Menntaskólinn í reykjavík reykjavik Higher Secondary



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ICELANDIC


4 year course (5 + 4 + 4 + 4 periods weekly).

Extensive grounding in grammar, etymology, literature old and new, and composition.


Native language


1st year: Fall term:

1. Sagnorð – fallorð (curriculum by the teachers on Verbs, Nouns, Adjectives and Pronouns) read and discussed in exercises.

2. Réttritun (Right Spelling) by Ragnheiður Briem read and discussed in exercises.

3. Hefðbundin setningafræði (Classical Syntax) by Ragnheiður Briem read and discussed in exercises.

4. Íslenska eitt (Icelandic One, with various texts and exercises) complied by Ragnhildur Richter, Sigríður Stefánsdóttir and Steingrímur Þórðarson read and discussed in written papers.

5. Handbók um ritun og frágang (Handbook on Writing) by Ingibjörg Axelsdóttir and Þórunn Blöndal.

6. Students write an essay at home on selected subjects by the teachers and the students.

Spring term:

1. Íslenska eitt (Icelandic One, with various texts and exercises) complied by Ragnhildur Richer, Sigríður Stefánsdóttir and Steingrímur Þórðarson read and discussed in written papers.

2. Hefðbundin setningafræði (Classical Syntax) by Ragnheiður Briem read and discussed in exercises.

3. Home-reading: Ýmislegt um risafurur og tímann (A new Icelandic novel) by Jón Kalmann Stefánsson. Text read thoroughly and discussed. Students write essays on the text.

5. Handbók um ritun og frágang (Handbook on Writing) by Ingibjörg Axelsdóttir and Þórunn Blöndal.

6. Students write an essay at home on a selected subjects by the teachers and the students.



2nd year: Fall term:

1. Fjölrit handa 4. bekk (comtempory Icelandic phonetics. Curriculum by the teachers) read and discussed in exercises.

2. Íslensk málsaga (History of the Icelandic Language) by Sölvi Sveinsson read and discussed in exercises.

2. Set book for home-reading: Íslendinga þættir (13 short stories from the 13th and 14th centuries). Students give lectures on the text.

3. Handbók um ritun og frágang (Handbook on Writing) by Ingibjörg Axelsdóttir and Þórunn Blöndal.

4. Students write an essay at home on selected subjects by the teachers and the students.



Spring term:

1. Bókastoð (History of Icelandic Literature 900-1550 (prose)) by Kristján Eiríksson and Sigurborg Hilmarsdóttir.

2. Home-reading: Guðirnir okkar gömul og Snorra-Edda (Our Ancient Gods by Sölvi Sveinsson and Snorri Sturluson' s Edda). Students give lectures on Nordic mythology.

3. Home-reading: Egils Saga Skalla-Grímssonar. All the prose of this Icelandic Saga from the 13th century. Text read thoroughly and discussed in class.

4. Handbók um ritun og frágang (Handbook on Writing) by Ingibjörg Axelsdóttir and Þórunn Blöndal.

5. Students write an essay at home on the customs and origins of personal names in their family.



3rd year: Fall term:

1. Ljóðamál (A book on Poetry and Style) by Bragi Halldórsson and Knútur S. Hafsteinsson read and discussed in exercises.

2. Ormurinn langi (Anthology of Icelandic Literature 900–1900 complied by Bragi Halldórsson, Knútur S. Hafsteinsson and Ólafur Oddsson). A selection of poetry: All of Sonatorrek and 8 of the stanzas of Egils saga Skalla-Grímssonar discussed in class.

3. Bókastoð (History of Icelandic Literature 900-1550 (poetry)) by Kristján Eiríksson and Sigurborg Hilmarsdóttir.

4. Njáls saga (Story of Burnt Njal). All text of this Icelandic Saga from the 13th century read thoroughly and discussed. Students give lectures on the text.

5. Gott mál (The Use of Good Language in Writing) by Ólafur Oddsson. Read and discussed in exercises.

6. Handbók um ritun og frágang (Handbook on Writing) by Ingibjörg Axelsdóttir and Þórunn Blöndal.

7. Students write an essay at home on a selected subjects by the teachers and the students.



Spring term:

1. Bókastoð (History of Icelandic Literature 900-1550 (poetry)) by Kristján Eiríksson and Sigurborg Hilmarsdóttir.

2. Frá lærdómsöld til raunsæis (History of Icelandic Literature 1550 – 1900, 1. chapter read on the period 1550 – 1750) by Heimir Pálsson.

3. Ormurinn langi (Anthology of Icelandic Literature 900–1900) complied by Bragi Halldórsson, Knútur S. Hafsteinsson and Ólafur Oddsson and additional explanatory notes. A selection of poetry and prose 900 – 1750: Various texts of different literary genres from the medieval period up to the 18th century; among many texts the Eddic poems Völuspá, Hávamál, Helgakviða Hundingsbana II, hymns by Hallgrímur Pétursson and many other texts from the period. All texts read thoroughly and discussed in class.

4. Handbók um ritun og frágang (Handbook on Writing) by Ingibjörg Axelsdóttir and Þórunn Blöndal.

5. Students write a long critical essay at home on a new Icelandic novel that they have self selected.



4th year: Fall term:

1. Frá lærdómsöld til raunsæis (History of Icelandic Literature 1550 –  1900, 2., 3., 4. and 5. chapters read on the period 1750 – 1900) by Heimir Pálsson.

2. Ormurinn langi (Anthology of Icelandic Literature 900–1900) complied by Bragi Halldórsson, Knútur S. Hafsteinsson and Ólafur Oddsson and additional explanatory notes. A selection of poetry and prose 1750 – 1900: Various texts by distinguised Icelandic authors and poets from the period. All texts read thoroughly and discussed in class. Students give lectures on a selected author or a poet from the period.

3. Handbók um ritun og frágang (Handbook on Writing) by Ingibjörg Axelsdóttir and Þórunn Blöndal.

4. Students write an essay at home on a selected subject by the teachers and the students.

Spring term:

1. Galdra-Loftur (A play) by Jóhann Sigurjónsson. Text read thoroughly and discussed. Students give lectures on the text.

2. Saga, ljóð og líf (History of Icelandic Literature 1900 – 2000) by Heimir Pálsson.

3. Ljóðahefti (curriculum complied by the teachers with selected poetry by distinguied Icelandic poets from the 20th century). Students give lectures on selected poems.

4. Home-reading: Íslandsklukkan (Iceland’s Clock) by Nobel Prizewinner Halldór Laxness. The whole work read and discussed. Students read papers on the work and give lectures on the novel.

5. Home-reading: Stjörnurnar í Konstantínópel (Anthology of Icelandic short stories from the 20th century) complied by Halla Kjartansdóttir, read and discussed. Students give lectures on selected stories.

6. Handbók um ritun og frágang (Handbook on Writing) by Ingibjörg Axelsdóttir and Þórunn Blöndal.

General and Historical Linguistics


1 year course (3 periods weekly).

An overview and introduction to General Linguistics and Historical Linguistics.



4th year: Fall term:

1. An Introduction to Language (Seventh editon 2003) by Victoria Fromkin, Robert Rodman & Nina Hyams. 1. chapter (What is Language), 2. chapter (Brain and Language), 3. chapter (Morphology: The Words og Language), 4. chapter (Syntax: The Sentence Patters of Language), 5. chapter (The Meaning of Language), 6. chapter (Phonetics: The Sound og Language), 7. chapter (Phonology: The Sound Patterns of Language), 8. chapter (Language Acquisition). Text read and discussed. Students work at home 10 short exercises and papers on a selected subject by the teacher.

2. Additional texts:

3. Íslensk orðhlutafræði (Icelandic Morphology, Forth edition 1990) by Prof. Eiríkur Rögnvaldsson (pages 11 – 40).

4. Íslensk setningafræði (Icelandic Syntax, Sixth edition 1999) by Prof. Höskuldur Þráinsson (pages 81 –93).

5. Íslensk hljóðkerfisfræði (Icelandic Phonology, 1993) by Prof. Eiríkur Rögnvaldsson (pages 25 – 33).

Spring term:

6. Historical Linguistics – An Introduction (Second edition 2004) by Lyle Campbell. 1. chapter (Introduction), 2. chapter (Sound Change), 3. chapter (Borrowing), 4. chapter (Analogical Change), 5. chapter (The Comparative Method and Linguistics). Students work at home 10 short exercises and papers on a selected subject by the teacher.

7. Additional texts and examples from Icelandic manuscripts, Nordic runes, overview over the Indo-European Languages among other examples.

World Literture (a self selected course by the students)

1 year course (3 periods weekly).

Several works from world literature in Icelandic translations read and discussed. The selection differs from year to year. In the year 2006 – 2007 the following works were read by the students. All the works discussed in class and each student selected by himself/herself one work and gave a lecture on the work for the other students.

4th year: Fall term:

1. Glæpur og refsing (Crime and Punishment) by Fjodor Dostojevsky.

2. Hamskiptin (Die Verwandlung) by Franz Kafka.

4. Líflæknirinn (Livläkarens besök) by Per Olav Enquist.

5. Birtingur (Candide) by Voltaire.

6. Selected works by the students to give a lecture on.



Spring term:

1. Ilíónskviða (Ilionad) by Homer. Selected chapters read and discussed.

2. Hringadróttins saga (Lord of the Rings) by J.R.R. Tolkien.

3. Kassandra (Kassandra: ein Erzählung) by Christa Wolf.

4. Saga þernurnar (TheHandmaid’s Tale) by Margaret Atwood.

5. Selected work by the students to give a lecture on.



DANISH


Second foreign language. 2 year course.

Students have a minimum of 3 years of Danish in lower schools.


Science line 1st year


Three periods per week.

Intensive reading:


Main textbook: Dansk er mange ting (Mál og menning).

Texts and exercises in structure and vocabulary.

Students read a selection of texts from various sources with particular emphasis on vocabulary building and reading comprehension.

Extensive reading:


A selection of contemporary Danish short stories is read and discussed in class.

Three novels.

One of these, Min ven Thomas ( Kirsten Holst), is read and discussed in class and the other two ( one each term) are selected by the students from a variable list of contemporary Danish novels. These novels form the base for an essay or another kind of an assignment of importance.

Special emphasis on reading comprehension, vocabulary building and grammar. Weekly written work, translation and composition.


Grammar:


Sådan siger man (Mál og menning). A comprehensive Danish grammar with exercises.

Use of language:

Weekly exercises in translation from Icelandic into Danish as well as other written and oral assignments.


Science line 2nd year:


Three periods per week.

Intensive reading:

Students continue with Dansk er mange ting (Mál og menning) as the main textbook.

Texts and exercises in structure and vocabulary.

Students read a selection of texts from various sources with particular emphasis on vocabulary building and reading comprehension.


Extensive reading:

A selection of contemporary Danish short stories is read and discussed in class.

Every student must read two novels (one each term ), selected from a variable list of contemporary Danish novels. These novels form the base for an essay or another kind of an assignment of importance.


Grammar:


Comprehensive exercises in Danish grammar.

Use of language: Weekly exercises in translation from Icelandic into Danish as well as other written and oral assignmnets.

The final examination consists of:


1. Written examination (3 hours) consisting of:

a) translation from Danish into Icelandic,

b) reading comprehension,

c) an unseen text for translation from Icelandic into English,

d) an essay (a choice between four topics from the list of novels).
2. An oral examination (10 min. per student).

The students are expected to resume and interpretate a short story, randomly drawn from the selection og short stories.




ENGLISH

1st year:


Four periods per week.

Intensive reading:

Students read a selection of texts from various sources with particular emphasis on vocabulary building and reading comprehension.



Extensive reading:

The Hobbit by J.R.R. Tolkien and a selection of short stories are read and discussed in class.

Grammar:

English Grammar in Use (CUP) is used systematically throughout the school year.

Use of language:

Regular exercises in translation from Icelandic into English as well as other written and oral assignments.


2nd year:


Four periods per week.

Intensive reading:

Students read a selection of texts from various sources with particular emphasis on vocabulary building and reading comprehension.



Extensive reading:

A selection of short stories is read and discussed in class.

Two novels (one each term), Animal Farm by George Orwell and The Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy by Douglas Adams, are read and discussed in class.

Grammar:

Students continue with English Grammar in Use from the first year.



Use of language:

Regular exercises in translation from Icelandic into English, essay writing and oral presentations.


3rd year:


Four periods per week.

This is the students’ last year of English concluding with a final examination.



Intensive reading:

Students read a selection of texts, intensively, with particular emphasis on vocabulary and word building. The texts include passages from subjects like physics, biology, astronomy, psychology anthropology, etc., and they have been chosen to prepare students for reading textbooks in English in their future studies.



Extensive reading:

A selection of short stories is read and discussed in class.

A novel, To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee, and a play, Death of a Salesman by Arthur Miller, are read and discussed in class.

Students are expected to write an essay on a novel of their own choice.

Each student is supposed to read a scientific article of his or her own choice as part of the oral examination.

Grammar:


Students do selected exercises in grammar and vocabuary.

Use of language:

Regular writing tasks as well as oral assignments.

The final examination consists of:



  1. A written examination (3 hours), consisting of
    a) a translation from English into Icelandic,
    b) grammar and word building,
    c) reading comprehension,
    d) essay writing (2 essays on different subjects).

  2. An oral examination (15-20 min. per student).



GERMAN

Third language in the languages line.

Three years

4 periods per week

1st and 2nd year


Textbooks used:

Þýska fyrir þig 1 og 2” (German for You 1 and 2) textbook, workbook and grammar especially prepared for Icelandic students.

Along with these textbooks a variety of study materials is used in order to achieve the study objectives in accordance with the objectives and goals laid out in the European Language Portfolio.

The first-year students achieve level A1 and part of level A2.

The second-year students achieve level A2 and the beginning of level B1.

3rd year


Texts from many sources are used.

The objective is to achieve level B1.




HISTORY AND CIVICS

4 periods per week in 1st, 2nd and 4th year.

1st year


The history of the classical ancient peoples with special emphasis on cultural and artistic history, philosophy and mythology of the Greeks and Romans. The early Middle Ages and the Viking period. - National History of Iceland 870-1262.

2nd year:

The later Middle Ages in Europe. The Renaissance in Italy. The discovery of Africa, Asia and America round 1500 and the 16th century. The Reformation in the 16th century: The Lutherans, the Calvinists and the Anglicans. The scientific revolution in the 17th century and the absolute monarchy in Europe. The Enlightment in the 18th century. The American and the French Revolution, new ideas of democracy. The Industrial Revolution in England in the 18th and the 19th centuries.

Icelandic history from the settlement about 870 - 900. The founding of the Icelandic state and the medieval church. The age of the Sturlungs, the power struggle between clan chieftains in Iceland in the 13th century. The fishing and trading of the English in the 15th century. Iceland under Noewegian rule. The Reformation in Iceland. Agriculture and fishing in Iceland mainly in the 18th century. Trade and communication. The daily life of the people in a primitive, agricultural society.

3rd year

The twentieth century with special emphasis on the development of political ideas and international relations. The Icelandic struggle for independence and the effect of two world wars on national life, the founding of an independent republic in 1944 and the post-war period.

In the history of the 19th and 20th centuries the study is concentrated on the following subjects:

1. The political trends of the 19th century - Conservatism, Liberalism, Socialism.

2. The major European Powers in the latter part of the 19th century- Britain, France, Germany, Italy, The Austro-Hungarian Empire, Russia.

3. Events leading up to the Great War.

4. The World War of 1914-1918.

5. The Treaty of Versailles and European affairs after the war.

6. The Russian Revolution and the Soviet Union 1917-1939.

7. The U.S.A. 1918-1939 and the Depression.

8. The Weimar Republic in Germany 1918-1938.

9. Fascism in Italy.

10. German National Socialism and the Third Reich.

11. Events leading up to the Second World War 1933-1939.

12. The Second World War.

13. The Cold War.

14. The Arab-Israeli conflict.

MATHEMATICS

The Physics Line I

1st year

6 periods per week.


Subject matter covered: Elementary Plane Geometry, Intermediate Algebra, Equations and Inequalities of first and second degree. Absolute Value. Indices. The Coordinate System and Equations of Lines and Circles.

2nd year:

The Mathematics Line 1

7 periods per week.


Subject matter covered: The Coordinate system, parallel and orthogonal lines. Functions. Polynomial equations. Inequalities. Functions and inverse functions. Vectors. Scale products. Trigonometry, trigonometric equations and inequalities.

3rd year and 4th year

The Physics Line I


8 periods per week and 8 periods per week.

Subject matter covered: Exponential and Logarithmic functions, equations and inequalities. Differential and Integral Calculus. Curve sketching. Differential equations. Sequences and Series. Permutations and Combinations. Probability. Conic sections. Complex numbers. Matrices. Vectors in three-dimensional Space. Least upper bound. The hyperbolic functions. L´Hospital´s Rule. Taylor polynomials with remainders. Tests for convergence of series and improper integrals.



The Physical Science Lines I and II

General Chemistry 1st year


3 perods per week

Textbook: Chemistry; The Central Science

by T.L. Brown, H.E. LeMay Jr., B.E. Bursten, and C.J Murphy,

Chapters: 1 – 4



Ch. 1 Matter and Measurements

Classification and properties of matter, SI and derived SI units, precision and accuracy, significant figures in calculations, dimensional analysis.



Ch. 2 Atoms, molecules, and ions

Atomic theory, atomic and mass numbers, isotopes, atomic and average atomic masses, molecular and empirical formulas, predicting ionic charges and ionic compounds, nomenclature of ionic and binary molecular compounds, alkanes and some simple derivatives of alkanes.



Ch. 3 Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations

Balancing equations, states of reactants and products, formula and molecular weights, mole, molar mass, interconverting mass, moles and number of particles. Empirical formulas from elemental analysis, stoichiometry and quantitative information from balanced equations, limiting reactants and theoretical yields.



Ch. 4 Aqueous Reactions and Solution Stoichiometry

General properties of aqueous solutions: electrolytic properties, ionic and molecular compounds in water, strong and weak electrolytes.

Precipitation reactions: Solubility guidelines for ionic compounds, metathesis reactions, ionic equations.

Acid-base reactions: strong and weak acids and bases, neutralization reactions and salt formation.

Oxidation-reduction reactions: oxidation numbers, oxidation of metals by acids and metal salts, activity series.

Concentration of solutions: molarity, interconverting molarity, moles and volume. Dilution, solution stoichiometry and chemical analysis by titrations.


General Chemistry 2nd year


3 perods per week

Textbook: Chemistry; The Central Science

By T.L. Brown, H.E. LeMay Jr., B.E. Bursten, and C.J Murphy

Chapters: 5-11



Ch. 5 Thermochemistry

Nature and units of energy, the first law of thermodynamics, relating internal energy change to heat and work, endo- and exothermic processes, enthalpy and enthalpies of reactions, calorimetry, Hess´s law, enthalpies of formation.



Ch. 6 Electronic Structure of Atoms

The wave and particle nature of light, photon energy, line spectra and Bohr hydrogen model, quantum mechanics and atomic orbitals, electron configuration of many-electron atoms, electron configuration and the Periodic table.



Ch. 7 Periodic Properties of the Elements

Effective nuclear charge and trends in properties: sizes of atoms and ions, ionic energy, electron affinities.

Metals, nonmetals and metalloids, group trends in alkali and earth alkali metals, oxygen group, halogens and nobel gases.

Ch. 8 Basic Concepts of Chemical Bonding

Ionic and covalent bonds, octet rule, bond polarity and electronegativity, Lewis structures, formal charges, resonance structures, exceptions to the octet rule, bond enthalpies and enthalpies of reactions.



Ch. 9 Molecular Geometry and Bonding Theories

Molecular shapes and the VSEPR model, molecular polarity, a short introduction to covalent bonding and orbital overlap.



Ch. 10 Gases

Pressure, barometer, the gas laws of Boyle, Charles and Avogadro. The ideal-gas equation and its application in chemical reactions, gas mixtures and partial pressures, kinetic-molecular theory.



Ch. 11 Intermolecular Forces, Liquids and Solids

A molecular comparison of gases, liquids and solids.

Intermolecular forces: ion-dipole, dipole-dipole, London dispersion, hydrogen bonding, comparison of intermolecular forces, viscosity and surface tension of liquids.

Vapor pressure: effect of intermolecular forces, temperature dependence, boiling point.

Structure of solids: simple, body-centered and face-centered cubic unit cells, NaCl(s)-structure.

Bonding in solids: molecular, covalent-network, ionic and metallic solids.



Ch. 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry

Hybridizations, sp3-, sp2- and sp3-orbitals, - and - bonds, structural isomers, nomenclature, structural and physical properties of: alkanes, cycloalkanes, and alkenes.


Laboratory experiments: 2x40 min. every other week


The chemistry experiments are largely bases on:

Chemistry with Computers using Logger ProTM and Vernier Sensors,

by D.D. Holmquist and D. L. Volz

1. Formation and reactions of carbon dioxide

2. Planning and preparations of solutions

3. Endo- and exothermic reactions

4. Additivity of heats of reaction: Hess´s Law

5. Analysis of FeSO4•nH2O by permanganate titration

6. Determination of the stoichiometry of the iodometric reaction

7. Conductivity of solutions: The effect of concentration

8. Determining the concentration of a solution: Beer´s Law

9. Pressure-temperature relationship of a gas

10 Reaction of magnesium in hydrochloric acid: collecting and determining the amount of a hydrogen gas

11. Evaporation and intermolecular forces

12. Structures and nomenclature of organic molecules: an exercise using the program ChemSketch.


General Chemistry 3rd year


4 perods per week

Textbook: Chemistry; The Central Science

By T.L. Brown, H.E. LeMay Jr., B.E. Bursten, and C.J. Murphy

Chapters: 13-17. 19-20 and 25



Ch. 15 Chemical Equilibrium

The law of equilibrium, equilibrium constants Kc and Kp, heterogeneous equilibria, calculating equilibrium constants. Application of equilibrium constants: reaction quotient and direction of a reaction, calculating equilibrium concentrations.

Le Chatelier principle: effect of change in concentrations, volume, pressure and temperature. The effect of catalysts.

Ch. 16 Acid-Base Equilibria

Brönsted-Lowry acids-base definition, autoionization of water, pH scale, strong and weak acids and bases, calculating pH of weak acid and weak base solutions and solutions of their salts, polyprotic acids, acid-base properties of salt solutions, acid-base behavior and chemical structure, Lewis acids and bases.



Ch. 17 Additional Aspect of Aqueous Equilibria

Common-ion effect, buffered solution, calculating the pH-curve for a acid-base titration: strong acid–strong base, weak acid-strong base, weak base-strong acid.

Solubility equilibria, solubility product constant (Ksp), solubility (g/L) and molar solubility. The effect of common-ion, pH and complex formation on solubility. Precipitation and separation of ions.

Ch. 14 Chemical Kinetics

Reaction rate, determining a rate law from initial rates, temperature and rate, collision model, orientation factor and activation energy, Arrhenius equation, determining activation energy. Reaction mechanism: elementary reactions and their rate laws, rate-determining step, deriving a rate law for few simple multistep mechanism. Catalysis: homogenous and heterogenous catalysis, enzymes.



Ch. 19 Chemical Thermodynamics

Spontaneous processes, entropy and the second law of thermodynamics, a short introduction to the molecular interpretation of entropy, entropy change in chemical reactions, Gibbs free energy, free energy and temperature, free energy and the equilibrium constant.



Ch. 20 Electrochemistry

Balancing oxidation-reduction reactions, voltaic cells, cell electromotive force (EMF), free energy and EMF, Nernst equation, concentration cells, batteries, corrosion, electrolysis.



Ch. 25 The Chemistry of Life: Organic and Biological Chemistry

Hybridizations, sp3-, sp2- and sp3-orbitals, - and - bonds, structural isomers, stereo isomers, chirality.

Nomenclature, structural and physical properties of: alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and derivatives. Biochemistry: amino acids, peptides and proteins, protein structure, carbohydrates, disaccharides and polysaccharides, nucleic acids, DNA.

Ch. 13 Properties of Solutions

Solution formation: energy change, spontaneity, chemical reaction. Unsaturated, saturated and supersaturated solutions.

Factors effecting solubility: solute-solvent interactions, pressure effects, Henry´s law, temperature effects.

Ways of expressing concentration: mass percentage, ppm, mole fraction, molality, conversion of concentration units.

Colligative properties: Boiling-point elevation, freezing-point depression

Laboratory experiments: 2 periods every other week


The chemistry experiments are largely bases on:

Chemistry with Computers using Logger ProTM and Vernier Sensors,

by D.D. Holmquist and D. L. Volz

1. Using conductivity to find the equivalence point for the reaction between saturated Ba(OH)2 and H2SO4

2. Colorimetric determination of Kc for: Fe3+ + SCN-  FeSCN2+

3. The temperature dependence of the vapor pressure of methanol.

4. Titration curve of a weak acid measured with a computer-interfaced pH electrode.

5. Titration curve of a Na2A salt measured with a computer-interfaced pH electrode.

6. Separation of a mixture of Ni2+, Co2+ and Fe3+ with an ion-exchange column.

7. Determination of the composition of Cu(NH3)n2+ complex by HCl titration of aqueous and chloroform solutions.

8. Determination of the rate law of:


S2O82- + 2I-  2SO42- + I2

9. Electrochemical cell: establishing a table of reduction potential and application of Nernst equation.

10. Electrolysis of potassium iodide solution: identification of products and half-reactions.

11. EDTA-titration analysis of calcium in milk.

12. Determination of molecular weight by freezing-point depression.

PHYSICS

I Mathematics Line 1st year


6 periods theory + 2 periods laboratory work per week.

Textbooks: Aflfræði I og rafrásir (Mechanics and electric circuits) and Aflfræði II by Davíð Þorsteinsson.

Dynamics of a particle: SI-units, vectors, translation, velocity and acceleration in one dimension, free fall. Force and acceleration, Newtons laws of motion, Hooke’s law, frictional forces, coefficient of friction, motion on an incline. Energy and work, power, kinetic energy, potential energy, conservative forces, mechanical energy, energy of a spring, inner energy, conservation of energy, simple machines.

Pressure and heat: Pressure in liquids and gases, Archimedes’ law, Torricellis experiment, Bernoullie’s law. Temperature, thermometers, the Kelvin scale of temperature. Ideal gas, the gas equation, first law of thermodynamics, molar specific heat of gases. Heat and energy, specific heat, latent heat. Second law of thermodynamics, heat engines, efficiency of engines, entropy.

Electricity: Charge, Coulomb’s law, electric field, current, voltage, Millikan’s experiment, electric power, Ohm’s law, resistance, resistivity, emf, electric circuits, Kirchhoff’s laws.

Motion in 2 dimensions: Velocity and acceleration as vectors, two dimensional motion in constant gravitational field.

Impulse and momentum: Impulse, momentum of a particle, conservation of momentum, elastic and inelastic collisions in 1 and 2 dimensions, the motion of centre of mass.

Circular motion: Centripetal acceleration and force, inertial forces, Coriolis force.

Oscillations: Simple harmonic motion, energy of an oscillator, simple pendulum, damping, forced oscillations, resonance.

Waves in 1 dimension: Longitudinal and transverse waves, wavelength, frequency, amplitude, reflection, interference, mathematical description of waves, standing waves, beats, Doppler effect, intensity of sound, decibel.

Waves in a plane: Huygen’s law, refractions, reflection, diffraction, Young’s experiment, diffraction grating, spectroscope, diffraction of light in a single slit, resolution of optical instruments, thin films.

Geometrical optics: Light rays, reflection, refraction, Snell’s law, total internal reflection, dispersion, Fermat’s law, lenses, real and virtual images, lensmaker’s equation, lens abberations, the eye, optical instruments.

Error handling: Estimate of uncertainty, significant figures, error in sums and differences, error in products and quotients, mean, standard deviation, estimating errors from a linear graph.

2nd year Mathematics Line Physics I

6 periods theory + 2 periods laboratory work per week



Textbooks: Aflfræði II and Rafsegulmagn og nútímaeðlisfræði by Davíð Þorsteinsson.

Gravitation: Kepler’s laws, Newton’s law of gravitation, the Cavendish experiment, circular motion in gravitational field, gravitational potential, binding energy, escape velocity.

Equilibrium and rotation of rigid bodies: Torque, conditions of equlibrium, centre of gravity, torque as a vector quantity, rotational energy, moment of inertia, angular momentum, consevation of angular momentum, gyroscope.

Electrostatics: Electric flux, Gauss’ law, electric field due to a charged plane, cylinder and sphere, electric potential

Capacitors: Capacitance, dielectrics, energy of a capacitor, charging and discharging of a capacitor through a resistor, time constant of an RC-circuit.

Electromagnetism: Magnetic field, Laplace’s law, electric motor, Biot-Savart-law, magnetic field around straight conductor, magnetic field in a solenoid, definition of ampere, earth’s magnetic field, movement of charged particles in an electromagnetic field, Loretz force, mass spectrometer. Magnetic flux, Faradays law of induction, self induction, inductance, AC-generator, transformer, AC-circuits.

Relativity: Inertial systems of reference, the experiment of Michelson and Morley, Einstein’s principle of relativity, the Lorents equations, relativity of mass, mass as an energy form.

Quantum theory: Planck’s quantum theory of radiation, photoelectric effect, Einstein’s quantum theory of light, X-rays, Braggs’ measurement of wavelengths of X-rays, the experiment of Rutherford, Geiger and Marsden, Rutherford’s theory of the atom, the hypothesis of de Broglie, the experiment of Davisson and Germer, quantization of energy in the hydrogen atom, atomic spectra, Heisenberg’s law of uncertainty, the Scrödinger equation.

Nuclear physics: Nuclear forces, binding energy of nuclei, radioactivity, half life, nuclear energy.

NATURAL SCIENCES:

GEOLOGY


1st year.

3 periods per week. Field trips.

Book used: Jarðfræði by Guðbjartur Kristófersson.

Subject matter covered:

Internal Earth processes: Minerals and rocks, volcanoes, geothermal energy, the Earth's internal structure, earthquakes, plate tectonics.

External earth processes: Landforms by weathering. erosion by rivers, glaciers, wind and oceans. Main types of sediments and fossil fuels. Geological time, its determination and a brief overview of the geological history of Iceland.


HISTORICAL GEOLOGY:


4th year.

3 periods per week.

Book used: Saga lífs og jarðar by Guðbjartur Kristófersson and Ólöf Erna Leifsdóttir.

Subjects covered: The founders of historical geology, time and geology, minerals and rocks, sediments and sedimentary rocks, development of the Earth's major features, continental drift and orogenesis, paleontology and organic evolution, evolution of environment and life through time.

ASTRONOMY

Physics Line

Taught in the 4th year

Contents


3 periods per week. Astronomy field trip, weather permitting.

Course book


Nútíma stjörnufræði. Frá sólkerfinu okkar til vetrarbrauta og endimarka alheimsins. (Modern astronomy, from the solar system to the galaxies and the end of the universe. Vilhelm Sigmundsson.

Evaluation


The teacher's mark is based on the results of quick tests, individual presentations, group assignments and short written papers handed in to the teacher.

The matriculation examination mark is based on a written examination.


Main areas of the subject

Overview of the solar system


Astronomical survey of the planets. Comparison of planet characteristics. Comparison of the inner and outer solar system.

The inner solar system


Outline of the inner construction, surface, atmosphere and other characteristics of the planets and our Moon. These features compared where appropriate.

The outer solar system


Outline of the inner construction, surface, atmosphere and other characteristics of the planets Galilean moons, Titan, Encaladus and Triton studied in a similar way as the planets. The outermost planets of the solar system, asteroids and comets.

The Sun


The different layers of the Sun's corona, nuclear fission in the interior and events on the surface.

Stars


Characteristics of stars, their creation and life span with reference to a HR graph. Different star deaths based on final mass. Supernovae, white dwarfs, neutron stars, black holes.

Galaxies


Our Galaxy is considered in particular and others treated as comparisons. Development of galaxies, galactic clusters and their distribution in the universe.

Cosmology


Basic concepts of cosmology and Olber's paradox examined. Research in cosmology. Creation of the universe in the Big Bang. Microwave background noise and the physical characteristics of the universe. Future of the universe.

Astrobiology


The search for planets and conditions for life on other planets.

Problem solving


Problems from the curriculum in the course lectures.

COMPUTER SCIENCE

1st year


3 periods per week.

An introductory course to computers. PC-type computers are used throughout. The main emphasis is on practical drill in Windows-based applications, i.e. the word processor MS-Word and the spreadsheet MS-Excel. There is also a theoretical introduction to computers dealing with, among other things, logic, binary numbers, the logical structure of computers and of the microprocessor e.t.c.


2nd year


3 periods per week.

Secondary course in computer science. PC-type computers are used. The main emphasis is on programming in Turbo Pascal (DOS version) covering all the basics of the language up to and including file handling. There is a short interlude dealing with the microprocessor.




LIFE SKILLS


1st year

1 period per week

Life Skills in upper secondary schools is intended to provide students with a chance to deepen their understanding of themselves and their environment, and strengthen their capabilities to face the demands and challenges of daily life.

Final Objectives


On successful completion of this course a student shall:

  1. Foster a sense of solidarity, sympathy and respect for the opinions and values of others;

  2. Develop rich and productive relationships with other individuals irrespective of their race, gender, nationality, religion, or any physical and mental deficits

There is no examination for this course but participants are required to maintain 100 percent attendance in order to obtain a pass in this course. Successful candidates will obtain a certificate of attendance which will not carry a grade but would indicate passed/completed.

Course content


  • Introduction to school and its social life

  • Promoting a healthy class environment

  • Traffic and driver education

  • Crisis and grief counselling

  • Study skills and coping with examination anxiety

  • Sex education

  • Public speaking

  • Self esteem

  • Drug, tobacco and alcohol abuse and preventive measures

Guest lectures will be provided by

  • Ministers and theologians

  • Medical students from the University of Iceland


Physical Training

4-year course (2 periods per week)


The students learn to improve their body, both physically and mentally, through various exercises and games. To achieve this they enter a programme of outdoor running, weight-lifting as well as strenghening and suppleness exercises. They also have an opportunity to further their social skills and student cooperation e.g. through group assignments and various games. They gain an understanding of the importance of regular exercise and the need for proper nourishment.

The students go o an organized mountain hike every year and the students can also attend swimming and swim 1000 m once a year.

The students are introduced to various sports as far as possible and sometimes guest instructors come in for this purpose.

Every autumn, the students have an opportunity to study an elective subject for 4 weeks and the most popular are mountain hiking, salsa dancing, yoga, judo and golf.



Students receive instruction in dancing throughout their four years, including Icelandic folk dances, group dances from foreign countries, Latin-American dances, the waltz and original dances composed by fellow students for the student annual dances.






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