Методическое пособие по английскому языку для студентов 4 курса, обучающихся по программе бакалавриата

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Part One

Questions 1-8

Look at the statements below and the reports about five different companies. Which company (А, В, C, D or E) does each statement (1-8) refer to? For each statement (1-8), mark one letter (А, В, C, D or E) on your Answer Sheet. You will need to use some of these letters more than once. There is an example at the beginning (0).

0 This company has outlets in new types of location. __C__

  1. This company has expanded at a time of high demand.

  2. Good results in one part of this company made up for disappointing results in another part.

  3. It is difficult to predict future prospects for the kind of products this company sells.

  4. Profits for this company are likely to be different from those that were earlier predicted.

  5. This company produced more goods than were needed for certain markets.

  6. This company has denied rumours about its future plans.

  7. A recovery in this company's financial position is expected.

This company is likely to benefit from charging more for its products.

Following the company's poor annual results in November, the share price plunged and has since remained around 200p. Analysts now believe that the company is seriously undervalued by the stock market. The company's biggest problems were in Germany and France last year where supply outstripped demand, leading to a £20 million loss for the year. However, the company has recently appointed a new chairman who has a first-rate track record of reviving failing companies. It is believed that he will be successful in turning round the company's fortunes.


Analysts are impressed with the company's recent performance. In the last six months, it has managed to increase prices by 3 per cent without adversely affecting sales. In such a low-margin, high-sales sector, this ought to translate directly into increased profits. The company's recent sale of its packaging division has eliminated all its debts. Shares have risen in the past month from 80p to 100р. Despite these promising signs, it must be remembered that the company is trading in an extremely volatile market.


For some weeks, there has been widespread expectation that the company will announce the sale of its troubled newspaper-and-magazine distribution arm. Speculation came to an end when this was firmly ruled out as a possibility at the annual general meeting last week. Profits from this division were down from £13 million to £8 million. However, this drop was more than offset by an improvement in the company's retail division, which has taken the innovative step of opening stores in places such as hospitals and colleges. Profits in this division rose from…


The company has had steady growth prospects since it opened four more upmarket hotels and several health and fitness clubs. This move has come at a time when the market is particularly buoyant. There were rumours that the company might become the subject of a takeover bid by one of the large American corporations. However, this has not materialised, and it now seems unlikely that any such bids will be made in the immediate future. This is expected to lead to…


The company has always been popular with shareholders as, for the past ten years, it has consistently provided them with above average returns. Profits for the first half of the year were up by 15 per cent. Development profits from some 30 projects around the country will provide a balanced stream of earnings in the second half of the year. Given this, and the sale of a loss-making division in Bradford, pre-tax profit forecasts have been increased to £21 million and …

Part Two

Questions 9-14

Read this text taken from the results of a survey on employees' priorities at work in the UK. Choose the best sentence from the list below to fill each of the gaps. For each gap (9-14), mark one letter (A-H). Do not use any letter more than once. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Employees say one thing and do another, a recent UK-based report claims. ….(0) ..... Addressing these problems is especially important when there are skills shortages, and companies are trying hard to retain the workers they have. According to the report, there is a consistent discrepancy between what really attracts staff and keeps them, and what they say are priorities.

The report found that, although there are differences in preferences, depending on age, home country and gender, all age groups say they rate the work/life balance as an extremely important consideration for staying with their particular company. (9)……..This is followed by job security and financial rewards.

However, despite their proclamations about wanting a work/life balance, it was established that this does not have a positive effect on retention for any subgroup. Similarly, people profess to identify more closely with a company which has a clear strategy for success, but in fact that does not result in improved retention either. (10)……

Another finding was that it is the high-flyers in a company who are most likely to be ungrateful and leave. This is despite the fact that they are more likely to attract fast-track promotion, career development, training and financial rewards, which should be the glue to keep them loyal. (11)…….

All this makes life difficult for managers. (12)………. This is because they have to spend as much time creating an employment brand that attracts the best talent as they do in creating a consumer brand that builds customer loyalty.

That is all the more important for major companies, who, increasingly these days, are no longer viewed as the employer of choice by top graduates. (13)…….. This involves both corporate attitudes and individual encouragement. At corporate level, there is a need for a clear and convincing strategy for the business, and an innovative environment low in bureaucracy. One level down from that, there should be tasks that interest and challenge employees, and sharpen their skills. At individual level, profit-related bonuses go down well. (14)……..

Above all, companies should remember that since the requirements are different for the young, middle-aged and elderly, as well as for men and women, the package has to be enticing to the right target age and gender.

A Top executives find that they can no longer delegate personnel matters.
В That is possibly because they are most likely to find other jobs.
С What the report did conclude though, was that money, especially performance-related pay, does increase commitment, as do share options and profit-sharing.
D In addition, companies need to motivate key people with appropriate recognition and by giving them what they actually want, rather than just relying on an attractive basic salary, which can easily be matched by any other employer.
E Moreover, when it comes to choosing a job, women rate it even more highly than men.
F As a result, the report concludes that focusing on the top performers can be counterproductive because it can cause underdevelopment, underutilisation and demotivation of the rest of the workforce.
G The report reckons that in order to change this situation, a two-stage policy is required.
H This will come as no surprise to anyone involved with market research, but it is causing problems for employers trying to recruit staff.

Part Three

Questions 15-20

Read the following article about James Linton, CEO of RoCom, and the questions. For each question (15-20), mark one letter (А, В, С or D).
In the world of big business, James Linton is precocious in the extreme. Just two years into the job of reviving one of the most illustrious names in retail finance, RoCom, he has found himself a key player in one of the richest and certainly most audacious deals in the industry: PTL's takeover of RoCom.

PTL is paying £25 a share for RoCom - approximately 40 per cent more than the market value of the shares - and its offer document boasted that 'PTL attaches great importance to key employees having appropriate, performance-related remuneration'. Initially wary about the takeover, Linton has now negotiated a hands-off agreement with PTL, which confirms its intention to leave him very much to his own devices to continue building the business. All this and he will not turn 38 for another fortnight!

Although Linton is credited with turning RoCom around, this is more a matter of work in progress than actual achievement. Yet he does seem to have instituted the biggest top-level shake-up in its near 70-year history, promoted some big-hitters amongst key staff and transformed RoCom's way of doing business.

Linton has, however, warned that the takeover is by no means a guarantee of future success; indeed, deteriorat­ing market conditions suggest that the way forward will be anything but smooth. Linton recently ventured the hypothesis that being shareholder-owned had, in recent years, helped the business focus and argued that the sector's experience of rival takeovers was not encouraging. Indeed, the recently reported performance of rival organisations such as Maften Limited has not promoted the notion that big corporations are happy homes for experienced staff and managers such as Linton.

It may have been his ideas about independence that made Linton address RoCom's 900 staff on the day the takeover was announced, rather than doing high-profile media interviews on what was immediately seen as a fantastic deal for share­holders. He is acutely aware of the need to nurture his staff if the business is to succeed, something which is not lost on them. This is not a management-school dictum. It is a genuine belief that every member of staff has contributed to the firm and enabled it to net £1.9 billion from PTL. Other CEOs say he is arrogant, but this probably reflects the fact that Linton may find talking to them difficult. He is also ferociously intelligent, and, while in others this could appear intimidating, in Linton it awakes further admiration amongst loyal employees. They clearly do not feel they have to grovel in front of this mastermind, and claim that although he's incredibly dedicated to his work, he has an affable manner.

Linton boasts that staff turnover rates at RoCom have remained low for the industry, at about 12 per cent since he took over as CEO two years ago. 'People have a real affection for RoCom, and that runs right through the office here. They all want us to be number one,' he says. He is aware of the possibility that the collegiate ethos he has worked so hard to create, the meritocracy on which he thinks much of RoCom's success depends, could be destroyed if PTL is too heavy-handed. He will need all his skills to keep RoCom on course, particularly when attention has immediately focused on the possibility that Susan Marshall, its respected investment chief, might be the first casualty of the takeover. Whatever the future holds for RoCom, we are certain to go on hearing a lot more of James Linton

  1. What is PTL doing, according to the second paragraph?

A allowing Linton to run RoCom in the way he wishes to

В purchasing almost half of the RoCom shares on offer

С giving all RoCom staff regular bonuses to promote motivation

D drawing up new employment contracts for RoCom employees

  1. What do we learn about Linton's work at RoCom in the third paragraph?

A He has achieved more than anyone in RoCom's history.

В He has widened the range of RoCom's business activities.

С He has taken on a number of new employees.

D He has made changes to senior management.

  1. What does Linton say about RoCom in the fourth paragraph?

A The company is likely to face difficult times.

В The company has lost a number of experienced staff.

С The company is expecting to report encouraging results shortly.

D The company needs to change its focus to remain competitive.

  1. Which of the following is said about Linton's management style?

A He involves others in the decision-making process.

В His staff find him approachable.

С He expects his staff to work as hard as he does.

D His style differs from that of other CEOs.

  1. How does Linton feel about the takeover, according to the sixth paragraph?

A pleased that staff turnover finally started to fall two years ago

В afraid that he will lose his job to Susan Marshall

С worried that the company culture might change

D happy that employees have been so supportive of his work

  1. Which of the following would be the best title for the article?

A The Linton way of getting the best from staff

В A thin line between success and failure for James Linton

С James Linton - a man who will go far

D How a good idea went wrong for James Linton
Part Four

Questions 21-30

Read the extract below from a book about corporate planning. Choose the correct word to fill each gap from А, В, С or D. For each question (21-30), mark one letter (А, В, С or D). There is an example at the beginning (0).

Corporate planning may be (0) …..A…… as the careful and systematic taking of strategic decisions. In contrast to a short-term plan like a budget, a corporate plan is concerned with taking a long-term (21)………….. of future developments and with designing a strategy so that the organisation can achieve its chosen objectives. Many large companies now recognise the importance of (22) ……..a formal approach to developing a corporate plan. They prepare 'scenarios' or forecasts of future developments in the (23) ………… in which they wish to operate, in order to examine whether decisions taken in the present will result in success in the future. In recent years, companies have been developing more sophisticated (24) ………… with which to analyse the risks involved in such decisions.

(25) ……………, for example, an oil company deciding if it should invest in a new refinery. Faced with this decision, involving the (26)………… of millions of pounds on something which might have a life of 15 years or more, the company must have a sound basis for its decision. In this case, it needs to know whether it can be (27) ……….. of a market for the extra volume of its refined products, and it needs to know whether they can be produced profitably. In addition, it is necessary to study the
(28) ………… of crude oil and other supplies needed in the process.

Corporate planning, therefore, involves three main areas: (29) ………….. the long-term objectives of an organisation, deciding what market (30) ………. there may be and formulating a product policy to satisfy them.



























































































Part Five

Questions 31-40

Read the newspaper article below about entrepreneurs. For each question (31-40), write one word. There is an example at the beginning (0).

Who wants (0) ….to……be an entrepreneur? Just about everybody - or (31) ………… it seems these days. The values of entrepreneurship are hailed everywhere, (32)……………. the more enterprising small shop owner to the boardrooms of multinationals. Entrepreneurs are seen as the true 'wealth creators' and as the initiators of change. They are often creative and always self-driven, and

(33) ………….a result, they and the companies they head possess a sense of vision which larger, more amorphous organisations often aim for but hardly ever achieve. So how do you become one? The received wisdom is that entrepreneurs with talents (34) ………… as these are a breed apart. They are born, not formed through education.

If that's (35) ……….. case, then is there any point in going to business school to learn how to become an entrepreneur, as many do? There are trainers who think it's perfectly feasible. They compare it to training an opera singer (36) ………. the sense that for singers, natural talent is essential, but then trainers instruct and develop it. The (37) ………. goes for would-be entrepreneurs. Trainers develop their skills and impart knowledge. In (38) ……... words, so the argument goes, to be trained, you must be the right kind of person to start with.What is such a person's essential characteristic? It is the ability to distinguish between acceptable and unacceptable levels of risk and act accordingly. That more than (39) ………… else marks entrepreneurs out from others (40) …….. preference is for the safer option of a salaried and structured career.


The graph below shows passenger revenue (in ₤m) and the percentage of trains arriving on time for a train company, Cruiseline, for each quarter of a two-year period, 2005-2006.

Using the information from the graph, write a short report describing the passenger revenue and the percentage of trains arriving on time during the two-year period.

Write 120-140 words.

Part One

Questions 1-12

You will hear an adviser giving a talk to a group of purchasing managers about how to make good use of visits to trade fairs. As you listen, for questions 1-12, complete the notes using up to three words or a number. After you have listened once, replay the recording.

Before booking:

  1. Try to obtain the which is free;

  2. Study the carefully.

  3. Use the to help you find suitable accommodation.

  4. From the Information Pack, retain visitor names and the

  5. Remember to pack a

  6. Take plenty of

  7. Take several of your

  8. On arrival at the fair; first visit the

  9. Use the' ' to help you choose appropriate stands to visit.

  1. Stands belonging to smaller companies often display

  2. Ask about which are not always advertised.

12 Don't wait longer than……………………………to be contacted after a trade fair
Part Two

Questions 13-22

You will hear five different people talking about a project they carried out at work, and their experience while carrying it out. For each extract, there are two tasks. For Task One, choose the purpose of the project from the list A-H. For Task Two, choose the person's experience from the list A-H. After you have listened once, replay the recording.
Task One - Purpose of project

  • For questions 13-17, match the extracts with the purpose of the project, listed A-H.

  • For each extract choose the purpose of the project that the person carried out.

  • Write one letter (A-H) next to the number of the extract.

13 ……………………

14 ……………………

15 ……………………

16 ……………………

17 ……………………


to make changes to the Marketing Department


to propose changes in managers' responsibilities


to implement a programme of redundancies


to automate the production process


to introduce a staff development system


to improve the company's distribution system


to attract other domestic market segments


to expand the company's geographical coverage

Task Two - Experience of project

  • For questions 18-22, match the extracts with the experience, listed A-H.

  • For each extract, choose the experience that the person had while doing the project.

  • Write one letter (A-H) next to the number of the extract.

18 ……………………

19 ……………………

20 ……………………

21 ……………………

22 ……………………


I felt that other employees didn't co-operate with me.


The documents I wanted didn't exist.


My terms of reference were unclear.


The timescale was inadequate.


The project was not adequately funded.


Managers underestimated the difficulties of the project.


My colleagues objected to my being given the project.


I wanted to broaden the focus of the project.

Part Three

Questions 23-30

You will hear a discussion between two managers, Kathy and Duncan, who work in the Human Resources department of a company. For each question (23-30), mark one letter (А, В or C) for the correct answer. After you have listened once, replay the recording.

  1. Duncan thinks that a new employee is needed to

A assist in marketing activities.

В deal with customer enquiries.

С implement database changes.

  1. Kathy suggests that the new employee will have to

A work for several departments.

В undergo further training.

С delegate various duties.

  1. Kathy criticises the way in which

A vacancies are advertised.

В interviews are conducted.

С job specifications are changed.

  1. Duncan thinks many of the company's staff are dissatisfied with their

A salaries.

В workloads.

С holidays.

  1. In which area does Duncan believe proposals for change will be accepted?


В finance

С production

  1. Kathy says she is concerned about the

A make-up of teams.

В meeting of deadlines.

С lack of information.

  1. What does Duncan want to be introduced?

A an in-company newsletter

В a staff suggestion scheme

С an annual customer survey

  1. Kathy thinks that in the future company strategy will be driven by

A image building.

В export initiatives.

С on-line transactions.
Part One

Give a short talk on the following business topic. You have to choose one of the topics from the three below and then talk for about one minute. You have one minute to prepare your ideas.

A Product promotion: how to make effective use of the media when promoting a new product or service

В Information management: the importance of an effective internal communication system in a company

С Technology: the factors involved in assessing the cost-effectiveness of new technology
Part Two

You are given a discussion topic. You have 30 seconds to look at the task prompt, and then discuss the topic with your partner. After you have finished with the task, you will be asked some follow-on questions.

International Business Conference
The pharmaceutical company you work for is keen to participate in an international conference abroad. You have been asked to make recommendations about the company's participation.

Discuss and decide together:

  • how to select members of staff to represent the company at the conference

  • what practical arrangements would need to be made by the company before the conference

  • how the company should respond after the conference to interest shown in its products.

Follow-on questions

1 Would you like to take part in an international business conference? (Why?/Why not?)

2 In what ways do you think international conferences benefit a company?

3 What are the benefits for staff of attending international conferences?

4 What advantages are there for the city where an international conference is held?

5 Do you think conferences will continue to be an effective means of making business contacts? (Why?/Why not?)


1. Academic Vocabulary

Talking about Meaning
A The importance of meaning
Academic study in any subject inevitably requires precision with regard to the meanings of the terms1 used. Many textbooks provide a glossary2 of the terminology3 of the subject and this should be referred to frequently, whenever the meaning of some new term is not transparent4. Often there are subtle distinctions5 between the way in which a word is used in a non-academic context and the way in which it is used in a specific academic discipline and the student needs to be able to distinguish between these different senses6 of the same word. When writing an essay or an article it is often appropriate to begin by defining7 the key words relating to the topic. If this is not done then the reader may find the writing ambiguous8 and may misinterpret9 the text. In lectures, too, the audience will require the lecturer to clarify what they are saying by providing a definition of any unfamiliar terms. This is essential if the lecturer is to communicate their meaning in a clear and coherent10 way.

1 words or expressions used in relation to a specific context 2list of words with explanations of their meaning 3 special words or expressions used in relation to a specific subject 4 clear, often used when referring to meaning 5 small differences 6 meanings 7 explaining the meaning of 8 having more than one possible meaning 9 understand in the wrong way 10 carefully organised and making sense
B The power of words
Writers may use words to express ideas or to convey a message1 or to evoke2 an atmosphere3. In scientific discourse4, if words are not used precisely, then it is hard for the reader to comprehend5 what the writer is trying to say. In literature, especially in poetry, the connotations6 that words have may be at least as important if not more important than what those words denote7. The reader has to infer8 the poet's meaning and this may involve a sensitivity to nuances of meaning9 and the ability to see things from the poet's perspective10.

1 key idea (e.g. in a book or film) 2 make someone feel something 3 feeling or mood 4 written or spoken text 5 understand 6 associations 7 mean 8 form an opinion on the basis of indirect evidence 9 small differences in meaning 10 point of view
1 Dr Babayan is advising Tomoko, one of his students who is about to start writing up her dissertation. Complete their conversation with words from the input above.

Dr Babayan:

In the first chapter, you need a section where you d your d………………… your t……………….. .


I'm sorry, what does that involve exactly?

Dr Babayan:

You explain your t………………, the special technical words or phrases you're going to use and what precise meaning they have so that your text is t…………….., and every reader knows exactly what you mean when you use a word or phrase.


Does it have to be in the first chapter?

Dr Babayan:

Well, usually, yes, though an alternative way of doing it is to provide an alphabetical g……………. at the back of the dissertation where readers can look up the meaning. And remember, if you're using different s……………….. of the same word you must explain each one.


That's my problem. I sometimes find it difficult to d …………………………. between the different meanings. There are so many s……………………… d…………………… between words and between the different meanings of the same words in English.

Dr Babayan:

Yes, I know, but all languages are like that; it's just that you don't notice it in
your own language. Look, a dissertation is all about
с……………….. your ideas in a clear, с…………….. manner. If you use words which are a…………………. your readers might m…………………….. your text. So it's always important to с…………….. what you intend to say.


Hmm. Oh well, I'll try.

2 Add negative prefixes to the words in bold, using a dictionary if necessary.

  1. The sign had been ……….translated, so no one could understand what it meant.

  2. I …………understood one of the exam questions and wrote about the wrong subject.

  3. The text was quite …………..ambiguous, so there was only one way of interpreting it.

  4. Some of the totals had evidently been …………..calculated, so the results were unreliable.

  5. The essay was quite ………..coherent, so it was almost impossible to follow the argument.

  6. Sandra is good at French but …………….pronounces a lot of words.

3 Use the words from the box in an appropriate form to complete the text.

denote perspective express comprehend evoke nuance discourse convey infer connotation


The American songwriter Bob Dylan is often considered to be as much a poet as a musician. He ………………….. his political ideas through folk songs in his early period. His melodies were often simple but his words …………………… complex messages, often with subtle ……………… .In one of his songs, he speaks of a 'hard rain' which will fall after a nuclear war. On one level the words ……………… real, radioactive rain, but the ………………. of the words are many: life will be hard, perhaps impossible. Perhaps the consequences will fall hard on the politicians who started the war too. There are many things we can …………….. from these words. The song is part of the political ……………. of the Cold War of the 1960s. It ………………… an atmosphere of fear and hopelessness. Seen from the ……………………. of the post-Cold-War era, it may seem difficult to ………………… such fear, but at the time, that fear was very real.
Comparing and Contrasting
A Prepositional expressions

Note the items in bold in these titles of journal articles and also note the prepositions.



Problems in pain measurement: a comparison between verbal and visual rating scales

Between is used when two different things are being compared. Of is used when different examples of the same thing are being compared.

A comparison of different methods and approaches to homeschooling

Mobility in the EU in comparison with the US.

With and to are both used nowadays with similar meanings in these expressions. American English generally prefers compared with.

The effects of risk on private investment: Africa compared with other developing areas

An exploration of the average driver's speed compared to driver safety and driving skill

Reduced rate of disease development after HIV-2 infection as compared to HIV-I.

This expression indicates that there is indeed a difference between the things which are compared.

Some psycho-physical analogies between speech and music.

Comparisons between things which have similar features; often used to help explain a principle or idea.

Differences and similarities between mothers and teachers as informants on child behavior.

Between is used with difference when different groups of people or things are compared. In is used when different aspects of one thing are compared (here 'ethical perceptions').

Differences in ethical standards between male and female managers: myth or reality?

Children's understanding of the distinction between real and apparent emotion

A distinction is a difference between two similar things.

Is globalisation today really different from globalisation a hundred years ago?

Different to is also used in UK academic usage, but different from is much more frequent. Different than is often found in US English.

B Useful linking expressions for comparison and contrast

44% of the male subjects responded negatively. Similarly, 44% of the female subjects said they had never voted in any election, [likewise could also be used here]

There is a contrast between fiction and reality.

Older teenagers were found to be more likely than younger teenagers to purchase music CDs. Conversely, younger teenagers purchased more video games, [in an opposite way]

Unlike Scotland, Irish mortality rates were relatively low for such a poor country.

Verb endings in some languages can show present, past or future tense, whereas in English, verb endings can only show present or past, [while could also be used here; note the comma]

A recent study suggested that building a network of good friends, rather than maintaining close family ties, helps people live longer into old age.

On the one hand, critics accuse the police of not protecting the public from crime. On the other hand, people also complained that the police were too oppressive, (used to compare two different facts or two opposite ways of thinking about a situation]

In the north, the rains are plentiful. In the south the reverse is true and drought is common.



Remember to say the same as, NOT the same that or the same than. Say similar to, NOT similar as.

Don't confuse on the other hand (see above) with in contrast. In contrast expresses a marked opposition between two ideas: Chan sharply condemned the diplomatic moves; in contrast, his deputy, Tiong, saw them as an attempt to create political stability.

1 Complete these sentences about comparing and contrasting.

  1. The study looked at the different life chances of working-class children …………….. to those of middle-class children.

  1. The results showed a marked ……………………….. (three possible answers) between the two groups of plants being tested.

  1. The title of her paper was: 'Retail price differences in large supermarkets: organic foods ……………….. to non-organic foods'.

  1. My project was a …………………. of different styles of industrial architecture in the late 20th century.

  1. The result of the second experiment was very different ………………….. that of the first.

  1. It would be interesting to do a ……………………. between the musical skills of teenage girls and those of teenage boys.

  1. The physicist drew an ………………… between the big bang and throwing a stone into a pond.

  1. Gronsky believes cold fusion will soon be achieved in the laboratory. ……………………… his colleague Ladrass believes cold fusion is simply theoretically impossible.

2 Rewrite the sentences using an expression which includes the word in brackets instead of
the underlined words.

  1. The two groups were not the same as each other. (different)

  2. The two groups of children were different. (contrast noun)

  3. The three liquids had many things in common with one another. (similar)

  4. The data revealed that the informants' responses were different. (differences)

  5. The title of her paper was: 'A comparison of male attitudes towards prison sentencing and female attitudes'. (compared)

  6. In a similar way to the manner in which the economy of the north is booming, the south is also enjoying an economic upturn. (similarly)

3 Use linking expressions based on the word(s) in brackets to rewrite these pairs of sentences as one sentence. Make any other changes necessary.

  1. The south of the country has little in the way of forests. The north of the country is covered with thick forests. (unlike)

  2. A questionnaire is good. In this case, face-to-face interviews are better. (rather)

  3. Asian languages such as Vietnamese are quite difficult for learners whose first language is a European one. The opposite is also true. (conversely)

  4. Oil is plentiful at the present time. It will run out one day. (hand)

  5. Boys tend to prefer aggressive solutions to problems. Girls, on the other hand, prefer more indirect approaches. (whereas)

  6. In the post-war period, public transportation enjoyed a boom. Nowadays, it is little used. (reverse)

4 Are these statements true or false?. Use a dictionary if necessary. If the statement is false, explain why.

  1. If two things are mutually exclusive, one makes the other impossible.

  2. If two methods of doing something are compatible, they cannot both be used.

  3. If two things are equated, they are said to be similar or the same.

  4. If there are parallels between two phenomena, they are very different from each other.

If there is an overlap between two things, they share some properties.
Phrasal Verbs in Academic English
Although phrasal verbs occur most frequently in more informal spoken and written English, they are also not uncommon in an academic context. You will hear them used in lectures and will read them in serious journals. From this input only go/look back over and work out are not appropriate for a formal written assignment.

A Phrasal verbs and one-word synonyms

Phrasal verbs often have one-word synonyms. These are usually of Latin origin and sound more formal than their phrasal verb equivalent but both are appropriate when writing or talking about academic subjects. Vary your language by using both.

phrasal verb



put forward (an idea/view/opinion/ theory/plan)


In her latest article Kaufmann puts forward a theory which is likely to prove controversial.

carry out (an experiment / research)


I intend to carry out a series of experiments.

make up


Children under the age of 15 make up nearly half of the country's population.

be made up of

consist of

Parliament is made up of two houses.

point out


Grenne points out that the increase in life expectancy has led to some economic problems.

point up


The study points up the weaknesses in the current school system.

set out (to do something)


In his article Losanov sets out to prove that...

set out


The document sets out the terms of the treaty.

go into


In this book Sergeant goes into the causes of the Civil War in some depth.

go/look back over

revise, review *

Please go/look back over this term's notes.

go through


Go through your calculations carefully.

* Revise is the BrE synonym and review the AmE synonym. (Revise in AmE only means to edit or change something to make it better; review is not used in BrE in the context of preparing for a test as focused on here.)
B Carrying out research

After completing her first degree in zoology Meena went on to1 apply to graduate school. She wanted to work on2 animal behaviour at a well-known institute in New Zealand. She set up3 a series of experiments investigating how bees communicate. She has noticed some curious behaviour patterns but has not yet worked out4 why her bees behave as they do. What she has observed seems to go against5 current theories of bee behaviour. When she has completed all her research she will have to write it all up6.

1 do something after doing something else 2 study, work in the field of 3 prepared, arranged 4 come to a conclusion about 5 not be in agreement with 6 (of an important document) write in a final form


Consult a good dictionary when you use phrasal verbs in your writing. For example, a good dictionary tells you when the object can be used before the particle (e.g. write your results up) and when it cannot (e.g. this goes against current theories).

1 Rewrite the sentences replacing the underlined word in each sentence with a phrasal verb from A. Note that both versions of each sentence are equally appropriate.

  1. We conducted a series of experiments to test out our hypothesis.

  2. Before the test you should revise Chapters 7 and 8 of your textbooks.

  3. In his article on the American Civil War Kingston discusses the reasons why the situation developed in the way it did.

  4. Cole presents some fascinating theories on the development of language in his latest book.

  5. The psychologist observed that it was very unusual for a young child to behave in this way.

  6. Please check your work again carefully before handing it in.

  7. In this article Simpson aims to prove that the Chinese reached America long before the Vikings.

  8. Women now constitute over half the student population in most universities in this country.

2 Fill in the missing words in this paragraph.

As part of my MA I've been doing some research on language acquisition. I've been working (1)……………. how young children learn their mother tongue. I've been carrying (2)……………… some experiments to see how much reading to young children affects their language development. I've had a great supervisor who has helped me set (3)……………… my experiments and she's also pointed (4) …………………… lots of interesting things in my data that I hadn't noticed myself. I'm busy writing my work (5)…………………. now and I think I should be able to put (6)………………….. some useful ideas. It's been really fascinating and I hope I may be able to go (7)………………… to do a doctorate in the same field although I certainly never set (8) …………………to do a PhD.
3 Match the beginning of each sentence with the most appropriate ending.

1 Feudal society was made

  1. forward a convincing theory with regard to this question.

2 Carlson was the first to put

  1. up the flaws in the school's testing methods.

3 Her results appear to go

  1. out the solution to the algebra problem.

4 The investigation pointed

  1. out a lot of basic information about all the world's countries.

5 It took him a long time to work

  1. against what she had found in her earlier studies.

6 The geography book sets

  1. up of clearly defined classes of people.

4 Answer these questions.

  1. What sort of things might a scientist carry out?

  2. If you want to study something in more depth, what might you go on to do after getting a first degree?

  3. What do postgraduate students typically have to write up at the end of their studies?

  4. What sort of things do good students regularly look back over?

  5. What sorts of things do scholars typically put forward in their lectures or articles?

Why is it sensible to go through any maths calculations that you had to make as part of a research study before you draw any conclusions?
Prepositional Phrases
Notice the prepositional phrases in the texts below.

A A book review

The Guide to the Semi-Colon in English was written by Keith Pedant in conjunction with1 a team of researchers at Boardham University. In comparison with2 previous works on the semi-colon, this is a very substantial volume. In addition to the main text there are a number of appendices. These are to some extent3 the most useful parts of the book as, in line with4 modern linguistic practice, they provide a wealth of real data. In spite of5 its potentially dry topic, the book contains many fascinating examples, in the sections dealing with the history of the semi-colon in particular. With the exception of6 the final chapter, this book may be of some interest to the general reader as well as the specialist but on the whole7 is mainly for those who have a professional interest in punctuation marks.

1 working together with 2 same meaning as in contrast to 3 notice also to a greater/lesser/ certain extent
4 following, same meaning as in accordance with 5 despite, not prevented by 6 not including (NB NOT except)
7 generally
B A talk to a genealogy club

Chairperson: Now, at this stage1 in the proceedings it's my pleasure to introduce our speaker tonight, Dr Anna Klein, the country's leading family history specialist. Anna, I'd like to welcome you on behalf of2 all our members.

Anna Klein: Thank you. My own interest in the subject came about as a result of discovering some old letters in the attic at home. I found them by chance3. They'd been written by some relatives who'd emigrated to Canada a hundred years or so before' and for me, as a ten-year-old then, they were by far4 the most exciting things I had ever read. They were, for the most part5, extremely well-written and, from then on, I was determined to learn as much as I could about my family. In other words6, I had started out on my genealogical journey. In some ways, I was very lucky. I was able to collect quite a bit of key family information on the basis of the old letters and this enabled me to track down some relations living in Montreal. They, in turn, provided some contacts with Australian cousins and so it continued. In the process, I've learnt a great deal, not only about my own family, but also in terms of7 how to approach tracing one's family. In most respects8 it's been a thoroughly enjoyable adventure though there have been some difficult moments ...

1 now, also at this point 2 representing (NB NOT on the part of) 3 accidentally 4 very much 5 generally 6 to express something differently, often more simply 7 as far as (how to approach ...) was concerned 8 considering most aspects of the experience



Note that on the one hand and on the other hand are used to contrast two different ways of looking at an issue. On the one hand flying is much more convenient than going by train, but on the other hand, train travel is often much more interesting.

1 Complete the prepositional phrases as used in these press announcements.


Professor Soltero said that, ……………… line government guidelines, the researchers had consulted local people.


……….the exception……….one study in 1986, no major research had been carried out till now, Dr Peters stated.


A spokesperson for the drug company said that ……………….. stage, it is too early to make strong claims about the drug.


Professor Karpal said that,………….. the basis ………………… her studies so far, she was optimistic that a cure for the disease would be found.


Dr Leiman said that while ……………… the ………………. hand the government wanted to encourage research, ……………….. the ………………….. hand they were reducing funding for universities.


Lauren Charles said that, ……………….. whole, social conditions had improved since the report, especially……………terms…………… jobs and housing for the poorer sectors.


……….addition………. a new building on the campus, the team will receive a very generous grant to conduct their research.


The Professor said that he was delighted to accept the award……………behalf………….the whole university.

2 Match the beginning of each sentence with the most appropriate ending.

  1. The conclusions are fair in some ways it was sheer luck.

  2. Dr Carr's team got the grant, in conjunction with an American project.

  3. We had little money to spare; in comparison with other articles in the series.

  4. We need people's personal data, in spite of being the smallest team to apply.

  5. We made an important discovery; in most respects, though some are questionable.

  6. This latest paper is quite short in other words, we were underfunded.

  7. The Indian study was carried out in particular their parents' history of illnesses.

3 Read this paragraph about the discovery of dinosaurs. In each sentence there is one error in the use of a prepositional phrase. Correct each error.

A bone discovered on chance in the 17th century was the beginning of the search for dinosaurs. From then in, scientists and the public have been fascinated by these creatures. In accordance to beliefs at that time, the initial discovery was thought to be the bone of a human giant. However, in 1824, a scientist, William Buckland, calculated that the bone belonged to a 12-metre, flesh-eating reptile and named it Megalosaurus, on the process giving us the first of the wonderful list of exotic names for dinosaurs. The 17th century discovery had, on turn, led to a series of further finds around that time. All these at a greater or lesser extent confirmed Buckland's theories. For far the biggest dinosaur discovered to date was probably over 40 metres long. To the most part, dinosaurs ranged from the size of a chicken to that of a giraffe. At most respects, what we know about their habits is still very limited. What we do know is at least on some extent based on pure speculation.
2 Reading

Task 1. Read the following text about Corporate Strategy and Structure and do the tasks.
Strategy and planning

Strategy and planning begins with analysis, and a well-known tool to do this is a SWOT analysis (looking at the internal Strengths and Weaknesses of the company, and the external Opportunities and Threats). Planning itself can be categorized into two main types depending on the time-scale and purpose of the planning.

  • Strategic planning is concerned with the longer term and 'the big picture'. It is the process of defining the company's mission, determining the overall goals of the organization and allocating resources to reach those goals. It is done by top and middle managers.

  • Operational planning is concerned with translating the general, long-term goals into more specific, concrete objectives. It involves monitoring the day-to-day work of departments. It is done by middle and supervisory managers.

Company structure

Having decided on its strategy, a business needs to organize itself into a structure that best suits its objectives. This can be done in several ways.

  • Organization by function. The company is divided into departments such as production, finance, marketing, human resources.

  • Organization by product. The company brings together staff who are involved in the same product line.

  • Organization by customer type. The company is organized around different sectors of the market. Large customers are called 'key accounts'.

  • Organization by geographical area. The company is organized according to regions.

A large multinational may use several of the above: for example a functional division initially (at an international level), then a national structure for each country, and within this some level of division according to customer types.

The business must also decide on the best way to organize its management hierarchy (= chain of command). The company is run by top (= senior) managers with job titles such as: Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Chief Operating Officer (COO), and a series of Vice-Presidents or Directors of different departments. Top management set a direction for the organization and aim to inspire employees with their vision for the company's future. This vision is often written down in a mission statement.

The next level is middle management, where managers are in charge of (AmE head up) a department, division, branch, etc. Middle managers develop detailed plans and procedures based on the firm's overall strategy.

Finally there is supervisory (AmE first-line) management, and typical job titles are: Supervisor, Team Leader, Section Chief. Supervisory managers are responsible for assigning non-managerial employees to specific jobs and evaluating their performance. They have to implement plans developed higher up the hierarchy.

In some companies - or for specific projects - there can be a matrix structure with cross-functional teams. Here employees from different parts of the organization work together and bureaucracy is reduced.

Above everything there is the Board, chaired by a Chairman or President, which gets involved in 'big picture' strategic planning and meets perhaps once a month. The CEO will be on the Board, but most Board members are not involved in running the company - they are elected by and responsible to the shareholders. Their main interest is shareholder value: getting a good return on investment in terms of both dividend payments and a rising share price.

Centralization vs Decentralization

A key issue for the company is to decide on the degree of centralization. Should authority be kept at Head Office (centralization)? If so, this would mean:

  • A strong corporate image.

  • Decisions made by experienced managers who see the whole picture, not just one part of the business.

Standardized procedures which could lead to economies of scale (lower costs) and simpler distribution channels.

But decentralization also has advantages:

  • Lower-level managers are more familiar with local conditions and can therefore give a stronger customer focus.

  • The delegation of decision-making is likely to lead to a higher level of morale at the grassroots.

There are other closely-related questions. Should the structure be 'vertical', with many layers of management, or 'flat', with fewer layers? And how many subordinates should each manager supervise?

1 Fill in the missing letters.

  1. Inside a company, large customers are often referred to as 'k_ _ a _ _ _ _ _ _ s'.

  2. COO stands for 'C _ _ _ f O _ _ _ _ _ _ _ g O _ _ _ _ _ r'.

  3. A matrix structure brings together people from different parts of the organization to work as c _ _ _ _ - f _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _l t _ _ _ s.

  1. The delegation of decision-making is likely to lead to a higher level of morale at 'the gra _ _ _ oots' (= the ordinary people in an organization rather than its leaders).

  2. Each manager supervises a number of sub _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ s.

  3. In relation to an existing market, the 'big picture' strategy can be one of d _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ t (growth), con _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _n (making the existing situation stronger), or wi _ _ _ _ _wal (leaving the market completely).

2 Complete each phrase 1-10 with an ending a)-j).

1 Operational planning translates general goals

2 It is usual to divide an organization

3 Some companies are organized according

4 The Board gets involved

5 Senior managers set

6 Middle managers develop detailed plans based

7 First-line managers implement plans

8 First-line managers are also responsible

9 A cross-functional team brings

10 Subordinates work

  1. a direction for the company.

  2. developed higher up the hierarchy.

  3. for assigning employees to specific jobs.

  4. in major strategy issues.

  5. into functional departments.

  6. into more concrete objectives.

  7. on the overall strategy.

  8. to geographical regions.

i) together staff from different parts of the company.

j) under the supervision of a first-line manager.

3 The mixed-up letters make words that describe departments or functional areas inside a company. Put the letters in the right order.

  1. haumn rruoeecss 9 pdroctoiun

  2. cmoesutr scrieevs 10 lgael

  3. qtuialy crotnol 11 siihnppg

  4. rsaceerh and dvnolpmeeet 12 facnine

  5. pbiluc motilaes 13 metakrnig

  6. pejcrot mmeegnnaat 14 atnccous

  7. aiiisdttrnmaon 15 pasuirchng (= buying, BrE)

  8. bnlliig 16 pcroenremut (= buying, AmE)

4 Pairs of words in bold have been switched – one from each column. Put them back in their correct places.

  1. market (channel) 7 core growth

  2. cost value 8 distribution (research)

  3. earnings business 9 mission needs

  4. management loyalty 10 market portfolio

  5. customer statement 11 shareholder centre

  6. product share 12 brand hierarchy

5 Which of the collocations in exercise 4 refer to

1 using a questionnaire to carry out a survey ______________________________

  1. the main activity of a company that generates most of its profits ____________________________

3 financial benefits (= increase in share price and dividends) for the owners of the company _____________________

  1. the whole range of products that a company sells ___________________________

  2. when customers are faithful to a particular product ___________________________

6 a business unit that spends money but does not generate revenue ____________________________

  1. a continuing increase in profits ____________________________

  2. what is shown in an organigram (= organization chart) ________________________

  3. senior management's vision for the company _______________________

10 how a product gets from the manufacturer to the end-user ________________________


6 Match the verbs in the box with their definitions below. Be careful - some are very similar.

adapt assign check control coordinate determine ensure evaluate implement monitor

  1. make sure that everything is correct or the way you expect it _________________

  2. organize people so that they work together effectively _________________

  3. give someone a job to do ______________

  4. carry out; make a plan start to work ________________

  5. have the power to make decisions; make something operate in the way that you want _____________

  6. make certain that something happens _______________

  7. change something to fit a new situation _________________

  8. watch or measure something carefully for a period of time to see how it changes _______________-

  9. (formal) think about or test something before deciding its value, suitability or effectiveness ___________________

  10. (formal) control what something will be; officially decide something; find out ________________

7 Use the words in the box to complete the SWOT analysis below.

alliance barriers climate debt depth one-stop outdated overhead range shortage start-up state-of-the-art tailor-made transfer workflow

Strengths (strong points, internal)

1 a large market share

2 a well-structured distribution network

3 motivated and well-trained staff

4 1 ___________________ (= cutting edge) products

5 2 ___________________ (= customized / personalized) products

6 all services provided in one place: a '3 _________________ shop'

7 a well-known, high-value brand

Weaknesses (weak points, internal)

1 a lack of new products

2 a lack of managerial 4 (= amount of knowledge and experience)

3 5 (= old fashioned) production methods

  1. high levels of 6 (= money owed to banks and other creditors)

5 slow 7 (= progress of work done) due to inflexible procedures

6 an over-reliance on a limited 8____________ of products

7 high direct costs (= production costs) and high indirect costs (9_____________ e.g. utility bills)

Opportunities (future chances in the market)

1 new foreign markets

2 an improving economic 10____________________

3 outsourcing

4 a key supplier who might want to make a strategic 11 ___________________

5 new product ideas: either from market research or from sales reps talking directly to customers

Threats (future dangers in the market)

1 a greater competition

2 low-cost production in Southeast Asia

3 technology 12 to Southeast Asia (so that low-cost countries start using high-tech equipment)

4 high 13____________ costs of a new facility

5 political risk: regulation, taxes, trade 14______________ (e.g. quotas and tariffs)

6 the market approaching saturation

7 possible 15________________ of components or raw materials

8 reduced pricing power due to merger of two important customers
8 Look back at the completed SWOT analysis in exercise 7 and find a word that means:

  1. a situation in which you do not have enough of something ___________

  2. depending too much on something

  3. 'sales staff (the answer is a short form of a longer word) ____________

  4. a building used for a particular purpose (especially for manufacturing) _____________

5 when everyone who wants the product already has it_______________
9 Tick (√) the one statement that is true.

  1. Targets and goals tend to be more general. Objectives and aims tend to be more specific, with aims being the most concrete and measurable.

  2. Aims and goals tend to be more general. Objectives and targets tend to be more specific, with targets being the most concrete and measurable.

10 Managers should make sure that business objectives are SMART. Can you remember what these letters stand for?

Sp_____________c, Mea__________le, Ag___________d, Rea____________ic, and Ti________ -specific

Discussion Topics

1. Bosses just take the credit for the work of lower-level employees. Who needs them?

О Agree О Disagree

3. Think of two companies operating in the same market (eg Coke and Pepsi, Yahoo and Google, Audi and BMW, Gucci and Armani). Compare their strategies.

2. The continual emphasis on shareholder value in American-style companies produces high levels of stress amongst employees and an inability to think about the longer term.

О Agree О Disagree

4 Make a quick SWOT analysis for a company / country / city / educational institution that you know. Present it to some colleagues and ask for questions.

Task 2.

A) Understanding news stories. Below are headings from newspaper reports on the business environment. Choose the best explanation of the keywords from a), b), or c).

US growth hits new high

1 Growth means:

a) increased gross domestic product (GDP), or the increase in total sales revenue

b) improved exports for the US economy

c) increased value of companies on the New York Stock Exchange

Oil industry confidence hit by over capacity and oil price slump

7 Over capacity means:

a) the industry is not producing enough to meet demand

b) production facilities are not working to their potential

c) supply is greater than demand

Consumer confidence down in Germany

2 Consumer confidence means:

a) what people think about German industry

b) what people think of their personal economic situation

c) what shop owners think of business prospects

Italian chemical conglomerate to break up

8 A conglomerate is:

a) a large manufacturing company

b) a multinational company

c) a large holding company with many subsidiaries

Japan's trade surplus falls

3 Trade surplus means:

a) the positive balance in exports over imports

b) the value of sales

c) the share value of the top 100 Japanese companies

Worldwide PC sales soar 70%

9 To soar means:

a) increase by a large amount

b) go up a little

c) fall dramatically

Tokai bank writes off Yen 8bn in bad debts

4 To write off debts means:

a) get the money back from creditors

b) forget the money, since the loans are not going to be paid back

c) demand the money back immediately

Corporate phone bills to fall

10 Corporate means:

a) large

b) big business

c) personal, domestic and business

Cleveland Best Inc. announces de-merger

5 A de-merger is:

a) a temporary division

b) a decision to split a company into two parts

c) a return to two separate entities following a period as one company

Worldwide corporate tax hits 40%

11 Corporate tax means:

a) special rate of tax on companies with large turnovers

b) taxes on any business activity

c) taxes on everyone, private individuals and companies

Ireland's trade deficit with Germany smaller

6 A trade deficit is:

a) where exports are larger than imports

b) a positive balance in favour of sales over debts

c) where the value of imports is greater than the value of exports

James Inc. makes $2bn from home entertainments sell-off

12 A sell-off is:

a) a successful sales campaign

b) a special promotion of low price goods

c) a decision to sell a subsidiary in an industrial group

B) Choose the best word to complete the sentence.

1 fair (n) / fare (n)

1 _________ is an event where people show and sell goods or services relating to a particular business or hobby.

2 _________ is the price that you pay to travel on an aircraft, train, bus, etc.
2 forego (v) / forgo (v)

1 She had to _________ her early ambition to be a writer.

2 Adler & Co _________ their competitors and occupied the largest share of the market.

3 foreword (n) / forward (adv)

1 _________ a short piece of writing at the front of a book that introduces the book or its writer.

2 _________ means the direction that is in front of you.

4 imply (v) / infer (v)

1 _________ means to form an opinion or guess that something is true because of the information that you have.

2 _________ means to communicate an idea or feeling without saying it directly.

5 incite (v) / insight (n)

1 They denied _________ the crowd to violence.

2 It was an interesting book, full of fascinating __________ into human relationships.
3 Listening

Task 1. Listen to the interview with a project manager and do the tasks.
1 Read the stages in a typical construction process below. Put them in the right order 1-7.

  1. Project managers make a retention until they have checked the suppliers' work. ____

  2. Put out a tender to suppliers. ___

  3. Select the suppliers. ___

  4. Discuss with the client the number of buildings and the layout. ____

  5. Suppliers hand over the work to the project managers. ___

  6. Suppliers start work. ___

  7. Receive proposals from supplier.___

2 Now listen to an interview with Anton, a project manager in the construction industry, and check your answers.
3 What aspects of engineering does Anton mention? Try to complete the table, then listen again to check.



Climate services




Utility services

water supply



Mechanical transportation




sprinkler system

4 _____________________

Electrical supply

transformers to reduce the high 5____________ coming into the factory


level of light

the mix of 6______________ light and daylight

the position of the windows



8 A_______________

noise levels


compensation money to cover a loss caused by sb else

crane large machine used to lift heavy things

drainage pipes that take away water and waste liquids

greenfield site rural land not previously built on

knock-on effect indirect result

layout the way in which objects are arranged

local authority governing body of a city, town or district (UK)

penalty clause part of contract that imposes punishment if

certain conditions aren't satisfied

refuse waste, rubbish

retention money owed but not paid until work is approved fender formal process by which suppliers bid for a contract
Task 2.

You will hear the recording of the text Americans invest for the future in mutual funds. As you listen find English equivalents of the following Russian phrase.

финансовые консультанты


взаимный инвестиционный фонд


ценные бумаги


цена акции


долговое обязательство


до окончания срока действия ценных бумаг


биржевой индексный фонд


взимать плату


средняя годовая стоимость


распределять деньги среди


вклады во взаимные фонды


4 Writing

Task 1.

A) Put a tick if the sentence makes sense. Put a cross if it does not.

  1. Profits have risen steadily over recent years.

  2. Sales plummeted marginally in July.

  3. The price of oil soared gradually last year.

  4. Share prices dropped back slightly last week.

  5. Unemployment numbers levelled out sharply.

B) Write the nouns for these verbs. Sometimes the form is the same.

  1. cut 6 improve

  2. deteriorate 7 increase

  3. fall 8 recover

  4. grow 9 reduce

  5. halve 10 rise

C) Rewrite the 'verb + adverb' sentences as 'adjective + noun' sentences.

  1. Sales fell slightly.

There was a ………………………………… in sales.

  1. Profits rose steadily.

We saw a …………………………………….. in profits.

  1. The economy improved gradually.

There was a …………………………………… in the economy.

  1. We need to reduce costs sharply.

We need to see a ……………………………….. in costs.
D) Underline the correct words.

  1. I'd like you to look at the blue segment on this next bar chart / pie chart.

  1. I'd like to draw your attention to the heading / title at the top of each column of this table.

  1. I'm sorry, the heading / title of this next slide is off the screen, but at least you can see the graph.

  2. The horizontal axis is marked with / labeled with the months of the year.

  3. Sales growth has been very rapid - as you can see from the steep / shallow slope of this graph.

E) It is very common to use approximate figures - particularly in speech. Match each approximate figure a)-p) to an exact figure 1-6 below.

  1. just over 150 i) far less than 150

  2. around 150 j) way, way over 150

  3. just short of 150 k) nowhere near 150

  4. roughly 150 I) slightly more than 150

  5. not quite 150 m)somewhat more than 150

  6. almost 150 n) 150 give or take a little

  7. some 150 o) somewhere in the region of 150

  8. 150 or so p) nothing like as much as 150

  1. 90

___ ___ ___

  1. 146

___ ___ ___

  1. 154

___ ___

  1. 190


  1. 240


  1. 140 to 160

___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___

F) Fill in the gaps with a preposition where necessary (in one case there is no preposition). Choose from: at, between, down, from, in, into, of, on, to, with.

  1. Last year sales rose…………. €7m ………………€7.5m. So that's an increase ……………..€ 0.5m.

  1. Last year there was an increase ………………… sales ……………………. 8%.

  1. Our market share now stands ……………………. 28%.

  2. One ………………….. five (= one out of every five) of our products never makes a profit.

  1. Two million ……………………….. euros were spent on television advertising.

  2. Unemployment figures have been relatively stable for some time, fluctuating ………………….4.3% and 4.6%.

7 There hasn't been much movement …………… the unemployment figures for some time.

  1. Sales rose ………………………line ……………………..predictions.

  2. From January 1st to now, sales have gone up by €0.5rm. So that's a year-………………-date increase of 8%.

  1. Over the last twelve months, sales have gone up by €0.5m. So that's a year-……………..-year increase of 8%.

  2. In this pie chart, sales are broken ……………………….. by region.

  3. In this pie chart, the whole country is divided ………………………….. five regions.

Task 2. Complete the graph description by choosing the correct word from the box.
The pie charts show the proportion of money spent on various household expenses in Hong Kong and Britain in 2000.

but compared with higher (x2) in contrast main indicates lower overall smallest than while

We can see that in Hong Kong the greatest proportion of expenditure (32%) was on housing, 1......................in Britain housing accounted for just 17% of the total.

2......................, in Britain the greatest single expense was other goods and services at 36%, 3......................28% in Hong Kong. Food came in second place in Britain, at 22%, while in Hong Kong the actual proportion was 4......................(27%). In Britain another major expense was transport, at 17%, but this was much 5......................in Hong Kong (9%). In both countries the 6...................... percentage of expenditure was on clothing.

7......................, the data 8......................that in both cases food, housing and other goods and services were the 9......................expenses, 10......................that in Britain, transport and other goods and services took up a 11......................proportion of total expenditure 12......................in Hong Kong.

Task 3. Look at the sentences below and number them in the best order to describe this graph. The first and last ones have been done for you.

___Although it dipped in 1985, it then rose steadily and reached 750 grams in 2000.

___By 2000 it was at the same level as the consumption of sugar.

___In 1975, the consumption of fresh fruit stood at 500 grams, then increased to 600 grams in 1980.

___However, this gradually increased throughout the period.

_1_The graph shows changes in the amount of fresh fruit, sugar and ice-cream eaten per person per week in Britain between 1975 and 2000.

_11_In addition, the consumption of ice-cream, while at a relatively low level, rose significantly during this period.

___In contrast, there was a consistent drop in sugar consumption.

___From the graph we can see that overall, the consumption of fruit rose, while the consumption of sugar fell.

___People consumed more fresh fruit than either sugar or ice-cream throughout the period.

___The amount consumed decreased steadily from almost 400 grams per person to only 100 grams by 2000.

___The amount of ice-cream consumed weekly started at about 50 grams.

Task 4. Underline the verb or verb phrase in each of the following sentences. Then match each sentence to a graph. You can use a graph more than once.

1 Sales started at $3 million in 1990.

2 From 1997 to 2000, sales fluctuated.

3 Sales reached a peak of 3 million in 2001.

4 Sales increased for two years then levelled off.

5 Sales declined between 1999 and 2003.

6 Sales dipped briefly in 2002, then recovered.

7 In 1990, sales stood at $25 million.

8 Sales overtook costs in 2003.



Task 5. The graph shows the rates of participation in three different activities in a UK sports club between 1983 and 2003. Write a 120-150-word report comparing the rates in the activities.

Task 6. Complete the answer to the Writing task below by choosing the correct word from the box.

but compared with higher (x2) In contrast main indicates lower Overall smallest than while

The pie charts show the proportion of money spent on various household expenses in Hong Kong and Britain in 2000.

We can see that in Hong Kong the greatest proportion of expenditure (32%) was on housing, 1………………in Britain housing accounted for just 17% of the total.

2 , in Britain the greatest single expense was other goods and services at 36%, 3…………………28% in Hong Kong. Food came in second place in Britain, at 22%, while in Hong Kong the actual proportion was 4……………….(27%). In Britain another major expense was transport, at 17%, but this was much 5………………in Hong Kong (9%).

In both countries the 6 percentage of expenditure was on clothing. 7………………….., the data 8………………..that in both cases food, housing and other goods and services were the 9……………..expenses, 10……………. that in Britain, transport and other goods and services took up a 11……………… proportion of total expenditure 12……………….in Hong Kong.

5 Exam Practice


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