Методическое пособие по английскому языку для студентов 4 курса, обучающихся по программе бакалавриата

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Part One

Questions 1-8

Look at the statements below and at the five summaries of articles about strategic change from a journal. Which article (А, В, C, D or E) does each statement (1-8) refer to? For each statement (1-8), mark one letter (А, В, C, D or E). You will need to use some of these letters more than once. There is an example at the beginning (0).


  1. It advises against the use of technology for communication within a company.


1 It proposes some views on management that the editors feel might be considered controversial by readers.


2 It explains who the communicators of initiatives within a company should be.


3 It makes reference to the fact that some people may try to hinder innovations.


4 It considers the need to streamline commercial activities in order to have a clearer focus.


5 It criticises the control of policy-making by certain key personnel.


6 It questions the validity of certain accepted management-training approaches.


7 It includes practical, real-world examples of the ideas being put forward.


8 It stresses that it is vital to exclude obsolete views when drawing up company policy.



Those serving in industry today have two options: they can surrender the future to revolutionary companies or they can revolutionise the way their companies create strategy. In Revolution and Strategy, Gary Heath argues that any approach that does not challenge the status quo is not a strategy at all. In too many companies, the strategy-planning process is monopolised by senior managers, and what passes for strategy is sterile and uninspiring. To create truly revolutionary strategies, a strategy-making process must be demanding and inclusive; it must rid itself of tired, outdated perspectives and uncover the revolutionary ideas that are lying deep in an organisation.


Companies often attempt to implement a major change in strategy. Determined managers go forth with the plans, and they expect enthusiasm and commitment from their subordinates. But instead, employees drag their feet and figure out ways to undermine the process. The change effort gets bogged down, and results fall short. In Why Resist Change? Paul Strong explains how corporate leaders can overcome employees' concerns about change by revising the mutual obligations and commitments, both stated and implied, that exist between them. The author presents two case studies of his ideas in action.


Business units often take charge of formulating strategy in today's environment, but they can easily get lost in a thicket of weeds - too many customers, products and services. In Strategic Business Unit Renewal, John White provides a method for business units to prune their gardens and regain perspective. His strategy-renewal process leads managers through the undergrowth of a business unit's complexity and compels them to ask whether all of the unit's customers, products and services are truly strategically important, significant and profitable. Units that do not meet these criteria must cut back to allow a greater concentration on cultivating their most worthy projects.


Which came first, Harry J. Mindenberg wonders in Musings on Management Strategy: our misguided ideas of what makes a good manager and a good organisation, or the programmes that claim to create them? A professor of management himself at McGill University in Canada and at INSEAD in France, Mindenberg takes on management fads, management education and the worship of management gurus - and offers some provocative alternatives.


The next time you are planning a major change effort, forget the huge meeting, the speeches relayed by satellite, the videos and special publications. J.K. and Sandra Parkin argue that Changing Frontline Employees requires giving up the image of the charismatic executive rousing the troops. Frontline employees may accept change, but they won't accept empty words delivered impersonally. If you need to convey a major strategic change, remember that frontline supervisors - not senior managers - are the people whom employees trust the most.

Part Two

Questions 9-14

Read this text taken from an article about future developments in advertising. Choose the best sentence, from the list given below, to fill each of the gaps. For each gap (9-14), mark one letter (A-H). Do not mark any letter more than once. There is an example at the beginning (0).

The explosion of new media, ranging from the internet to digital television, means that people working in advertising will have to devise more cunning ways to catch the public's attention in the future. The traditional TV advertising campaign will not reach the whole family any more. (0) ...H... The advertising industry will have to work 'harder and smarter' to cut through the 'clutter and noise' of the future with this vast array of new media, all competing to catch the consumer's eye.

People have become more individual in their consumption of advertising. (9) ….. New technology has made experimenting with new forms of advertising a possibility. The monologue where the advert tells housewives that this is the washing powder they should buy is just a cliché now. The internet, for example, has made such ads look old-fashioned. (10) ….A much closer relationship with the consumer is gradually being forged.

The definition of what constitutes advertising will expand well beyond the conventional mass media. Shopping environments will themselves become a part of the advertising process. (11) …..The aim will be to 'warm' people towards these places so that they will return to purchase goods there again.

In spite of these and other changes, it is highly unlikely that TV, print and radio will disappear altogether as advertising media. (12) ….. But other marketing disciplines, such as public relations and direct marketing, will become as important as advertising. Advertising agencies will have to reinvent themselves. They will no longer be able simply to produce advertisements and then support these through PR, direct marketing or the Internet. (13) ……

Thus, creativity will be the most valuable commodity in the future. (14) ….. It will continue to be so in the future. But there will be an increasing premium on the advertiser's ability to be imaginative, and to think laterally about engaging the consumer in a broader variety of media.

Example: (0) - H
A On the contrary, there is almost certain to be an increase in every form of advertising in future years.
В Increasingly, they will exist not simply to sell goods, but also to entertain people and to make sure that they enjoy their time there.
С Originality of thinking has always been in short supply.

D There is, consequently, little hope of them surviving for more than another 20 years.
E This fragmentation has already shown the need for a more sophisticated understanding of where and how to reach people in the most effective way.
F Instead, they will have to change the whole way they look at communication and start thinking about ideas which are not specific to one discipline.
G It has made possible a situation in which customers can tell advertisers what they think, and the advertisers can supply information.
H No longer will all members be watching the same programme: some will be watching different channels on their own TVs, surfing the net or doing both at the same time.
Part Three

Questions 15-20

Read the following article about Grasmere, a small British company that manufactures steel components, and the questions given below. For each question (15-20), mark one letter (А, В, С or D).
In a tough climate for UK manufacturers, Malcolm Drake thinks he has hit on a way for his company, Grasmere, to succeed: by becoming a bespoke manufacturer. This involves working very closely with customers to produce precisely what they want. As a result, Grasmere has become indispensable to its big customers, which are based around Europe. Grasmere makes a range of small metal items that are tailored to fit into much larger products, and its customers include big electronics and electrical goods manufacturers. 'When we start talking to customers about an order they often have only a rough idea what they want,' says Drake. 'We assist them in identifying and specifying their needs, and we advise them on the best way to manufacture the product. Then we fulfil the order; which could involve making anything between 40 and one billion parts in a year.'

Grasmere's main tools are press machines that stamp out metal items in its Birmingham premises. The company was started by Drake's great-grandfather in 1903, when its best-selling products were pen nibs, and the company prides itself on never having fallen below the exacting standards which it set then. While today's range has moved a long way from those pen nibs, some of the original machinery stands in the reception area, as a memento of the company's roots. Only in the last year has the company relocated from the cramped and grimy workshop it moved to in 19109, to a more modern and open-plan building on the outskirts of Birmingham, an operation that involved a major logistical exercise to move the machinery. The new site has allowed Grasmere to make itself more efficient. The company has cut staff from 150 to 125 by shedding low-skilled employees without reducing turnover.

Malcolm Drake says that 18 of Grasmere's customers each contribute revenues of more than £100,000 a year; with half of all turnover coming from three of them. 'It isn't the usual supplier-customer relationship,' he explains. 'We are very open with them and provide them with a lot of internal information about costs. But we select them as much as they select us. If we are asked to do something that is too difficult or expensive, we say "no". We educate the customer as to what is possible. If you allow yourself to be dictated to, that's not a partnership -it's grovelling.'

Grasmere's business has spread more widely to other parts of Europe in the past few years, though not because of any deliberate strategy to push up exports. As Drake points out, if a company such as his is keen to yoke itself to successful companies that think strategically, inevitably this will mean more overseas sales to relatively far-flung divisions of these businesses, to meet their own demand for the components Grasmere can produce.

The company depends on having technically literate people who can talk intelligently to customers. Hence 90 of Grasmere's employees are engineers employed in a range of jobs including making products, sales, marketing and purchasing. While about 100 of the staff are directly involved in shop-floor production work, they frequently also have an outward-facing role, such as talking to customers about design or manufacturing,

Malcolm Drake sums up his company's strengths as offering five attributes that customers want: quality, speed, dependability flexibility and low costs. As a result, the company is flourishing.

  1. What do we learn about Grasmere in the first paragraph?

A It concentrates on working in a particular sector.

В It helps customers to formulate their own requirements.

С It makes a range of products for a small number of applications.

D It designs products then looks for suitable customers for them.

  1. What links Grasmere now with when it was founded?

A The company has always operated in the same premises.

В Some of the original machines are still used for manufacturing.

С The present range of products includes the original lines.

D The company has always had the same attitude to quality.

  1. Grasmere's workforce has fallen because

A productivity has improved.

В it is difficult to recruit skilled staff.

С new machinery has been introduced.

D some staff chose to leave the company.

  1. What does Malcolm Drake say about the company's relationship with its customers?

  1. A Grasmere works on equal terms with its customers.

  2. В Grasmere has a better relationship with some customers than others.

  3. С Grasmere can learn a great deal from its customers.

  4. D Grasmere is expected by some customers to provide too much information.

  1. The company's exports are rising because

A it is following a strategy of promoting its products abroad.

В there is a growing demand abroad for the types of products it makes.

С overseas sections of its client companies are buying from Grasmere.

D it is gaining access to the overseas clients of its own customers.

  1. It is part of Grasmere's policy to ensure that

A every customer is allocated to a specific salesperson.

В many of its engineers deal directly with customers.

С each activity is carried out by dedicated staff.

D it has a department which designs new products.

Part Four

Questions 21-30

Read the article below offering advice to job-seekers. Choose the correct word to fill each gap from А, В, С or D. For each question (21-30), mark one letter (А, В, С or D). There is an example at the beginning (0).

Example: (0) - A

Each time you try for a more (0)……position, the selection process gets (21)…… Your abilities, personality traits, your lifestyle, values and aspirations will all be vigorously (22) ……by your prospective colleagues and also your bosses. Do you know how to (23) ……yourself when you are under the microscope? If you are to (24)…… your ambitions, now is the time to learn how to do

(25) ……to yourself and prepare for formal selection processes.

Learn about the various methods you can employ to find your way into a different institution, gain a more sophisticated (26) …… of how headhunters work and learn to position yourself so that you can be found easily. Taking (27) ……of any situation to maximise your visibility is very useful. Even when you are not offered a particular job for which you have been considered, do leave an impression which will remain in the mind of the headhunter should other possibilities (28) …..

You (29) ……it to yourself to do the best you can. Make sure you perform in such a way that you can be satisfied that the decision about you has been made with the (30) ……amount of up-to-date and accurate information about your capabilities. Do you know what they are and do you have some stories prepared which will illustrate them well?



























































































Part Five

Questions 31-40

Read the article below about computer printers. For each question (31-40), write one word. There is an example at the beginning
Example: (0) - BE

Most companies now realise that the so-called 'paperless office' is clearly an illusion - and probably always will (0)be… Digital technology has revolutionised working practices and methods of communication, but it has created additional media rather (31) …… replacing existing ones. Therefore, paper is here to stay, and the printer can be sure of keeping (32) ……place alongside the computer, fax and telephone as a basic item of office equipment, fundamental to the life of most companies.

However, like many other basic items, the printer is often seen (33) …… peripheral, and insufficient attention is given to its selection. It is worth remembering that the equipment that you attach to your computer is just as important as the computer's technical specification. You will soon find that
(34) ……you are using a printer that jams and smudges your work, or makes getting names and addresses onto envelopes seem an impossible task, then supersonic speed of your microprocessor will be no great advantage.

Printing technology has developed rapidly over the (35) …… few years, and it seems set to continue to so. Finding the best printer for your particular needs depends on many factors, not least
(38) ……which is cost. Yet even before cost comparisons come (39) …… consideration, the questions of brand, colour, volume, speed and quality of output all need careful thought. The best motto is 'try before you buy'. That way, you will get the best printer for your company, and it will be (40) …… the best possible price.
The bar chart below shows the forecasts of unit sales by Toller Electrical Ltd for the four quarters of next year in each of its three main product areas.

Using the information from the bar chart, write a short report describing and comparing the sales forecasts for the three product areas for next year. Write 120-140 words.

Part One

Questions 1-12

You will hear Jack Lester, founder of Hinde Instruments Corporation, a telescope manufacturer, giving a talk about the development of his company. As you listen, for questions 1-12, complete the notes using up to three words or a number. After you have listened once, replay the recording.


  1. Hinde Instruments'…………………………… are in California.

  2. Hinde Instruments faced the risk of ……………………………. in 1991.

Founding the company

  1. Jack Lester worked forWAC as ………………………….

  2. At first, Hinde Instruments' telescopes were available through …………………………

  3. The …………………………of Hinde Instruments' telescopes made them popular with amateur astronomers.

The problem years

  1. In February 1991, Hinde Instruments faced demands for repayment of its ………………………….

  2. Amtex sold Hinde Instruments' entire ………………….of telescopes and its liabilities for $1,000.

Progress being made

  1. It took only to clear Hinde Instruments' debts.

  2. Hinde Instruments talks to about its products.

  1. The major strength of Hinde Instruments' is its advanced telescopes.

  2. Hinde Instruments aims to use its to expand into new markets.

12 HNT Networks buys ……………………. from Hinde Instruments.
Part Two

Questions 13-22

You will hear five different people talking about the Master of Business Administration courses (MBAs) which they have taken. For each extract, there are two tasks. For Task One, decide why each person decided to take that particular course from the list A-H. For Task Two, decide what the main benefit of the course has been for each speaker from the list A-H. After you have listened once, replay the recording.

Task One - Reason for choosing that particular course

  • For questions 13-17, match the extracts with the reasons given by the speaker, listed A-H.

  • For each extract, decide on the appropriate reason.

  • Write one letter (A-H) next to the number of the extract.



A excellent coverage of developments in business law

В good on project management

С personalised attention

D strong focus on marketing

E good reputation of the teaching staff

F convenient location of the institution

G good coverage of e-commerce

H inclusion of courses on financial management






Task Two - Main benefit of the course for the speaker

  • For questions 18-22, match the extracts with the main benefit for the speaker, listed A-H.

  • For each extract, choose the main benefit each speaker describes.

  • Write one letter (A-H) next to the number of the extract.


A I have broadened my understanding of monetary issues.

В What I learnt is useful in my current work in human-resource management.

С I am much more comfortable working as part of a team.

D I have changed my attitude to senior management.

E Other participants gave me a better understanding of how customers feel.

F I have a better understanding of my own limitations.

G My time management has improved.

H Work I did on the course was useful when I applied for the job I now have.






Part Three

Questions 23-30

You will hear a Business Studies tutor and a student, Martin, discussing Ralcona, a UK-based soft-drinks company. For each question (23-30), mark one letter (А, В or C) for the correct answer. After you have listened once, replay the recording.

  1. Why did Ralcona decide to expand their product range?

A Demand for their core product was falling.

В Their competitors were increasing their market share.

С They wanted to build on the success of their core product.

  1. Ralcona's senior management thought that the new product range should be

A limited to the European market.

В introduced in planned stages.

С sold under a different brand name.

  1. What was Ralcona's strategy with regard to their new products?

A to price them at a higher level than their existing products

В to copy their competitors' successful products

С to target them at the younger end of the market

  1. How did Ralcona find designers for the packaging of the new products?

A They headhunted personnel from their competitors.

В They recruited newly qualified young designers.

С They subcontracted the design to a specialist agency.

  1. What unforeseen problem delayed the introduction of the new range?

A Ralcona's marketing department was understaffed.

В Ralcona's competitors introduced a new marketing campaign.

С Communication with Ralcona's retail outlets was poor.

  1. Ralcona's executives were surprised to find that the new products were

A bought by a wider range of people than expected.

В used in more ways than anticipated.

С more popular than Ralcona's core product.

29 How did the success of the new product range affect Ralcona?

A The marketing department was restructured.

В Employees were rewarded for being more innovative.

С The company developed closer links with its retail outlets.

30 According to Martin, what can other businesses learn from studying Ralcona's success?

A that companies must take risks to beat their competitors

В that products can be marketed in different ways to different groups

С that ongoing market research is essential to effective selling


Part One
Give a short talk on the following business topic. You have to choose one of the topics from the three below and then talk for about one minute. You have one minute to prepare your ideas.
A Marketing: the importance of advertising slogans in promoting a brand or product
B Information management: the importance of keeping staff informed about company policies and plans
C Purchasing: how to achieve and maintain good relations with all suppliers
Part Two

You are given a discussion topic. You have 30 seconds to look at the task prompt, and then discuss the topic with your partner. After you have finished with the task, you will be asked some follow-on questions.


Your company is proposing to send a team of staff abroad for six months to set up an office and train local employees. You have been asked to make some recommendations for the project.

Discuss and decide together:

  • How to select appropriate staff to manage the project.

  • What preparation and advice the staff would need before leaving.

  • How to maintain effective communication between the new office and the company headquarters.

Follow-on Questions

1 What advantages would there be in working abroad for a short period of time?

2 What kind of problems could staff encounter working abroad?

3 How can people get information while they are working abroad?

4 What effect does the increase in international contacts have on the way companies operate? (Why?)

5 How important is it for businesses to have their own offices abroad? (Why?/Why not?)


1. Academic Vocabulary

Research and Study Aims
A Expressing aims





We took the deliberate decision to keep our study small.

= intentional; is often used for something negative


have something as a goal, achieve your goal

we don't usually say 'reach your goal'


with the intention of -ing, have no intention

of -ing

verb = intend followed by the infinitive


motive for -ing [reason]

verb - motivate; more general noun = motivation


meet/achieve objectives

= what you plan to do or achieve


top priority, take priority over

implies a list of important things


Our purpose was to test our theory.

on purpose means deliberately


Their strategy was to proceed slowly.

detailed plan for success


reach/achieve/attain a target

= level or situation you hope to achieve

B An example of a mission statement

Look at this web page for the Centre of Research into Creation in the Performing Arts. Note how the aims are expressed through the infinitive and in formal language.


ResCen exists to further2 the understanding of how artists research and develop new processes and forms, by working with professional artists and others.


To establish3 new understandings4 of creative methods and their application in practice-as-research, extending knowledge bases5 in these areas

To explore and challenge6 traditional hypothesis-based and critical-analytical research methodologies established within the university

To establish a critical mass7 of artist-researchers, meeting regularly, to instigate8 and inform9 new creative work across disciplines

To provide an infrastructure10 for practice-led and artist-informed postgraduate study within the university

To further develop criteria" for the definition and evaluation of creative practice-as-research, as part of the wider national debate

To contribute to the development of a national infrastructure supporting practice-as-research, at the interface12 between academic and other centres of art-making and its study

1 short written statement of the aims of an organisation 2 move forward, advance 3 encourage people to accept
4 understanding can be used as a countable noun in this context 5 the basic knowledge shared by everyone working in the areas 6 question 7 influential number 8 initiate, cause to start 9 provide knowledge that can influence 10 basic systems and support services " standards; singular = criterion 12 place where two things come together and affect each other
1 Rewrite the sentences using words and expressions from the previous input and beginning as shown.

  1. Protecting the privacy of our subjects must take priority over absolutely everything else. (We must give ...)

  2. Our intention in designing the questionnaire was to make it as simple as possible to answer. (We designed the questionnaire with ...)

  3. We aimed to define and evaluate a new approach to urban planning. (We had as our goal the ...)

  4. I did not intend to become a scientist when I began my studies. (I had no ...)

  5. A methodology based on a hypothesis does not work in some cases. (A hypothesis- ...)

  6. Our project is located in the area where sociology and psychology meet. (Our project is located at ...)

2 Read these descriptions of their research by academics and then answer the questions. Use a dictionary for any unknown words.

1 Dr Janeja (in a lecture): 'We wanted to see if we could explain trie fact that the expansion of the universe is accelerating.'

2 Dr Finstein (in an introduction to an article): 'Our research questioned the notion that larger mammals only appeared long after the dinosaurs had died out.'

3 Prof. Li (in a lecture): 'We carefully restricted our sample to people born within ten kilometres of the lake,'

4 Prof. Simons (in a lecture): 'We wanted to build on existing research and offer new insights into the effects of stress.'

5 Dr Andreas (in a conference presentation): 'We really wanted to put into practice some of the research on e-learning to improve our present system.'

6 Prof. Horza (in an article): 'We were hoping to instigate a new type of investigation.'

7 Dr Tadeus (in a conference presentation): 'We had no detailed plan at the outset; things developed as we went along.'

  1. Whose team took a deliberate decision to do something?

  2. Whose team wanted to further the understanding of something?

  3. Whose team did not have a strategy for their research?

  4. Who wanted to start something that had not existed before?

  5. Whose team was interested in the application of something?

  6. Whose purpose was it to establish a reason for something?

  7. Whose research challenged an existing idea?

3 Answer the questions about the vocabulary of the previous input.

  1. What word can we use to refer to the basic support services and systems of a country?

  2. What phrase can we use if everyone in a country seems to be discussing an issue?

  3. What is another word for academic subjects?

  4. What phrase means 'the basic knowledge of an academic field'?

  5. How could the phrase the place where theory meets practice be reworded?

  6. What verbs are typically used with (a) objective and (b) target}

  7. What are the two noun forms connected with the verb motivate}

  8. What is the opposite of theory-led research?

Describing Problems
A Introducing a problem

Note the way words are combined in these extracts from academic articles.

1 As the mining operations became deeper and deeper, the problem of flooding arose1.

2 In a recent survey, 34% of customers experienced difficulties with online buying.

3 Walsh's paper discusses the controversy2 surrounding privatisation of health services.

4 Conservation driven by market forces seems to be a contradiction in terms3.

5 The topic is inadequately treated, and several errors are apparent4 in the analysis.

6 Integrating the new member states poses5 a challenge to the European Union.

7 The research raises6 the issue of rainforests and the people who live in them.

8 The patient had difficulty in remembering very recent events.

9 Most theories of the origin of the universe contain inconsistencies7.

10 The results revealed shortcomings8 in the design of the questionnaire.

1 question/issue/difficulty/controversy also often combine with arise 2 a lot of disagreement or argument about something 3 a combination of words which is nonsense because some of the words suggest the opposite of some of the others 4 can be seen 5 threat/problem!danger also are often used with pose; the verb present can also be used with these nouns 6 question/problem also are often used with raise 7 if a reason, idea, opinion, etc. has inconsistencies, different parts of it do not agree 8 faults or a failure to reach a particular standard
B Responding to a problem






react/ reaction

It was a study of how small firms react to the problem of over-regulation.

act in a particular way as a direct result of



The Minister's response to the problem of inflation was to impose a price freeze.

his/her reaction to what has happened or been said or done

deal with


How should training courses deal with the

issue of violence in the healthcare setting?

take action in order to solve a problem



Governments do not seem to be able to tackle the problem of urban congestion.

try to deal with



Governments need to address the problem of waste from nuclear power plants.

(formal) give attention to or deal with



The community leaders attempted to mediate between the police and the people.

talk to the two groups involved to try to help them find a solution to their problems

C Solving a problem

The researchers solved the problem by increasing the temperature.

The team came up with / found a solution to the problem of water damage.

By using video, the researchers overcame the problem of interpreting audio-only data.

The two governments finally resolved the problem of sharing water resources. A successful resolution to the crisis came in 1998.

The answer to the problem lay in changing the design of the experiment.

The book was entitled: 'Conflict Resolution: the Management of International Disputes'.

1 Match the beginning of each sentence with the most appropriate ending.

1 Students always seem to have difficulty

surrounding the President.

2 Ford pointed out that the methodology had


3 The need to find replacement fuels poses

some important questions for the Party.

4 The media continue to focus on the controversy

many difficulties.

5 In the figures he presented several errors were

arose fairly recently.

6 On their way across Antarctica they experienced

in remembering this formula.

7 The results of the opinion poll raise

a number of inconsistencies.

8 Problems caused by pollution in this area

considerable challenges for scientists.

2 There is a preposition missing in each of these sentences. Add it in the right place.

  1. It is no easy task mediating unions and management.

  2. In this lecture I plan to deal the later novels of Charles Dickens.

  3. The answer to most problems in agriculture lies the soil.

  4. He thought for a long time but was unable to come with a solution.

  5. Green tourism may initially feel like a contradiction terms.

  6. I wonder what the professor's reaction the article will be.

  7. The company has experienced a number of difficulties the computer operating system.

8 Have you found a solution the problem yet?
3 Complete these tables. Use a dictionary to help you if necessary.













4 Choose one of the words from the previous task to complete each sentence. You may need to change the form of the verbs.

  1. The professor was very angry when the student him so rudely and so publicly.

  1. As the saying goes, to is human - we all make mistakes.

  2. I hope someone will eventually come up with a to the problem of global warming.

  1. The diplomats are hoping to…………….. between the two sides and so prevent a conflict.

  2. The library many rare and beautiful books.

  3. I am still waiting for the committee's ………… to my request for an extension for my dissertation.

  4. At the beginning of the new academic year Marie …………….. to make much more effort with her assignments.

8 The lecturer ………………… very angrily when I questioned one of her conclusions.
Key Verbs
A Verbs for structuring academic assignments

Look at these tasks which students have been given. Note the key verbs

Discuss some of the problems involved1 in investigating attitudes to diet and health. Write a critical review of an investigation you have read about, or describe an investigation you yourself could conduct2. Consider the advantages and disadvantages of different methods.

Starting from rest, an aircraft accelerates to its take-off speed of 60 km in a distance of 900 metres. Illustrate3 this with a velocity-time graph. Assuming4 constant acceleration, find5 how long the take-off run lasts. Hence calculate6 the acceleration.

'The fact that nations agree to follow international law demonstrates7 that we can identify8 ideals that are trans-national and trans-cultural.' How far is this statement true? Critically analyse any recent event which supports or challenges9 the statement.

Examine10 how industrial growth has affected any two developing countries. Provide11 statistical evidence where necessary and include a discussion of likely future trends.

1 which are part of/included in 2 organise and do 3 draw something in order to explain something 4 accepting something to be true 5 discover by calculating (see 6) 6 judge the number or amount of something and adding, multiplying, subtracting or dividing numbers 7 show, make clear 8 recognise someone or something and say or prove who or what they are 9 questions whether it is true 10 look at or consider carefully and in detail 11 give
B More key verbs

These extracts from academic books contain other key verbs.

In developing methods to explain the significance of health status measures, one can classify1 ways of establishing2 quality of life into two main types.

The length of time spent on the tasks may account for3 the decrease in motivation which was seen4 in many of the participants.

The data presented5 in Chapter 3 showed6 that the age of the subjects was not the main factor.

Political theory attempts7 to build bridges between different schools of political thought.

1 divide things into groups according to their type 2 discover or get proof of 3 explain 4 see is often used in the passive in academic style 5 given 6 proved 7 (formal) tries
C Verbs which combine with noun forms of key verbs

Often in academic style, a verb + the noun form of the key verb is used.


verb + noun



give/provide/offer an explanation (of/for)

The model provides an explanation for the differences between the two sets of data.


carry out an exploration (of)

Kumar carried out an exploration of music genius.


place/put emphasis (on)

The hospital puts a lot of emphasis on training nurses.


give/provide a description (of)

The book gives a description of modern Europe.



The verbs affect and effect are different. To affect means to influence, to effect means to make something happen / to bring about. The burning of fossil fuels has negatively affected the global climate. The procedure has been successful and has effected a return to normal functioning of the engine.
Practice the difference:

  1. Did the newspapers really ________the outcome of election?

  2. If correctly administrated, such drugs can __________ radical cures.

  3. It is known that poor housing significantly _________ educational achievement.

  4. The area has been badly _______ by pollution.

  5. We have tried out our best to _______ a reconciliation between the two parties.

  6. My pleading did not seem to ________ him at all.

  7. It will take years to _______ meaningful changes in the educational system.

  8. The building was badly ________ by the fire.

1 Match each verb on the left with its synonym on the right.

1 affect

2 attempt

3 calculate

4 challenge

5 demonstrate

6 identify

7 include

8 investigate

9 provide



















2 Choose the best verb from В or С to complete these sentences. Put the verb into the correct form.

  1. As can ………………… from Table II, participation figures have been steadily falling since 1970.

  2. Different authors have ……………………….. for the President's actions in different ways.

  3. Mendel attempted to devise a system for …………………………. the many different types of pea ………………………. plant that he grew.

  4. It is often most effective ………………………… your data in a chart or table.

  5. The data we have collected ………………………. that there has been a downward trend with regard to job satisfaction over the last 50 years.

  1. The aim of the research is ……………………. a new software application which will help aviation engineers design more sophisticated aircraft.

  1. The archaeologists should be able to use carbon dating techniques ………………. exactly how old the bones are.

  2. Charles Darwin attempted ……………….. the existence of different species in terms of evolution.

3 In academic style, noun phrases can often be used instead of some of the key verbs. Complete each phrase with the appropriate noun. Use a dictionary if necessary.

1 investigate = conduct, carry out an …………….. into/of

2 illustrate = provide an ……………of

3 analyse = provide, carry out an ……………...of

4 affect = have an ……………………. on

5 attempt = make an …………………. to/at

6 classify = make, provide a ……………… of

Verbs and the Words
A How verbs combine with other words

You should note a number of things about verbs in an academic context, in particular:

  • any nouns often used with the verb and whether the noun goes before or after the verb, for example, the research/theory is based on, to pose a problem/question/threat

  • any adverbs often used with the verb, for example, mainly/partly/loosely based

  • any prepositions following the verb, for example, to base something on something else

  • if the verb is often used in the passive, for example, be based on, be associated with.





base (on)

research, theory, story, hypothesis

mainly, partly loosely

The story was loosely based on a true event which occurred in 1892.The theory is mainly based on the writer's initial study.



word, idea, theory, term




A decrease in consumer spending is generally associated with fears of instability. The word is commonly associated with youth culture.


idea, problem, issue, question, topic, theme

at length, briefly, thoroughly

Wilson and Crick (1965) discuss the problem at length. Sim's article discusses the issue thoroughly.


relationship, connection

firmly, clearly, conclusively

Geologists have been unable to firmly establish a connection between the two types of fossils. Lopez conclusively establishes a relationship

between the two phenomena.


facts, evidence, effects, aspects

briefly, critically, thoroughly

We shall now briefly examine the evidence

for the existence of dark matter. Our aim is to thoroughly examine the effects of stress.


existence, need, effects, importance

clearly, convincingly

The study clearly demonstrates the importance of support for dementia sufferers. Harvey's work convincingly demonstrates the need for a new approach to the problem.


(with) (often used in passive)

causes, factors, issues, properties, needs, approach, origin

correctly, clearly, closely

This approach is closely identified with the

work of H. Crowley during the 1950s.The article clearly identifies the factors influencing the decision to go to war.

B More verbs in combination with nouns, adverbs and prepositions

  • pose - This inevitably poses a question concerning the stability of society. Parks poses a challenge to Kahn's theory.

  • suggest - The most recent results strongly suggest a different interpretation of the situation. The article suggests a new approach to the problem.

  • list - Here I simply list the main hypotheses/causes/features/characteristics; they will be examined in detail below.

  • refer - The book refers frequently/specifically/in passing to the 1956 economic crisis.

  • observe -This is due to the changes/trends/differences we observed earlier.

1 Choose the most appropriate adverb for the verb in bold, and add it to the sentence. Note the word order used in the input above.

  1. Paulson's research demonstrated the need for a new approach to the study of stress.

invariably convincingly closely

  1. As was observed, there is a strong correlation between house prices and inflation.

closely critically earlier

  1. In the study of language, 'tense' refers to the coding of time in the form of the verb.

specifically strongly briefly

  1. Classical liberal economics is identified with the theories of Milton Friedman.

thoroughly closely conclusively

  1. Chapter 1 discusses the main issues, but they are dealt with in greater detail in Chapter 2.

closely simply briefly

  1. To date, no research exists that establishes a connection between behaviour, personality traits, and leadership traits.

firmly thoroughly critically

  1. SENTA is a computer programming language based on Logo.

strongly slightly loosely

  1. Social research techniques were applied to examine the effects of the policy on the poor.

strongly mainly critically

2 Reading
Task 1. The following input and a mind gap provide a reader with information on managing people; there is a close relationship between the two. Read the text and look at the diagram, then do the exercises given below.

The ability to motivate others and improve morale is a 'soft skill' - difficult to acquire and almost impossible to measure. Four key thinkers contributed to this field in the 1950s and 60s, and their work is still the basis for contemporary approaches:

  1. Maslow developed his 'hierarchy of needs'.

  • self-actualization needs

  • ego (self-esteem) needs

  • social needs

  • security needs

  • physiological needs

We move to the next stage up only when the lower need is met. And as soon as any need is met, then it is no longer a motivator. The bottom two are usually not an issue in business (unless you are hungry or in danger). After that, our next need is to feel accepted and part of a group (social need). If that happens, then next we have ego needs: recognition and acknowledgement from others, as well as a sense of status or importance. Finally, if that need is met, we want self-fulfilment ('self-actualization' in Maslow's terms): to achieve, to develop to our fullest potential.

  1. Herzberg expressed similar ideas. He agreed that the most important motivators at work were sense of achievement, earned recognition and interest in the job itself. But then there was another set of job factors ('hygiene' or 'maintenance' factors) that do not motivate employees, but can cause dissatisfaction if they are missing. These include salary, job security, working conditions and good relations with co-workers.

  2. McGregor observed that managers generally fall into two categories: Theory X and Theory Y. Theory X managers believe that most people dislike work and must be controlled and directed to achieve the organization's goals. Theory Y managers believe that most people like work and actively seek responsibility. They believe in empowerment (= giving employees the authority to make decisions without traditional managerial approval) and enabling (= giving them the tools).

  3. Drucker believed in 'management by objectives' (MBO). MBO calls on managers to work with employees to formulate clear, ambitious but achievable goals. There has to be monitoring and measurement to ensure objectives are being met, and workers who achieve their objectives can be rewarded with pay rises, bonuses, etc.


Communication is two-way: top-down and bottom-up. It can also be external: the PR (public relations) function handles this.

Inside an organization, informal communication happens all the time: everyone enjoys discussing 'office politics' at the water cooler and picking up information 'on the grapevine' (= passed from one person to another in conversation). Formal communication is through the medium of meetings, presentations, reports, etc, and these are covered in the second half of this book. But two other key communication skills are not possible to practise in a book:

  • 'Active listening'. This means listening with full attention, not interrupting except to ask for clarification, and giving consideration to the other person's point of view.

  • 'Assertiveness'. This means stating your needs and opinions confidently and clearly, without on the one hand being indirect or 'suffering in silence', or on the other being aggressive and rude.


A team (or 'taskforce' or 'working party') needs a variety of personality types to perform well:

  • 'Head' people who are good at thinking and problem-solving.

  • 'Hands' people who are good at doing and acting.

  • 'Heart' people who are good at networking and resolving conflicts.

Once a team has been set up, it usually goes through the five stages of development identified by Bruce Tuckman:

  1. Forming. People get to know each other.

  2. Storming. This refers both to 'brainstorming' as ideas get suggested for the first time, and also to conflicts that arise as team members clarify their roles and expectations.

  3. Norming. Members sort out a way of working together and begin to 'own' and share the team objectives.

  4. Performing. Members focus on solving problems and doing tasks. Progress can be seen as they pass various milestones (= events that mark an important stage in a process).

  5. Adjourning. The job is finished, and there is often a public recognition and celebration of achievements.

1 Fill in the missing letters.

  1. The level of confidence and positive feelings that people have, especially people who work together, is their level of 'mo …………….e' (slightly different to 'motivation', which is linked to doing things).

  1. When we have the recognition and respect of others, it adds greatly to our 'self-es……………m' (= feeling that we are valued and important).

  1. When we have been successful, it is good to have the 'ac…………………nt' (= public recognition and thanks) of others.

  1. Developing to our fullest potential was called 'self-actualization' by Maslow. A more common term is 'self-ful…………………..ment.

  2. Being successful after a lot of effort gives us a 'sense of a…………………..nt'.

  3. Giving people more control over their work is called 'emp………nt.

  4. Giving someone the tools and skills to do something is called 'en……………..ing' them.

  5. Successful managers are neither passive nor aggressive. Instead, they are 'ass……………………ve'.

  6. Business leaders need to have vision and 'comm………………nt' (= enthusiasm, determination and a strong belief in what they are doing).

2 Read the text then answer the questions below.

"The work of Maslow and Herzberg has been developed 1 into the theory of 'job enrichment'. This theory states that there are five characteristics affecting an individual's motivation and performance:

  1. Skill variety. The extent to which a job demands different skills.

  2. Task identity. The degree to which a job has a visible outcome.

  1. Task significance. The degree to which a job has an impact on the work of others.

  1. Autonomy. The degree of freedom and choice that people have in scheduling work and determining procedures.

  2. Feedback. The amount of direct and clear information that is received about performance.

The first three factors above contribute to the meaningfulness of the job. The fourth gives a feeling of responsibility. The fifth contributes to a feeling of achievement and recognition.

Job enrichment tries to maximize the above five factors within the constraints of the organization. It also includes two specific strategies:

  • job enlargement - combining a series of tasks into one challenging and interesting assignment

  • job rotation - moving employees from one job to another.

Find a word in the text which means:

  1. making something better and more enjoyable ……………………

  2. result …………………..

  3. power to make independent decisions ………………………..

  4. quality of being serious, useful and important …………………………

  5. making something bigger ………………………..

  6. piece of work that you must do as part of your job or course of study ……………………………..

3 Read about a decision-making process at Xerox.

In the 1990s Xerox was in trouble. 2Anne Mulcahy, a I company insider, realized how serious the situation was -customers were leaving, morale was low, and the company product line was too unfocused. 3She became CEO in 2000 and immediately began a listening tour, seeking insights from employees, customers and industry experts on where the company had gone wrong. 4What strategic

options were open to Xerox? 5lt could focus on laser or ink-jet, high-end or low-end, single-function or multi-function. 6And which areas of the business were going to be cut? 7R&D was traditionally strong at Xerox but used up a lot of internal resources. 8Mulcahy and her team worked out a plan. 9First, they would focus on cash generation, second they would cut costs wherever possible (R&D was saved from this), and finally they would focus exclusively on areas where Xerox had a competitive advantage. 10Mulcahy took time to explain this plan to front-line employees. 11 In addition, she made sure that everyone explained it to customers as well, and made many customer visits herself.
Now write the sentence numbers that match the stages below.

  1. Accept there is a problem; define the situation. _____

  2. Collect information and ideas. _____

  3. Analyse information and develop alternatives. _______ to ______

  4. Make a decision on the best alternative. _____ to ______

e) Communicate the decision and begin implementation. ________ to _______
4 Change each adjective describing people into its opposite.

  1. accurate

__ __ accurate / __ __ precise

  1. careful

care __ __ __ __

  1. conservative

inn __ __ __ __ __ve / ra __ __ __al

  1. decisive

__ __ decisive / hes __ __ __ __ __

  1. efficient

__ __ efficient / wa __ __ eful

  1. enthusiastic

__ __ enthusiastic / b __ __ ed

  1. flexible

__ __ flexible / r __ __ id

  1. hands-on

l __ __ __ __ ez-f __ __ __ e

  1. lazy

h __ __ __-w __ __ __ ing

  1. patient

__ __ patient

  1. polite

__ __ polite / r __ __ __

  1. reliable

__ __ reliable

5 Complete each sentence using either sensible or sensitive. These adjectives are often confused.

  1. He reacts to things in an emotional way and is easily offended, he's very sensitive / sensible.

  2. He is reasonable, practical and mature, he is very sensitive / sensible.

  3. Yesterday it was a sensible / sensitive increase of temperature.

  4. Do not shout at her – she is very sensitive / sensible.

  5. This is such a sensitive / sensible issue that perhaps the press should not be told.

  6. It was very sensitive / sensible of you to bring your umbrella.

  7. “I want to buy this dress”. “Be sensible / sensitive, dear. You have not got much money.”

  8. Have you got a sun cream for sensitive / sensible skin?

  9. Do not be so sensitive / sensible – I am not criticizing you.

  10. She is very sensitive / sensible about money.

11 We will be doing a lot of walking, so you’d better bring some sensible / sensitive shoes with you.


Discussion topics

1 All this Maslow and Herzberg stuff is garbage. There's only one thing that motivates people: money.

О Agree О Disagree

3 The best communicator inside an organization that I have ever known is __________________. (name) He / She is such a good communicator because…

2 All this stuff about teamwork is garbage. If you want to do a job properly, do it yourself.

О Agree О Disagree

Task 2. Graphs and Diagrams
A Types of diagrams

Diagrams are visual ways of presenting data concisely. They are often also called figures. In an academic article they are usually labelled Fig. (Figure) 1, Fig. 2, etc. A pie chart is a circle divided into segments from the middle (like slices of a cake) to show how the total is divided up. A key or legend shows what each segment represents. A bar chart is a diagram in which different amounts are represented by thin vertical or horizontal bars which have the same width but vary in height or length. A histogram is a kind of bar chart but the bar width also varies to indicate different values. A table is a grid with columns and rows of numbers.

A cross-section is something, or a model of something, cut across the middle so that you can see the inside. A cross-section of the earth's crust, for example, shows the different layers that make it up. A label gives the name of each part of the cross-section. Cross-section can also be used to mean a small group that is representative of all the different types within the total group (e.g. the survey looked at a cross-section of society). A flowchart is a diagram which indicates the stages of a process.

A graph

The graph presents data relating to teenagers and pocket money. A random sample of 1,000 teenagers were surveyed and the average pocket money received at each age has been plotted on the graph. The x axis or horizontal axis indicates age and the у axis or vertical axis shows the amount of money received per week. The graph shows that 15-year-olds receive twice as much pocket money as 13-year-olds. From the graph we can see that the amount received reaches a peak at the age of 18 and then starts to decline. This decline can perhaps be explained by the fact that many teenagers start earning and stop receiving pocket money at the age of 18.

Graphs are drawn by plotting points on them and then drawing a line to join adjacent points. If there are two lines on a graph - separate lines, for example, to indicate boys' and girls' pocket money - then the lines would probably cross or intersect at various points. Lines that run parallel to one another never intersect.

Graphs show how numbers increase or decrease. The nouns increase and decrease have the stress on the first syllable, but the verbs have the stress on the second syllable. Numbers can also be said to rise or grow and fall, drop or decline. The nouns rise, growth, fall, drop and decline, like increase and decrease are followed by in (to explain what is rising) or of (to explain the size of the change), e.g. a rise of10% in the number of cars. Other verbs used about growth include double1, soar2, multiply3, appreciate4 and exceed5.

1 grow to twice the size; opposite = halve 2 (dramatic word) rapid movement upwards; opposite = plummet 3 grow rapidly to a very large number 4 used about the value of something, e.g. a painting or car; opposite = depreciate 5 go over, expresses a number in relation to another number; opposite = fall below



Note that graph is a noun and graphic [relating to drawing: vivid, especially when describing something unpleasant] is usually an adjective. The economics textbook contains a lot of fascinating graphs. My nephew studied graphic design. The book contains some very graphic descriptions of the massacre. Graphics can be used as a plural noun to refer to pictorial material, e.g. The graphics in that computer game are brilliant.


1 Look at the chart. Complete the commentary with words from the previous input.

The chart ………………. the number of cars entering the downtown area of West City each day over an eight-year period (years 1 -8). The totals are listed on the …………….. axis (give two answers), while the years are listed on the ……………….axis (give two answers). To the right of the graph we see the ………………. The number of cars ……………… over the period. The total rose in the first few years and …………………... a ………………..in year 5, after which the numbers started to ……………… This can be ………………. by the ………………that a new mass transit railway was opened in year 6, which is a ………………..illustration of how good public transport can dramatically affect car use.

2 Answer the questions.

  1. Draw examples of a pie chart and a bar chart.

  2. What would be the best type of diagram to present the different layers of rock in the Grand Canyon?

  3. In a table, what is the difference between columns and rows?

  4. What would be the best type of diagram to present the different stages in a research project you did?

  5. How many segments are there in the pie chart opposite?

  6. If you look at two adjacent columns in a table, are they next to each other or separated?

  7. What is another name for a legend in a diagram?

  8. What type of data collection are you doing if you survey the first 50 people you come across?

  9. What do two lines on a graph do if (a) they intersect and (b) they run parallel to each other?

3 Make the rather informal words in bold sound more precise and academic.

  1. The different bits of the pie chart show the numbers of people in each age group.

  2. She kept a record by marking the midday temperature on a graph for a month.

3 People's salaries usually reach their highest point when they are in their late 40s.
3 This flowchart shows the different bits of our project over the next five years.

  1. The two lines on the graph cross each other at point A.

  2. Draw a line connecting the points that are next to each other.

  3. The government's popularity in the opinion polls is beginning to fall.

  4. If you look along the top line of the table you can see the figures for the 1950s.

4 Change the sentences using words with the same meanings as the words in bold.

  1. Populations of some bird species in South Asia have crashed by 97% in recent years. The number of cases of death by poisoning has increased sharply.

  2. In 2007 the child mortality rate was lower than 60 deaths per 1,000.

  3. The average family car in the UK goes down in value by 20% per year. This means its value has fallen by more than half after just three years.

  4. A typical piece of land on the edge of the city will go up in value by 15% per year, and house prices have gone up rapidly in the last six months.

  5. Business courses have increased greatly in number while science programmes have gone down.

  6. The temperature was higher than 45°C in some parts of the country during the heatwave.

  7. Between 1983 and 2006, the number of this species of condor went up from 22 pairs to 273. Other bird populations have gone up by two times in the same period.

8 The numbers of old soldiers attending regimental reunions are becoming smaller each year.

Task 3. Miscellaneous Economics

A) Deregulating markets

Complete the table with the correct form of the given words.



General noun




















B) Use appropriate forms of these words to complete the text.

C) Economic performance

The sentences below are extracts from a newspaper report on economic performance. Choose the correct explanation for the words in italics from a), b), or c).

1 Retail sales continued to grow in March, confirming the trend begun in the pre-Christmas boom, according to Paul Figg, of IMA Consultants.

a) sales in the shops

b) sales of clothes

c) factory prices

2 Consumer demand will help economic growth, forecast at 4% for the year.

a) price rises

b) jobs

c) total national income

3 Higher consumption of imported goods could result in a worsening trade deficit.

a) decline in trade

b) negative balance of value of exports and imports

c) inflation

4 Uncertainty in the industrial job market is creating a lack of consumer confidence.

a) employment in manufacturing

b) spending in the shops

c) feel-good factor in ordinary people

5 Manufacturing output is lower and exports have almost halved.

a) building new factories

b) industrial production

c) employment in factories

6 There is a problem of excessive stock levels which means there are no new jobs.

a) goods waiting to be sold

b) strikes

cj high prices

7 There is an economic slowdown in most major export markets.

a) countries which normally export to this country.

b) countries which normally buy from us.

c) stock exchanges

D) Choose the best word to complete the sentence.

1 confidant / confident

He feels _________________ winning the election.

I can talk to her about my personal matters, she is my ____________________.

2 continual / continuous

___________________ demands for improved working conditions made our boss crazy.

The government is under _________________ pressure to reform the parliamentary system.

3 cosign / cosine

The ratio of the length of the side next to an angle less than 90°, divided by the length of the hypotenuse is known as ________________________.

To validate the contract you must __________________________ it.

4 council / counsel (verb, noun)

This play is supported by a grant from the local arts ____________________.

The police have provided experts to ____________________ local people affected by the tragedy.

5 cite / sight / site

The old woman has lost her ___________________.

The council haven't yet chosen the __________________ for the new hospital.

She __________________ three reasons why people get into debt.

3 Listening
Task 1. Listen to the interview with a CEO and do the following exercises.

1 Read statements 1-4. What is your opinion? Write 'Agree' or 'Disagree' in the column headed 'My opinion'.

My opinion

Lara's opinion

1 Having a 'Suggestions Box' at work is a good idea.

2 Email has made communication at work much easier.

3 Positive feedback should be given publicly as well as privately.

4 Workers in the public sector are lazy.

2 Now listen to an interview with Lara about managing people. What does she think about the same statements? Write 'Agree' or 'Disagree' in the final column above.
3 Read the questions below. Try to remember what Lara said, then listen again to check.

  1. What are the three channels of communication according to Lara?

  2. What name does Lara give to the kind of skills that are important for teamwork?

  3. Apart from giving positive feedback, what other thing does Lara think is important for motivation?

  4. What change does Lara want to make in the public sector?

  5. What kind of person has vision and sees the big picture?

  6. What role does Lara compare to an Admiral?


acknowledgement recognition

annual review summary of company's results from previous year

cc send a copy of an email to a third party

cover for sb to do someone else's work on a temporary basis

drive ambition and determination

face-to-face in person

humble with low social status

incentive something that makes you work harder

mingle mix informally

shop floor area in a factory where products are made
Task 2. You will hear the recording of the economic text The falling value of dollar. Listen to the speaker and put the sentences in order they appear in the text.

Advantages of a strong currency for importers


Money for travelling


Exports and a high currency value


American enterprises do well overseas due to the weak dollar


Recent statistics show a decrease of the trade deficit


Demand for imported goods is rising in America


4 Writing
Task 1. Complete the report with the correct form of the word in brackets.

The IBM share price began 2001 with a (dramatically) ___________ rise, soaring from $85 to over $110. In February prices became (erratic) ___________, fluctuating between $110 and $120, before then dropping (sudden)___________to back below $90 by April. The share price soon rose (quick) _______ again to over $110 by May. Throughout May and June there were further (marked)___________fluctuations between $110 and $120. By July, however, the price had slid again (slight) __________ back to just over $ 100. Over the next three months the price remained (reasonable)___________(stable)___________around the $105 mark. However, the price then fell (sharp)___________once more back to the $90 level in October. There then followed a (strong) _________ recovery with shares climbing (steady)___________ until the end of the year, ending with a 52-week high of $125.

Task 2. There are many ways to describe change. This test looks at several alternatives.

A Choose words from the box which are the opposite to each of the following words.

decline decrease escalate expand fall get worse
go down improve peak

rise / ___________________

increase / __________________

go up / ____________________

climb / __________________

shrink / ___________________

deteriorate / ________________

get better / _______________

collapse / __________________

hit bottom / ________________

B Match each word or phrase (1-9) to one of the graphs below (a-i). Look at the line between the two crosses.

1 decline to nothing 6 recover

2 collapse 7 increase steadily

3 stay the same 8 fluctuate

4 reach a peak 9 rise slightly

5 edge down










Task 3. Describe the trends shown in the following pictures.

Task 4

A Consider the example of the short report describing the trend of X-meat consumption and Y-cigarette smoking in the UK between 1972 and 1996, and comparing these two trends.

Y – cigarette smoking X – meat consumption

This report describes the general trends of cigarettes smoking and meat consumption in the UK between 1972 and 1996.

At the beginning of the period smoking showed a slight decrease, and then it edged down to 53 cigarettes in 1976. Starting from this time there was a constant steady decline which lasted for more than 15 years. Then the situation changed and proved some recovery.

Generally, meat consumption showed a constant negative rise, which lasted for over 20 years. From the start of the period the trend remained almost unchanged, but then, the consumption began to fall steadily. From 1980s there was a long period of constant decrease, which ended up only in 1994 and then the trend became more promising.

Both cigarette smoking and consumption showed a steady downward trend, which lasted for over 19 years.

Consequently, this graph shows that there was a slightly negative trend in the activity for both meat consumption and cigarette smoking. (words 158)

B Using the information from the graph, write a short report describing the trend of X-meat consumption and Y-cigarette smoking in the UK between 1971 and 1997, and comparing these two trends. (120-150 words)

Task 5. The graph shows the share prices for Microsoft and Apple, July-November 1999. Write a 120-150word report describing and comparing the share prices.

Task 6. The input below represents some useful information concerning phrasal verbs (most of them deal with recession movements). Read it and do the tasks.

1) Match up the phrasal verbs on the left with the verbs that have a similar meaning on the right:


bottom out


accept (job, responsibility, etc.)


bring out




carry on




carry out




close down




count on


have confidence in


cut back on


increase (prices)


fall off


introduce something new


lay off


postpone, delay


level off


reach the lowest point


look through


read quickly


look for




mark up


reduce in size


pull out of




put off




scale down


try to find


set up


do or undertake


take on


withdraw from



















2) Use each of the phrasal verbs above once to complete the text. You may need to use the past tense, the past participle or the present continuous form.

After three years of rapid growth, sales began to (1)…………….Then, with the recession, they (2)…………………dramatically. We had to (3)……………..the factory in Ireland, and (4)………………… sixty people. That left a lot of machine workers (5)………………..a job in one small town. They (6)………………….the newspapers every day, but there weren't many job vacancies. The unemployed had to (7)……………….any kind of casual work they could find.

We also had to (8)…………………..staff in the London office, and reconsider the whole British operation that we'd (9)…………………only five years before. Some of the American managers wanted to (10)………………….the British market entirely, and to (11)……………….our whole European business. Instead we have (12)……………….a restructuring, and (13)………………….all our plans for expansion, and for (14)…………………new products. We're trying to (15)………………..as best we can. We might even have to (16)……………….our prices a little, hoping we can (17)…………………our customers' brand loyalty. At least there are some signs that the recession has (18)…………….. .

Task 7. Study the following graph. Complete the description with information you get from the graph.

The year after we took over the company sales were good, at $12m, but the second year they (1) ……………….. In fact, they dropped (2) ……………….. 25%. Sales (3) …………….. for another two years, (4) ……………. for one year, and then (5) …………….. again twice. Since then, there has been a (6) …………….. growth for five years. In fact in just four years, sales rose (7)…………….. $4m (8) ………………. $14m, an increase (9)…………………. 250%.

Task 8. Look at the graph below which illustrates fluctuations in domestic investment in the USA as a percentage of potential Gross National Product, from 1929-1988. The level of investment is clearly linked to the business cycle. Insert the words in the boxes in the texts below.


contracted depression downturns expanded peak recession recovery upturns boom

A period of stock market speculation ended dramatically in October 1929 with the infamous Wall Street Crash. There followed a dramatic (1)…………….. The economy (2)……………again after World War II. There was a series of (3)……………… and (4)………………..in the 1950s. There was a long (5)………………..in the 1960s. Investment reached a (6)………………..in 1972, just before the first oil crisis. There was a (7)…………………in 1975 and the economy (8)………………..again in 1982, but each time there was a rapid (9)…………………..


Now complete the following sentences, using expressions from (A), and these conjunctions:
as a consequence of as a result of because owing to

  1. Investment in 1930 the Crash of 1929.

  2. Private investment during World War II money was needed for the war effort.

  1. There was a in investment in the 1960s the government's incentive policies.

  1. Investment at the end of the 1970s the Federal Reserve's tight monetary policy

Task 9. Complete the sample answer below with the correct expression according to the information in the graph.

This graph shows changes in the popularity of three different activities in a UK sports club over a period, of 20 years.

In 1983 around 50% of club members participated in swimming so this was clearly the most popular activity. However, this figure 1 dipped/decreased steadily to 15% in ]998 and 2 remained constant/levelled off at this rate until 2003.

In contrast, 32% of members did team sports in 1983, and this rate 3 stood at/reached a peak of 40% in 1998 before 4 dropping/growing to its former level. Participation rates for team sports 5 increased/overtook those for swimming and became the highest for all activities from 1993 to 2003.

Finally, participation in gym activities 6 finished at/stood at only 5% in 1983, but this figure 7 fell/grew rapidly from 1988 to 1998, eventually 8 levelling off at/reaching a peak of around 25%, making gym the second most popular activity.

Overall, participation in swimming 9 fluctuated/dropped considerably during the period. Team sports, however, remained popular, while participation in gym activities 10 declined/rose significantly over the period.
Task 10.

a Look at the sentences below and number them in the best order to describe this graph. The first and last ones have been done for you.

___ Although it dipped in 1985, it then rose steadily and reached 750 grams in 2000.

___ By 2000 it was at the same level as the consumption of sugar.

___ In 1975, the consumption of fresh fruit stood at 500 grams, then increased to 600 grams in 1980.

___ However, this gradually increased throughout the period.

_1_ The graph shows changes in the amount of fresh fruit, sugar and ice-cream eaten per person per week in Britain between 1975 and 2000.

_11_ In addition, the consumption of ice-cream, while at a relatively low level, rose significantly during this period.

___ In contrast, there was a consistent drop in sugar consumption.

___ From the graph we can see that overall, the consumption of fruit rose, while the consumption of sugar fell.

___ People consumed more fresh fruit than either sugar or ice-cream throughout the period.

___ The amount consumed decreased steadily from almost 400 grams per person to only 100 grams by 2000.

___ The amount of ice-cream consumed weekly started at about 50 grams.

5 Exam Practice


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