Методическое пособие по английскому языку для студентов 4 курса, обучающихся по программе бакалавриата


Part of my role was to collate off contact with colleagues abroad



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Part of my role was to collate off contact with colleagues abroad.

  • The doctor wanted me to provide seems to be emerging.

  • Scientists all over the world contributed the key elements in a graph.

  • A new and unexpected phenomenon a way to solve their problem.

  • Using shading helps to differentiate the results of our experiments.


    4 Choose the best word from the box to fill each of the gaps.

    conflicting

    crucial

    define

    discern

    engaging

    heated

    interim

    maintaining

    practical

    proper




    publish

    random

    taking







    1. She obtained her results by …….. a ……..sample of the population.

    2. Before we go any further we must ……… each of our roles more precisely.

    3. We must decide what is the ……… way to proceed, in ……… terms.

    4. The group succeeded in ……… contact long after they had all left college.

    5. My trip to Africa was the ……….element in my decision to work in conservation.

    6. Specialists in the field of bio-engineering have been ………… in …….. debate on this issue for some time.

    7. I am told that Smythe is about to ……… some ……. results.

    8 Professor Powell was able to …….. some ………. elements in different accounts of the incident.


    2 Reading

    Task 1. The following input and a mind gap provide a reader with information on Human resource management; there is a close relationship between the two. Read the text and look at the diagram, then do the exercises given below.
    Human resource management (HRM)

    Up to a few decades ago, the term 'human resources' did not exist. Recruitment, compensation and training was done by individual departments, and there would be a small 'personnel department' that was responsible for clerical jobs such as keeping staff records and processing the payroll. This situation has changed dramatically, mainly because jobs nowadays involve higher levels of knowledge and skill, and qualified labour is in short supply. Increasingly, the modern company sees its human capital -its employees - as one of its most important assets, and most large companies today have an HR strategy. But it is still often true that HRM is seen as having lower status than other areas of management.



    Determining staffing needs

    The key area of HR is staffing (= manpower planning). There are many issues to consider when trying to find qualified candidates:



    • The choice between internal recruitment (less expensive recruitment process, boosts morale) and external recruitment (brings new ideas and skills, wider selection).

    • Legal issues such as equal opportunities (no discrimination on the grounds of gender, race, age, disability, etc).

    • Finding the right balance between permanent, full-time employees (who provide continuity of knowledge and company culture, as well as stability for families in the local community) and other employees hired on a more flexible basis.

    Amongst the flexible staffing options are:

    • Part-time staff on permanent contracts. This option can include 'job sharing' - often of interest to a parent with a young child.

    • Staff on temporary contracts, perhaps leased from an outside agency (eg secretaries, hotel and catering staff, students working through college, etc). These people 'temp' and are 'temps' (verb and noun).

    • Professional freelancers (sometimes called 'consultants') brought in for individual projects. Often these jobs replace ones that were previously done 'in-house' by permanent staff.

    Recruitment and selection

    Steps in the process for hiring employees are:



    1. Identify job requirements, perhaps by drawing up a 'job description' and then a 'person specification'.

    1. Choose the sources of candidates: promotion from within, referrals from existing employees, classified ads (AmE want ads), online recruitment, recruitment agencies, executive search (= headhunting), job fairs, walk-ins, etc.

    1. Review applications and CVs (AmE resumes). This initial screening process is called Tonglisting'.

    2. Interview a number of candidates on the longlist.

    3. Conduct employment tests and check references.

    4. Decide on a 'shortlist' of strong candidates and hold follow-up interviews.

    5. Select a candidate and negotiate the package: compensation and benefits, job performance expectations, etc.

    The selection process can be complex and mistakes expensive (for higher level managers there may be a whole relocation package to negotiate). The company needs the best person, both in terms of skills and of fitting in with the company culture. So to avoid making a mistake HR makes use of:

    • Assessment centres where groups of people do role plays, take psychological tests etc. This is common for younger candidates without a track record.

    • Checks on a candidate's background.

    • Trial (= probationary) periods before a permanent contract is offered.

    Compensation and benefits

    Your basic compensation is your 'salary' (white-collar staff) or 'wage' (blue-collar staff, and used for payment on an hourly or piecework basis). Additional financial incentives include:



    • Performance-related bonuses.

    Commission (for staff in the sales area).

    • Profit sharing.

    • Stock options (= the chance to buy company shares in the future at a fixed price).

    • Pay rises for additional skills and qualifications.

    Employees can also receive a whole range of other benefits (= fringe benefits/perks) such as: sick-leave and holiday pay, retirement (= pension) plans, health insurance, child care and elder care, training, company car, laptop, mobile device, subsidized canteen, the chance to travel, etc.
    Exercises

    1 Fill in the missing letters.

    1. A list of all employees and how much each one earns is called the 'p..……..ll'.

    2. 'Equal opportunities' means making sure that everyone has the same chance to get a job or get promoted. One of the most common forms of 'disc……….ation' (= treating a certain type of person unfairly) is on the grounds of 'dis………..ty' (= a physical problem that makes someone unable to use a part of their body properly).

    1. Freelancers are often brought in to do jobs that were previously done 'i....-h…………..' (by employees of the company).

    1. The activity of discretely approaching employees of one company and asking them if they want to work for another is called 'h…….….ing'.

    2. A small group of job candidates who have gone through to the final interview stage is called the 's……………..'.

    3. Somebody's work history, and in particular their successes and failures, is called their 'tr…………….d'.

    4. The formal process by which an employee's performance is measured and discussed by a supervisor is called the 'a………………..l process'.


    2 Put the HR activities on the right into the most appropriate category on the left.


    Appraisal process: _____ _____
    Training and development: _____ ______
    Worker-management relations: _______ ______


    1. apprenticeship programs

    1. dealing with disciplinary issues

    1. identifying talent and rewarding performance

    1. health and safety

    1. coaching and mentoring programs

    1. getting suggestions for improving procedures


    3 Complete each explanation with a pair of words from the box. The words may not be in the right order.

    bonus / commission candidate / applicant coaching / mentoring employees / staff retirement / pension wage / salary

    1 A …………………. is paid monthly, but a ……………………. is paid hourly, or by piece work.

    2 A/An ……………… is one of the people being actively considered for a job, whereas
    a/an …………………. has sent a completed form and CV but is not necessarily being considered.

    3 …………………… is where an employee is “paired” with a more experienced employee who supervises and guides them; ……………………. is a more limited term, and is where someone is rained under active supervision to use a piece of equipment or carry out a particular process.



    1. The word ……………… refers to all the people who work in an organization; the word ……………… can have exactly the same meaning, but it can also refer just to non-managerial workers.

    1. If you receive a fixed percentage of every sale you make, you get a …………….; if you (or your team or your company) performs well, then at the end of the year you might get a ………………..

    1. Your ………………..is the period of your life after you stop working (eg after 65); your ………………….is the money you receive during this time (from the government, your company, or a private plan).


    A MIND MAP




    4 Match the words in the box to their definitions below. Clue: if the word appears in a definition, it won't be the answer.

    ability aptitude background competence experience knowledge qualification skill




    1. something you are capable of doing; also the quality of
      doing something well ability

    2. (formal) the ability to do something well; also (formal) the legal power that a body has to deal with something _______________

    3. an ability to do something well, especially because you have practiced it ______________________

    4. knowledge and skill you get from being in different situations; also something that happens to you ______________________

    5. an exam you have passed, especially at school or university; often appears in the plural as a heading on a CV _______________________

    6. the type of education, experience and family that you have; also information about the past that helps you understand the present _______________________

    7. the facts, skills and understanding you have gained through learning or experience _____________________

    8. a natural ability to do something well or to learn it quickly _________________________


    5 Complete the text about worker-management relations with the words in the box.

    arbitration boycotts collective bargaining court injunction

    individual grievance layoffs legally binding length of service mediation official dispute picketing strikes

    The process by which management and unions form an agreement is called 1…………………….. Typical issues for discussion are wages, benefits and working conditions. HR and the union may also sometimes discuss an 2………………………., where someone thinks they have been treated unfairly. And of course negotiations will be necessary if the company is in financial difficulties and has to make 3………………………….. Workers who lose their jobs get a 'severance package' (BrE redundancy package), usually based on their 4………………………….in the company.

    In any dispute, the employees' side will initially be led by a union rep (= representative) - a worker who represents the interests of their colleagues on a daily basis. Then, if the conflict escalates and becomes an 5……………………, there might be involvement of a full-time union official. The union side has various tactics it can use, including 6………………………… (people stop working), 7…………………………. (persuading others not to work by standing at the factory gates) and 8………………………..(getting consumers to stop buying the company's products).

    The management side will usually be led by someone inside the HR department. Management tactics include hiring replacement workers, and in extreme circumstances obtaining a 9………………. which directs workers to do (or not do) particular activities.

    The procedure for resolving conflict goes through various stages. First, managers and workers will hold direct talks to try to resolve the problem. If these talks fail, then there may be involvement of a third party who can make suggestions and try to find a compromise. This is called 10…………………. Finally, if talks break down, the whole process goes to 11…………………………..

    This is where a judge (or perhaps a government-appointed official) makes a decision which is 12………………………… on both sides.


    6 Choose the best word to complete the sentence.

    1 accept/except

    Do you _______ credit cards? / The government has few options _______ to keep interest rates high.

    2 all together/ altogether

    That'll be £52.50 _______, please. / It is wonderful to be ________ to celebrate your birthday.

    3 appraise/apprise

    The President has been ________ of the situation. / He coolly ________ the situation, deciding which person would be most likely to succeed.

    4 assure/ensure/insure

    Many companies won't ________ new or young drivers. / The airline is taking steps to ________ safety on its aircraft. / The unions _________ the new owners of the workers' loyalty to the company.



    5 biannual (semiannual) /biennial

    happening twice a year / happening once every two years




    Discussion Topics

    1 People think that HR requires low-status 'soft' skills. But it's HR managers who appraise, negotiate compensation, fire people and deal with the unions. That's not 'soft'.

    О Agree О Disagree

    3 Performance-related pay is a horrible invention that creates enormous stress and insecurity in the workplace.

    О Agree О Disagree

    2 Shortlisting and interviewing should be the responsibility of HR. Other people (from the functional department involved) should only have a minimal input. This ensures fairness and equal opportunities.

    О Agree О Disagree

    4 Most training programmes are a waste of time. You just put the handouts in a file and forget about them.

    О Agree О Disagree

    3 Listening
    Task 1. Listen to the interview with a HR manager and do the following exercises.

    1 Line managers and HR managers both play a role in the recruitment and appraisal processes. Write 'LM' or 'HR' next to the responsibilities.

    Recruitment

    1. Prepare a job description__________

    2. Make sure legal and ethical requirements are met_____________

    3. Look at the general personal qualities of the individual____________

    1. Look at the functional skills of the individual_____________

    Appraisal

    1. Develop the appraisal tools____________

    2. Make sure that the process is identifying future leaders_____________

    3. Rate functional performance____________

    4. Monitor that appraisals are carried out


    2 Now listen to an interview with Jurgen, an HR director, and check your answers.
    3 Listen again. What does Jurgen say about the following topics? Complete his sentences.

    1. Internal candidates:

    Opportunities for promotion are an important ………………….. inside the company and it's important to ……………………..within the organization.

    1. The interview

    In the HR interview we are looking for a positive personality, a flexible attitude, good team-working skills, and other qualities like …………………..and the ability to………………….

    1. Performance-related pay

    'HR is here to help the business …………………….. Bonuses are acceptable if they're seen to be …………………………….

    1. Motivation

    'Apart from the tangible …………..………there are what I would call ……………………motivators.'
    Glossary

    appraisal formally assessing an employee's job performance

    demoralizing making you feel less confident and hopeful

    fast-tracking accelerating the progress of a person's career

    fit in integrate successfully

    job rotation movement through a variety of roles in the organization

    matrix organization where people work in a variety of cross-functional teams rather than under one line manager

    mindset attitude and way of thinking

    rounds similar stages

    track record things you have done in your career

    underperforming less successful than expected
    Task 2. You will hear the recording of the economic text A lot of debt is not always bad. Listen to the speaker and put the sentences and phrases in order they appear in the text.


    1 Federal budget deficit remains experts worried.

    _________

    2 The Eastern economies show interest towards American debts.

    _________

    3 The relationship between a public debt and the size of an economy.

    _________

    4 The US deficit in comparison with other nations' debts.

    _________

    5 The amount of foreign direct investment exceeds the size of the American debt.

    _________

    6 The USA debt and its place in the range of the other countries' debts.

    _________

    7 America's economic risks connected with the change of international strategies.

    _________

    8 Future expenditures will grow rapidly as a result of the government policies.

    _________


    Task 3. You will hear the recording of the economic text Competition in the US Insurance Industry. As you listen find English equivalents of the following Russian phrases.

    1 справедливый рынок

    __________________________________________________________

    2 правоохранительные органы

    __________________________________________________________

    3 гражданское дело

    __________________________________________________________

    4 обман клиентов

    __________________________________________________________

    5 компенсировать убытки

    __________________________________________________________

    6 заявки

    __________________________________________________________

    7 создать видимость

    __________________________________________________________

    8 уголовные преступления

    __________________________________________________________

    9 немедленное приостановление

    __________________________________________________________



    10обвинения в правонарушениях

    __________________________________________________________



    11 крупные выплаты

    __________________________________________________________

    4 Writing
    SOME BASIC GUIDELINES FOR A SUCCESSFUL WRITING PAPER

    1 Answer these questions and make sure you understand what Writing Paper is about.

    Does the report have a suitable structure?

    Does it have an introduction, body and conclusion?

    Does it include connective words to make the writing cohesive within sentences and paragraphs?

    Does the report use suitable grammar and vocabulary?

    Does it include a variety of sentence structures?

    Does it include a range of appropriate vocabulary?

    Does the report meet the requirements of the task?

    Does it meet the word limit requirements?

    Does it describe the whole graph adequately?

    Does it focus on the important trends presented in the graphic information?
    2 Compare the two samples of report writing, find the mistakes that make Sample A less successful in terms of structure, grammar, vocabulary and spelling. For more information on assessing a writing paper consult Appendix 7.

    Sample A

    The aim of this report is to summarise changes in sales forecasts for the three main products of Toller Electrical Ltd for the four quarters in next year.

    It is clearly showed that TV's will contribute most to the company for the sales forecasets are the highest in three products every quarter. It will stand at 10 thousands in lst Qtr. Then it will have a steady increase to 15 thousands in 2nd Qtr. Before it will rise to the peak of 20 thousands in 4th Qtr, it will level off in 3rd Qtr.

    In contrast, the sales forecast of fridges' trend is totally different. It is 5 thousands in 1st Qtr. Unfortunetly, it remains constant in next 3 quarters, while, the cookers' sales forecast is 5 thousands in 1st Qtr the same as fridges'. However, the cooker will increase steadily and reach the peak of 10 thousands in 2nd Qtr. Then it will has no chang in 3rd Qtr following a drop to 5 thousands the original position in 4th Qtr.

    It is clearly concluded that trends of sales forecasts for next year of these products are different. It is good time to take measures to direct the trends in much bright way.

    Band 2

    This is close to a band 3, but there are a number of non-impeding errors. Also, there is a lack of control in the third paragraph, which would have a negative effect on the target reader. Therefore, it is awarded an upper band 2.




    Sample B

    Report on sales forecasts for Toller Electrical Ltd
    The aim of this report is to compare the sales forecasts for three product areas for next year.

    Unit sales of fridges are likely to remain at 5,000 during all four quarters of next year.

    TV sales, on the other hand, will significantly increase during the second quarter from 10,000 to 15,000. Unit sales will remain at 15,000 during the third quarter and soar once again to 20,000 during the fourth quarter.

    Unit sales of cookers, however, are likely to fluctuate, starting off at 5,000, sales will increase to 10,000 during the second and third quarter of next year, only to decrease to 5,000 unit sales during the fourth quarter.

    It was concluded that TVs will be Toller Electrical Ltd's strongest product area in the following year.

    Band 5

    A very good answer, but a little lexical awkwardness prevents this being an upper band 5.




    3 Consider the following Report Writing Scheme.

    1) Opening statement:

    This report describes …

    The graphs show…

    The aim of this report is to describe/summarise/show….between 2000 and 2003



    2) Body:

    Period of time

    Object

    Changes

    Characteristics

    Period of time

    At the start of

    (2003)
    At the beginning of (January)
    However, by the end of the year 2011
    In 2011
    In August

    Imports/


    Exports
    Sales
    Prices
    Production

    increased

    rose from…to

    soared

    doubled


    reached a peak

    peaked at

    ($)


    went up

    recovered

    skyrocketed

    advanced to ($)

    grew

    made a recovery




    slightly
    steadily
    dramatically
    significantly
    slowly
    rapidly
    sharply

    the following year.
    over (the last/next twelve months/the period).
    in the (first six months).
    by (December last year).
    in (January).
    by February/May.
    in the last (four weeks).
    all through 2011.
    through 2011.
    at the end of 2011.
    during (this) period.

    fell (to $)

    decreased

    collapsed to ($)

    reached a low point

    bottomed out (at $)

    plummeted

    went down


    fluctuated (sharply)

    leveled out

    remained steady (at about $)

    remained through (2011)

    stagnated (over the period)

    stood at ($)

    turned into a general (upward/downward) trend

    continued recovery until (late) 2011

    reached ($/25000 units)

    rose/fell between (April and July)

    finished much more (less) strongly in 2011

    showed a rise/fall of ($) within this period



    3) Conclusion:

    Consequently, …

    As can be seen from both graphs ….

    Finally, ….



    PRACTICE

    Task 1.

    A) Look at the bar chart. Which of the sentences A-D below is the most appropriate opening sentence? Why?



    A This bar chart shows the number of marriages and divorces in the UK.

    В This bar chart proves that weddings are not as popular as they used to be and people often get married when they are older.



    С The chart shows that the number of first marriages decreased in the period 1961-2001, while figures for divorces and remarriages increased.

    D The chart clearly illustrates that the number of first marriages has risen and the number of divorces is at a similar level.
    B) Sometimes the task requires you to write a report about two diagrams. In this case you need to write an opening statement which comments on both sets of data.

    Which of the statements below is most appropriate for the bar chart?





    A In general car sales have increased since 1970.

    В Car sales in North America, Western Europe and Japan are different.


    C) Read the paragraph below which describes the bar chart. Underline the verbs and say why each tense is used.

    The bar chart shows that sales of cars rose most significantly in Western Europe where the number almost doubled from about 7.5 million per year in 1970 to nearly 15 million in 1990. More cars were sold in this area than anywhere else.




    D) Choose the best alternative from the words in italics.

    In Japan there was a (1) same/similar trend in that sales (2) doubled/increased two times between 1970 and 1980 from 2.5 to 5 million. However, over the next ten years the number of cars sold (3) remained stable/stayed the same. North America had the (4) tallest/highest sales (5) figures/numbers in 1970 (about 9 million) but there was only (6) a little/slight increase to just over 10 million over the next 20 years.


    Task 2. Choose the correct preposition.

    1. Labour costs have fallen ___ 22% of total production costs ___ 14% in the last ten years. That's 8%!

    2. There was a dramatic fall in sales to the USA___1997 and 2000.

    3. The company is currently selling 20,000 units ___£23 each.

    4. The growth in sales has led to a rise____30% in profits.

    5. A 10% drop in sales has reduced the profit____ 40%.

    6. During 1999/2000 we increased retail floor space___ 5% ___ a total___ 48,000sq m.

    7. They expect to create 1,450 jobs worldwide ___ the end of next year, at the latest.

    8. Capital investment for the year stands___ £6,000.

    9. Pre-tax profits reached a peak____ $5m two years ago but have been lower since.

    10. Weekly sales have levelled off____£34,000.

    11. Increased efficiency has resulted in a lowering of the break-even point from 2,770 ___ 2,500 units.

    12. The rise in raw material prices is expected to be___3.5% and 4.5% this year.



    Task 3. Describe the trends shown in the following pictures.


    Picture A

    Picture B

    Picture C

    Picture D


    Task 4. Using the information from the graph, write a short report describing the general movements in exports, imports and the resulting balance of trade. (120-150 words)

    The graphs show the performance of a European country's manufacturing and agricultural sectors in terms of exports and imports between 1991 and 2001.




    Task 5 Pictures used in talking about Economics.
    Pictures often help to make information clearer. This test introduces language used to describe pictures of economic data. Match the words below with the correct numbers in the pictures.

    broken line

    column

    curve

    dotted line

    fluctuating line

    histogram/bar graph

    horizontal axis

    line graph

    pie chart

    row

    segment

    solid line

    table

    undulating line

    vertical axis


















    Task 6. The input below represents some useful information concerning Growth Metaphors. Read it and do the tasks.
    1) A common metaphor in finance is that of growth - seeds are planted, grow, and flower.

    Here are 15 words normally associated with farming. Put them in the appropriate spaces in the sentences below:

    green

    branching out

    sprouted

    flourishing

    sowing

    blossoming

    reap

    spreading

    weed out

    fertile

    grew

    roots

    branches

    fruit

    ploughing




    1. Throughout the recession, politicians talked about 'the shoots of recovery.'

    2. Business is in the industrial north of the country.

    3. Financial instruments seem to be a very area.

    4. In the continuing hot weather, sales of electric fans are

    5. Our success is the of many years of careful planning and market research.

    6. Small micro-electronics companies suddenly all over the valley.

    7. The entire company from one simple idea.

    8. We believe that we are the seeds of profitable activities in the future.

    9. We expect to very substantial rewards within a maximum of five years.

    10. We're going to have to the less profitable items in the product line.

    11. We're opening new at the rate of one a week.

    12. We're most of the profits back into the business.

    13. We've put down in Eastern Europe.

    14- We've been rapidly onto the Continent.

    15. Without neglecting our core business, we're into lots of new activities.



    NOTE

    ploughing (GB) = plowing (US)


    2) In English, words related to UP usually have good and positive meanings, while words related to DOWN usually mean something negative.
    Mark the following sentences +ve or -ve according to their meaning:


    1.

    We hit a peak last year.

    7.

    We're sinking fast.

    2

    She really fell in status.

    8.

    Our exports soared after the devaluation.

    3.

    It's been downhill ever since.

    9.

    Things are at an all-time low.

    4.

    The company is in tip-top shape.

    10.

    Our sales rose in the last quarter.

    5.

    That was a low trick.

    11.

    My heart sank when I saw the balance sheet.

    6.

    We've boosted productivity.

    12.

    I'm feeling over the moon! I've finished!


    Task 7. Use the words in the boxes and the charts to complete the cloze activities below.







    rose dramatically

    stabilized

    maximum

    minimum

    increased slightly

    slight dip

    peaked

    levelled off

    fluctuated wildly

    From week 1 to week 5, profits……………………... Then from week 6 to week 8, profits…………………. and ………………….at 3.0 million at week 8. From week 8 to week 15 profits………………………….. with a ………………………. at week 11. Then from week 15 to week 21 profits ………………….. with a…………………. of 3.5 million at week 16 and a ……………….. of 2.2 million at week 17. From week 21 to week 23, profits ………………….. at 2.8 million.
    Task 8. Complete these sentences with a preposition from the box. Use a dictionary to help you if necessary.

    at (x2) between by of to

    1. Profits rose from 2 billion dollars 5 billion last quarter.

    2. Since 1985, the price of houses has increased 200%.

    3. Road accidents reached a peak 50,000 in November.

    4. Car sales remained constant around 75 per month for the rest of the period.

    1. During the summer, temperatures fluctuate 20 and 30 degrees.

    6 By close of business, the value of the company's shares stood …………………$25.
    Task 9. In the exam, make sure you leave time to edit your written answer. You will lose marks if you make too many mistakes in grammar and vocabulary use.

    a) Read this extract from a student's response. Find ten mistakes in the extract and match them to the list of common mistakes.

    Common mistakes

    1. Wrong tense

    2. Active/passive verb confused

    3. Agreement: single subject with plural verb

    4. Preposition error

    5 Article (a, the) missing
    The graph show changes in participation of different activities at a sports club.

    Firstly, participation in swimming was decreased for 1983 to 2003. In 1983 50% of club members do swimming but only 15% participate in this in 2003. Secondly, the percentage who do team sports have been remained constant during that period.

    Participation reached peak in 1998. Finally, gym activities grew uр from 1983 to 2003.
    b) Now correct the mistakes.
    5 Exam Practice
    READING



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