Методическое пособие по английскому языку для студентов 4 курса, обучающихся по программе бакалавриата



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To list points


Firstly, First of all, In the first place, To begin/start with Secondly, Thirdly, Finally

To list advantages


One/Another/A further/An additional advantage of ... is ...

The main/greatest/first advantage of ... is ...



To list disadvantages


One/Another/A further/An additional disadvantage/drawback of... is ...

The main/greatest/most serious/first disadvantage/drawback of... is ...

Another negative aspect of ... is ...

To introduce points/arguments for and against


One (very convincing) point/argument in favour of .../against ... is ...

A further common criticism of ...



To add more points to the same topic


In addition, Furthermore, Moreover, Besides, Apart from, What is more, As well as, Not to mention the fact that, not only...but also, As well, Both...and

To make contrasting points


On the other hand, However, Still, Yet, But, Nonetheless, Nevertheless, Although, Though, Even though, While, Whereas, Despite, In spite of the fact that, Regardless of the fact that

To introduce examples


For example, For instance, Such as, Like, In particular, Particularly, Especially, This is clearly illustrated by the fact that, One/A clear/striking/typical example of (this) is...

To express reality


In fact, Actually, In practice, In effect

To make general statements


As a rule, Generally, In general, On the whole, In most cases

To make partially correct statements


To a certain extent/degree, to some extent/degree, to a limited extent, This is partly true (but)

To explain a point


In other words, That is to say, This means that

To express cause


Owing to, Due to, on the grounds that, given that, Because, As, Since

To express effect


Therefore, Thus, As a result, As a consequence, Consequently, So, For this reason

To express intention


To, So as to, In order to, So that, With the intention of ...-ring

В
Требования к стилю и языку


тексте ВКР рекомендуется придерживаться четких и лаконичных формулировок, которые следует рассматривать как на лексическом, так и на синтаксическом уровне. На лексическом уровне это использование специальных терминов, или устойчивых терминологических сочетаний, характерных для научно-исследовательской работы. На синтаксическом уровне это использование простых распространенных предложений. В целом, синтаксис проекта характеризуется единообразием. Материал подаётся не в развитии, а в статике. Поэтому в тексте проекта преобладают констатирующие сообщения и перечисления, которые связаны с наличием параллельных конструкций и однородных членов предложения.

Значительная группа глаголов выступает в роли компонентов глагольно-именных сочетаний, где основная смысловая нагрузка приходится на долю существительного, а функция глагола состоит в обозначении действия а широком смысле этого слова и передаче грамматических значений: «to lead to an increase/ a decrease/ changes».

Изложение результатов желательно вести в настоящем времени. Следует избегать сложных предложений и грамматических оборотов (как правило, при написании ВКР сложные предложения преобразуются в простые, широко используются неопределенно-личные предложения), а употребление личных и указательных местоимений свести до минимума. Сообщая о теме или предмете исследования, следует пользоваться в первую очередь формами настоящего времени Present Indefinite, а в тех случаях, когда необходимо подчеркнуть законченный характер действия, - Present Perfect. Форма прошедшего времени Past Indefinite используется при описании проделанной работы (эксперимента, исследования, вычисления), если работа послужила основой для каких-либо заключений.

В ВКР не допускается использование разговорной или неформальной лексики, разговорных конструкций типа (gonna, wonna ), вариантов сокращения типа (don't, won't).


С
Требования к оформлению
траницы проекта должны быть пронумерованы сквозной нумерацией. Первой страницей является титульный лист.

Титульный лист оформляется по образцу, который представлен ниже.

Формат А4. Поля: левое поле — 35 мм, правое — 10 мм, верхнее и нижнее — 20 мм. Размер шрифта — 12. Расстояние между строчками — 1.5 интервала.

Объем проекта ВКР —10 страниц.

Последняя страница подписывается автором.
Образец оформления титульного листа


NATIONAL RESEARCH UNIVERSITY

Higher School of Economics
Faculty___________________

Department _______/_________

DRAFT


of the paper

«_________________________________________»

Student_____________

Group_____________

Argument Consultant_____________

Language Consultant____________


Moscow

2011


Успешное завершение изучения дисциплины «Английский язык» и сдача государственного экзамена возможны в случае соблюдения следующего графика мероприятий и их сроков (указанные сроки относятся к практике прошлых лет и могут быть изменены в текущем периоде).



1 Утвердить тему с научным руководителем выпускающей кафедры.


октябрь-ноябрь

2 Подготовить в соответствии с утвержденными методическими требованиями проект ВКР на английском языке. Подписать и сдать на бумажном и электронном носителях на отзыв научному руководителю выпускающей кафедры.


начало февраля



3 Передать проект ВКР на бумажном и электронном носителях вместе с отзывом научного руководителя выпускающей кафедры на кафедру английского языка (преподавателю, который является консультантом данного студента).

середина-конец февраля



4 Проекты ВКР на бумажном носителе с письменными отзывами двух научных руководителей выпускающая кафедра передает в деканат факультета.

март

Оценка за письменный вариант ВКР, осуществляемая научным руководителем, происходит согласно требованиям, разрабатываемым выпускающей кафедрой.
Общая оценка за письменный вариант ВКР, которая осуществляется преподавателями кафедры английского языка, складывается из следующих компонентов:

1 Оценка содержания:



  • раскрытие темы

  • уместность использования материала

  • анализ, аргументация

2 Структура текста и логические связи:

  • наличие вступления, основной части, заключения

  • логически правильное деление текста на параграфы

  • ясность изложения

  • использование связующих элементов

  • библиография

3 Стиль, словоупотребление:

  • богатство словарного запаса

  • владение специальной терминологией

  • соответствие стилю научного высказывания

4 Грамотность:

  • правильность употребления грамматических конструкций и оборотов

  • правильный порядок слов

  • правописание.






UNIT 1.




1. Academic Vocabulary
Talking about Ideas
A Look at the useful language for talking about ideas in the description of one idea below.

Postmodernism

Postmodernism describes a movement1 of intellectual thought2 which has had a major impact on a number of academic disciplines3 since the late 20th century. Perhaps the best way to understand postmodernism is as a reaction4 to modernism. Modernism emphasises purity, honesty and total truth; for example, when an artist attempts to express the essence5 of a whole subject with a single line. In contrast, postmodernism asserts that experience is personal and cannot be generalised6 and that meaning is only for the individual to experience, not for someone else to dictate. Thus, postmodernists maintain that the person who, for example, admires a painting or reads a poem is free to interpret its meaning, and that different people will come to very different, but equally valid7, conclusions as to what that meaning is.



1 group of people sharing aims or beliefs 2 thinking in general 3 subjects 4 process of change stimulated by something else often moving in the opposite direction 5 the important quality or characteristics 6 presented as something that is always true 7 appropriate


TIP

A number of words that are useful for talking about ideas have irregular plurals - criterion/ criteria, phenomenon/phenomena, hypothesis/hypotheses, analysis/analyses, thesis/theses.

They all originate from Ancient Greek. Perhaps this sentence will help you remember them. There are several different hypotheses which claim to explain these phenomena and in his doctoral thesis Kohl offers an analysis of each hypothesis in accordance with a rigorous set of criteria.

More practice in Appendix 5


B Some useful nouns relating to ideas:

word

meaning

example

concept

principle, idea

The concept of honesty is understood differently in different cultures.

framework

system of rules, beliefs or ideas used as the basis for something

Mary is working on an analytical framework to help people design and evaluate training courses.

model

simple description useful for discussing ideas

The writer uses a Marxist model as the basis for his discussion of the economy.

notion

belief, idea

She doesn't agree with the notion that boys and girls should be taught separately.

perception

belief, opinion, held by many people

The novel had a powerful impact on people's perception of the war.

stance

way of thinking, often publicly stated

The government has made their stance on the boycott issue clear.

viewpoint

opinion, way of looking at an issue

The article provides a different viewpoint on this difficult topic.


In academic writing it is best to avoid In my opinion and to use a less personal expression like It can be argued that
... or Most (people) would agree that ...
Exercises

1 Replace the words in bold with words from A with similar meanings.

  1. Many educators believe that different learning styles are equally acceptable.

  2. In the UK a university faculty is a unit where similar subjects are grouped together.

  3. The French impressionists were a key group with shared aims in European art.

  1. The most important quality of international law is the application of a single standard for strong and weak nations alike.

  1. Researchers spend much of their time trying to understand the meaning of their data.

  2. Some 19th century artistic styles were a direct response to the ugliness of industrialisation.

  3. Harvey (2003) stresses that the findings of the study cannot be said to be always true, as only a small amount of data was used.

  4. In the late 20th century, intellectual ways of thinking were greatly influenced by ideas of gender and race.


2 Change the words in bold from singular to plural or vice versa, as instructed. Make any other necessary changes to each sentence.

  1. There's an interesting PhD thesis on water resources in the library, (make plural)

  2. What were your main criteria in designing your survey? (make singular)

  3. She was interested in strange phenomena connected with comets, (make singular)

  4. The hypothesis was never proved, as the data were incomplete, (make plural)


3 Match the beginning of each sentence with the most appropriate ending.

  1. We must never accept the notion on the role of the United Nations in times of war.

  2. The task of choosing an analytical on gender and language use very clear.

  3. The book expresses his viewpoint of dark matter to explain certain observations.

  4. Tannen has always made her stance that intelligence is connected to race.

  5. Consumers have different perceptions of family healthcare which changed everything.

  6. The report laid out a new model of what low price and high quality mean.

  7. Physicists developed the concept framework is an important stage in any research.


Presenting an Argument
A Developing an argument: what it is about

Read these extracts from the opening paragraphs of student essays. Note the prepositions.


1 This essay is based on findings from recent research into cold fusion. The arguments I shall put forward are relevant to our understanding of Newton's laws. For the purposes of this essay, two opposing theories will be scrutinised. I shall refer to Ashbach's and Linn's work, respectively.

2 Many articles have been published on the subject of genetic modification of crops. The political arguments concerning population control are beyond the scope of this essay. The first section reviews recent literature, with reference to the arguments concerning economic policy.


B Adding points to an argument

Bad diet and high stress levels, as well as lack of exercise, are key factors in causing heart disease; on top of which there is smoking, which is one of the most damaging factors. In addition to the questionnaire, we also conducted interviews with some of the subjects. A further argument in support of raising the retirement age is that life expectancy is increasing. Moreover/Furthermore1, many people enjoy working; for example / for instance2 in a recent survey, 68% of people said they would like to work till they were at least 70.



1 moreover is much more frequently used in academic style than furthermore 2 for example is much more frequently used in academic style than for instance
C Qualifying: limiting and specifying an argument

Dr O'Malley is leading a class discussion on human rights.




O'Malley:

OK. 'Human rights are rights which you possess simply because you are human.' To what extent can we say that? What are the pros and cons1 of this view?

Anna:

Well, I think it's too simplistic, in the sense that2 it ignores the rights of victims and everyone else's right to life. So, provided that we remember this, then we can give people basic rights, albeit3 with limitations.

Kirsten:

Mm, that's all very well, but4 if you say human rights depend on, say, government decisions about national security, then they're no longer rights, are they? They become privileges. Having said that5, it's a complex issue with no simple answer. Even so, I still think we must be careful not to give our rights away.

O'Malley:

OK. Fine. Apart from victim's rights, are there other arguments for restricting rights? I mean we could look at protecting property, ending a chronically sick person's life, and so on / and so forth6. Let's talk about the degree/extent to which these are relevant.

Ricardo:

Every sick person has the right to life, but at the same time we should be free to decide when we want to die.

O'Malley:

Well, a lot of sick people can't make that decision for themselves, despite the fact that we may respect their right to a dignified death.

Ricardo:

Hmm. Nevertheless/Nonetheless7, I think it's a key issue.

1 (slightly informal) advantages and disadvantages 2 used to explain precisely what has just been said 3 (formal) although 4 (informal, typical of spoken contexts) indicates a partial agreement, followed by a disagreement 5 (typical of spoken contexts) said when you wish to add a point which contrasts with what has just been said 6 (typical of spoken contexts) can be used separately or together {and so on and so forth); can also be et cetera (more common in writing - etc.) 7 however; nevertheless is more frequent in academic style than nonetheless
Exercises

1 Fill in the prepositions in this text about the first wife of Henry VIII of England (1491-1547).

This essay examines the early life of Catherine of Aragon (1485-1536), focusing particularly ……. the period of her brief marriage to Prince Arthur, his death at the age of 15 and her subsequent marriage ……. his brother Prince Henry, later to become King Henry VIII of England. ……. the purposes ……. this essay, I shall pay little attention ……. either the earlier or the later periods of her life. Her eventual divorce from King Henry is, thus, ……. the scope ……. this essay. Much more has already been written …….. the subject …….. this later period of her life. The literature …….. reference ………the period is extensive but my essay is largely based ……… a couple of key sources, which are particularly relevant …….. any discussion of this period, and I shall refer these throughout.


2 Use phrases from the box to replace phrases from the paragraph with the same meaning.

nevertheless

advantages and disadvantages

as well as

for instance

the degree

furthermore

provided that

There are a number of pros and cons to take into account when considering the purchase of a hybrid (gasoline-electric) car. Such cars are, for example, undoubtedly better for the environment in the sense that they cause less air pollution. Moreover, the extent to which they rely on oil, a natural resource which is rapidly becoming depleted, is much less than is the case with conventional cars. Nonetheless, hybrid cars are not without their problems. Cost may be an issue and also the technical complexity of this relatively new type of engine. As long as you take these factors into account, there is no reason not to buy a hybrid car.
3 Choose the correct word or phrase to complete each sentence.

  1. She wrote an excellent essay_____with a certain amount of help.

A even so В albeit С despite the fact

  1. A_____point must also now be made against a change in the law.

A furthermore В respective С further

  1. He is a great poet______his work has had a great influence on other writers.

A in the sense that В on top of which С provided that

  1. Let us now discuss the influence of the revolution on the rich and the poor.

A say В respectively С moreover

  1. The riots resulted in much damage._____, we should not ignore the fact that the disorder brought benefits to some.

A As well as В With reference to С Having said that

  1. But there is a negative side to new technology. _____the advantages we also need to consider a number of disadvantages.

A Be that as it may В Apart from С That's all very well but
Key Nouns1
A General nouns referring to ideas

example

comment

She wrote an article on the subject of class.

thing which is being discussed, considered or studied

The theme of the poem is emigration.

main subject of a talk, book, etc.

The students were given a list of essay topics.

used to refer to what one is studying or writing about

There was a lively debate on the issue of globalisation in the seminar yesterday.

subject/problem which people are thinking/talking about

Political theory is a popular undergraduate subject Einstein's theory of gravitation has been questioned recently.

statement of the rules on which a subject of study is based or, more generally, an opinion or explanation

The model of climate change presented in the Stern Review seems to be becoming a reality.

a representation of something as a simple description which might be used in calculations

The book is called 'The Nature of Intelligence'.

main characteristic of something

Human behaviour is based on the principle of least effort.

basic idea or rule that explains how something happens or works

B More specific nouns connected with ideas and phenomena


example

comment

Repetition is an important aspect of speech development in children.

one individual part of a situation, problem, subject, etc.

Automatic backup is a feature of the new software.

a typical quality of something

The political motives for the government's actions are beyond the scope of this essay.

range of a subject covered by a book, discussion, class, etc.

The study revealed a pattern of results which could be interpreted in either of two ways.

showed a regularly repeated arrangement

During 2005, the number of violent attacks increased to an alarming degree.

amount or level


C Nouns referring to ways of thinking, processes and activities

Read these titles of academic books and articles. Note the key nouns and their prepositions.


Micro-organisms in water: their significance1 and identification2

Renewable energy: a critical assessment3 of recent research



The Case4 for Change: Rethinking Teacher Education. Towards a New Approach5

Perspectives6 on Ecological Management: A study of public awareness7 of river pollution

Citizens' Views on Healthcare Systems in the European Union

Epidemiological research into8 asthma and allergic disease: establishing a standardised methodology9



1 importance 2 ability to establish the identity of something 3 judgement of the amount, value, quality or importance of 4 arguments, facts and reasons in support of or against something 5 way of considering something 6 different particular or individual ways of considering something 7 having special interest in or experience of something, and so being well informed 8 research is often also used with the preposition on 9 a system of ways of studying something



Error

Warning !

Research is uncountable. Don't say They carried out some interesting researches.
To make it plural you can just say 'studies', or 'research studies' or 'pieces of research'.


Exercises

1 Look at A. Choose the most appropriate noun to complete each sentence.

  1. Environmental topics / issues / principles should be at the top of today's political agenda.

  1. In the exam students had to choose three from a choice of ten essay subjects / theories / topics.

  1. There are still people who are reluctant to accept Darwin's model / topic / theory of evolution.

  2. The professor decided to take moral courage as the issue / theme / model for his inaugural lecture.

  3. The London underground map is best understood as a model / principle / topic showing how the different stations relate to one another rather than a precise representation of their distances from each other.

  4. The Peter Issue / Principle / Theme states that members of a hierarchical group will usually end up being promoted to the point at which they become incompetent.


2 There are six phrases containing errors underlined in this paragraph. Can you correct them?

The study showed that local police can play an important role in crime prevention. It makes a strong case of boosting the numbers of community police officers although it warns against increasing police presence on the streets at an alarming degree. Its methodological was based on a range of interviews asking members of the public for their views in how best to prevent crime. Unfortunately, how to implement this recommendation was out of the scope of the study but at least it serves a useful purpose in raising awareness to the issue.


3 Look at these titles of academic books (A-H). Then match them to their subject areas (1-8).

A The Nature of Democracy

1 economics

В The Significance of Dreams

2 education

С The Features of Glaciated Landscapes

3 literature

D The Assessment of Language Skills

4 history

E An Approach to Free Verse

5 geography

F The Identification of Bees

6 psychology

G Perspectives on Modern Taxation

7 politics

H New Perspectives on Cleopatra

8 zoology


4 Match the beginning of each sentence with the most appropriate ending.

1 The study revealed a regular

a) scope of your research.

2 The research focuses on one particular

b) awareness of the problem.

3 The writer makes a powerful

c) issues facing the world today.

4 The writers take an original

d) into the environmental effects of nanoparticles.

5 Until recently there was little

e) approach to their theme.

6 I think you should broaden the

f) aspect of modern society.

7 To date, there has been little research

g) pattern of changes in temperature.

8 There are many important

h) case for restructuring parliament.



Nouns and the Words They Combine With
Nouns often combine with specific verbs, for example carry out research, pay attention, or with specific adjectives, for example medical research, undivided attention.
A Adjective + noun

noun

adjectives that often combine with it

example

contact

useful, valuable, personal, constant, close, frequent, intermittent1

I made some useful contacts at the conference.

debate

considerable, heated2, intense, public, animated3

After the lecture there was a heated debate.

element

[= factor]

crucial, decisive, fundamental

Timing is a crucial element of the experiment.

elements

[= parts]

conflicting, contrasting, constituent4

There are conflicting elements in the artist's work.

energy

excess, sufficient, nuclear

Wind turbines create sufficient energy for the town's needs.

phenomenon

common, isolated, natural, recent, universal

Such anti-social behaviour is a recent phenomenon.

results

conflicting, (in)conclusive, unforeseen, preliminary6, encouraging, interim7

Our preliminary results were encouraging.

role

decisive, challenging, conflicting, influential, key, pivotal8

Student activists played a pivotal role in the riot.

sample

random, representative

A representative sample of the population was surveyed.

in ... terms

absolute, broad, relative, general, practical, economic

People are better off in economic terms.

way

alternative, efficient, fair, practical, convenient, proper, acceptable

It is important to treat your research subjects in a fair way.

1 from time to time 2 strong, often angry 3 lively 4 that combine to make something 5 not expected 6 first 7 temporary 8 important

B Noun + verb

Most of the nouns in the table above are also strongly associated with specific verbs.


You can come into contact with someone or something or you can establish, maintain, break off or lose contact.

Academics may engage in debate or contribute to a debate. You talk about the debate surrounding an issue.

You can combine, differentiate or discern [recognise] the elements of a chemical compound.

You consume [use], conserve, generate [create], save or waste energy.



Phenomena emerge or occur and students will try to observe, investigate and then explain those phenomena.

Academics collect, collate [organise] and publish their results. Sometimes results are questioned or invalidated [shown to be wrong]. Occasionally they are even falsified! Roles may be defined or strengthened. People or factors can play a role or take on a role.

You can take or provide or analyse a sample.

You can discover, devise [think up], work out or develop a way to do something.


Exercises

1 Answer these questions about the adjective + noun combinations in the table in A.

  1. Put these types of contact in order of frequency - frequent, constant, intermittent.

  1. Which of these is a representative sample and which is a random sample: a sample chosen by chance, a sample chosen as typical of the population as a whole?

  1. Which adjective describes the opposite of a common phenomenon?

  2. Would you be pleased if you did some research and got inconclusive results?

  3. What adjective other than key can be used with role to give a similar meaning?

  4. Which suggests that there is more energy - excess or sufficient energy?

  5. Can you name three people who play an influential role in a child's development?

  6. If two of the four constituent elements of most language exams are reading and speaking, what are the other two?



2 Fill in the gaps in these sentences with a verb from B. Change the form where necessary.

  1. I first …….. into contact with Abdul when I started my doctoral research in 1987.

  1. The country ……… so much energy that we don't ……….. enough to meet all our needs.

  1. The space race ………. an important role in post-war politics.

  2. In her research project Diana …………. the phenomenon of extra-sensory perception but she was not able to come to any significant conclusions.

  3. Although Hans's rivals attempted to …………. his results, they met with no success.

  4. Green's poetry successfully ………… elements from a number of different traditions.


3 Match the beginning of each sentence with the most appropriate ending.

  1. It took the team a long time to devise surrounding the issue of global warming.

  2. During the war we had to break a blood sample for analysis.

  3. There has been a lot of heated debate the role of project leader.

  4. Ian Hartmann was invited to take on to the debate on cloning.



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