentioned in T. Potts et al (1995)

ibid.

in the same place as the preceding footnote (from Latin, ibidem)

1 Lee (1987) History of Tea-Drinking in Europe

2 ibid.

cf

compare (from Latin, confer)

cf Lofstedt (2005) for a different approach to this topic

q.v.

which you can see (from Latin, quod vide)

used to refer the reader to another part of a book or article for further information

op. cit.

see previously quoted work by author (from Latin, opus citatum)

Potts op. cit. 33-54

ed.

editor

used when giving bibliographical reference

vol.

volume

used when giving bibliographical reference

p-

page

in the article referred to above (p. 43), Smith claims ...

pp-

pages

See McKinley 1990 pp.1 1-19


Appendix 4 Making presentations

The language of presentations often contains less formal vocabulary than that of academic writing, so take care not to use the less formal expressions in your written work.



Getting started
'In this presentation I'd like to focus on recent developments in biomass fuels. I'll speak for about 45 minutes, to allow time for questions and comments. Feel free to1 interrupt if you have any questions or want to make a comment.'

'First I'll give a brief overview of the current situation with regard to intellectual property rights, then I'd like to raise a few issues concerning the internet. I'll try to leave2 time for questions at the end.'

'I'd like to begin by looking at some previous studies of ocean temperatures. There's a handout going round3, and there are some spare4 copies here if you want them.' 'In this talk I'll present the results of a study I did5 for my dissertation. I'll try not to go over time and keep to 20 minutes.'

' an informal way of giving permission 2 less formal than allow 3 a more formal version would be which is being distributed 4 extra 5 or, more formal, carried out I conducted


During the presentation - and closing it


Now let's turn to the problem of workplace stress.

1 begin to examine or talk about

Moving on, I'd like to look at the questionnaire results in more detail.

2 going on to the next point; less formal than in greater detail

I also want to talk about the supply of cfean water, but I'll come back to that later.

3 or, more formal, return to

I'd just like to go back to the graph on the previous slide.

4 or, more formal, return to

Anyway, getting back to / to return to the question of inflation, let's look at the Thai economy.

5 getting back to is less formal than to return to

The results were not very clear. Having said that, I feel the experiment was worthwhile.

6 a less formal way of saying nevertheless

I'll skip the next slide as time is (running) short.

7 skip (informal) = leave out / omit

To sum up, then, urban traffic has reached a crisis. That's all I have to say*. Thank you for listening.

8 have no more time left * informal - not used in writing

Well, I'll stop there as I've run out of time. Thank you.

9 have no time left

Dr Woichek will now take questions*. Are there any questions or comments?

10 rather formal = accept and answer questions







Making Presentation

A Mind Map

Appendix 5 Nouns of Greek or Latin origin


Singular

Plural

criterion


criteria



phenomenon

phenomena




datum

data

medium

media (mediums)

memorandum

memoranda (memorandums)

symposium

symposia (symposiums)




crisis

crises

analysis

analyses

basis

bases

axis

axes

hypothesis

hypotheses

thesis

theses




stimulus

stimuli

nucleus

nuclei (nucleuses)

radius

radii




formula

formulae (formulas)




index

indices (indexes)


Practice

criterion / phenomenon

  1. Gravity is a natural _____________.

  2. The Health Service should not be judged by financial _____________ alone.

  3. Do you believe in the paranormal and other psychic _____________?

  4. She uses the only ______________ to judge a good wine.


datum / medium / memorandum / symposium

  1. The _____________ on European cinema is being currently held in France.

  2. _____________ are really helpful for scientists who want to meet and talk about certain areas of science.

  3. Now the _____________ is being transferred from magnetic tape to hard disk.

  4. The ____________ of dance is a good way of telling a story.

  5. ____________ are notes from one employee to another within the same firm or organization.

  6. Mass ___________ are chiefly financed by the private sponsors.

  7. Michael Davis has prepared a _____________ outlining our need for an additional warehouse.



crisis / analysis / basis / axis / hypothesis / thesis

  1. Their main ____________ was that crisis was inevitable.

  2. In common usage, _________ are known to be the main ideas, opinions or theories of a person or group.

  3. ____________ provide a chance to see how good the country's leadership is.

  4. A mediator has been called in to resolve the ______________.

  5. This document will form the _____________ for our discussion.

  6. Their proposals have no proven scientific ___________.

  7. Chemical ____________ revealed a high content of copper.

  8. I was interested in Clare's _____________ of the situation.

  9. Several ____________ for global warming have been suggested.

  10. She presented her own ______________ of the market’s downturn.

  11. The Earth revolves about the _____________ which joins the North and South Poles.

  12. Please, plot distance and time measurements on the vertical and horizontal _____________.


stimulus / nucleus / radius

  1. The central part of an atom, usually made up of protons and neutrons is called a ___________.

  2. These nine players must form the three ______________ of revised and stronger teams.

  3. Foreign investment has been a _____________ to the industry.

  4. The book will provide some ____________ to research in this very important area.

  5. The ____________ of this wheel is 30 cm.

  6. ____________ are the straight lines joining the centre of circles to their edges or the centre of spheres to their surfaces.


formula

  1. We have changed the __________ of the washing powder.

  2. We had to learn chemical ____________ at school, but I can only remember H2O for water.


index

  1. Try looking up 'heart disease' in the ____________.

  2. _____________ are alphabetical lists, such as one printed at the back of a book showing which page a subject, name, etc. is found on.


Appendix 6 Numbers, units of measurement and common symbols

You know how to say all the numbers in English. Here we look at how combinations of numbers are said aloud.

BrE = British English AmE = North American English
Fractions

Fractions are normally spoken as in these examples:




½

a (one) half

¼

a (one) quarter

¾

three quarters



a (one) eighth



two thirds

¼ kilometre

a quarter of a kilometre

½ centimetre

half a centimetre

Complex fractions and expressions of division are usually said with over.



27

200

twenty-seven over two hundred

twenty-seven divided by two hundred



Decimals

Decimals are normally spoken as in these examples:

0.36 nought point three six (BrE) zero point three six (AmE)

5.2 five point two


Percentages

Percentages are spoken as per cent.

16.3% sixteen point three per cent
Calculations

Calculations are normally said in the following ways:




7 + 3

= 10

seven and three is/are ten (informal) seven plus three equals ten (more formal)

28-6

= 22

six from twenty-eight is/leaves twenty-two (informal) twenty-eight minus six equals twenty-two (more formal)

8X2

= 16

eight twos are sixteen (informal BrE)

eight times two is sixteen (informal) (the most common form in AmE)

eight by two is/equals sixteen (informal)

eight multiplied by two equals/is sixteen (more formal)

27 ∕ 9

= 3

twenty-seven divided by nine equals three

500 ± 5




five hundred plus or minus five

>300 <200




greater than three hundred

less than two hundred

32 =

9

free squared is/equals nine

√ 16 =

4

the (square) root of sixteen is four

33 =

27

three cubed is/equals twenty-seven

3√ 8 =

2

the cube root of eight is two

24 =

16

two to the power of 4 is/equals sixteen (AmE = two to the fourth power)


Units of measurement

Although the metric system is now common in the UK and other English-speaking countries, non-metric units are still used in many contexts, especially in the USA.



Units of length and distance are normally spoken as follows:

3 in, 3"

three inches

2 ft 7 in, 2' 7"

two feet seven inches (or, very informally, two foot seven inches)

500 yds

five hundred yards

3 m (AmE = 3 mi.)

three miles

500 mm

five hundred millimetres (or, more informally, five hundred m-m)

1.5 cm

one point five centimetres

Units of area are normally spoken as follows:

11 sqft

eleven square feet

5 sq m, 5m2

five square metres

7.25 cm2

seven point two five square centimetres

Units of weight are

normally spoken as follows:

3 oz

three ounces

5 lb

five pounds

300 g

three hundred grams

18.75 kg

eighteen point seven five kilograms

Units of volume, capacity and temperature are normally spoken as follows:

300 cc

three hundred cubic centimetres (or, less formally, three hundred c-c

5 pt

five pints

3.2 gal

three point two gallons

75 cl

seventy-five centilitres

200 1

two hundred litres

20°

twenty degrees


Common symbols

& 'ampersand' - this symbol is read as 'and'

* asterisk

© copyright symbol

™ trademark symbol

® registered trademark

• bullet point

۷ BrE = tick; AmE = check

X BrE = cross; AmE = an 'X'

# BrE = hash symbol (Note: in American English, this symbol is used for numbers, e.g. #28 AmE; no. 28 BrE)

@ this symbol is read as 'at' - used in email addresses

∞ infinity symbol

" this symbol is read as 'ditto' - used in lists to avoid writing a word if the same word is written immediately above it
Appendix 7 Assessing your writing

Task 1.

Look at the Writing task below and compare the two sample answers.


WRITING TASK 1

The graph below gives information about changes in the birth and death rates in New Zealand between 1901 and 2101. Write a report for a university lecturer describing the information shown below. Write at least 150 words




Sample A

The graph gives information about changes in the birth and death rates in New Zealand between 1901 and 2101.

In 1901 the birth rate was 20,000 and the death rate was 9,000. In 1961 the birth rate reached a peak of 66,000 while the death rate was 23,000. In 2001 there were 55,000 births and 38,000 deaths, and in 2061 there were 60,000 deaths and 48,000 births.

At the end of the period there were 58,000 deaths and 45,000 births.

Both the birth and death rates changed between 1901 and 2101. Perhaps this was because a lot of people did not want to have children.

(105)
This is a weak answer which would score a low band.

Problems:


  • underlength

  • introduction is copied from task

  • no comparison between figures

  • no focus on general trends

  • no reference to the future (see projection on graph)

  • conclusion tries to explain information rather than summarise it

  • poor linking of ideas (only done by time markers)

  • limited range of grammar and vocabulary

Sample B

The graph shows changes in the birth and death rates in New Zealand since 1901, and forecasts trends up until 2101.

Between 1901 and the present day, the birth rate has been consistently higher than the death rate. It stood at 20,000 at the start of this period and increased to a peak of 66,000 in 1961. Since then the rate has fluctuated between 65 and 50 thousand and it is expected to decline slowly to around 45,000 births by the end of the century.

In contrast, the death rate started below 10,000 and has increased steadily until the present time. This increase is expected to be more rapid between 2021 and 2051 when the rate will probably level off at around 60,000, before dropping slightly in 2101.

Overall, these opposing trends mean that the death rate will probably overtake the birth rate in around 2041 and the large gap between the two levels will be reversed in the later part of this century.

This is a strong answer which would score a high band:



Good points:

  • fulfils criteria for length

  • introduction is paraphrased.

  • main sets of data are compared and contrasted

  • clear focus on the different trends.

  • important features of the graph, (e.g. cross-over point) included

  • information summarised in conclusion

  • well organised information

  • range of linkers and referencing expressions

  • good range of vocabulary and structures, used accurately

1 This reference focuses on some frequent and important nouns in academic English.



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