This resource provides links to information on speech disorders, language disorders, medical and developmental conditions, and communication options. There is also a section dedicated to frequently asked questions that addresses how to help children with communication disorders in schools. Finally, the ASHA website hosts a page on learning more than one language, a reference for educators and parents.
This resource helps speech-language pathologists assess culturally and linguistically diverse students through dynamic assessment. http://calper.la.psu.edu/dyna_assess.php
Encyclopedia of Language and Literacy Development Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network Launched in 2007
This online resource is being developed by the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network to provide in-depth, research-based information about topics such as language, numeracy, reading and writing development. Submissions are written by internationally recognized experts and address unilingual and multilingual development for typical and atypical learners. http://literacyencyclopedia.ca/?switchlanguage=EN
Autism and Foreign Language Learning by V. Wire
Wire provides evidence on this website to support her conviction that all children, including those with autism, should be provided the same opportunities to develop cultural awareness and a second language. Included are the findings from her research into the foreign language learning experiences of autistic students in Scotland.
Encyclopedia of Language and Literacy Development Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network
Launched in 2007, this online resource is being developed by the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network to provide in-depth, research-based information about topics such as language, numeracy, reading and writing development. Submissions are written by internationally recognized experts and address unilingual and multilingual development for typical and atypical learners.
The Oral Language Acquisition Inventory (OLAI), PreK-3 L. M. Gentile
This informal, repeated measures assessment tool is recommended by speech language pathologists to provide additional information about an individual learner’s control of commonly-used language structures. Such information helps to identify a child’s stage of language development and appropriate instructional practices that are learner-specific. Available for purchase at http://www.pearsonassessments.com/HAIWEB/Cultures/en us/Productdetail.htm?Pid=PAolai&Mode=summary
Strategies for Helping Underperforming Immersion Learners Succeed K. Arnett with T. Fortune, 2004
Strategy Training for Second Language Learners A. Cohen, 2003
Teaching Learning Strategies in Immersion Classrooms A. U. Chamot, 2001
The Elementary Immersion Learning Strategies Resource Guide (2nd Ed.) A.U. Chamot, K. Anstrom, A. Bartoshesky, A. Belanger, J. Delett, V. Karwan, et al.
Styles- and Strategies-Based Instruction A. Cohen, n. d.
Helping struggling Students Become Good Language Learners J. Robbins, J.
http://www.nclrc.org/eils/index.html Descubriendo La Lectura: An Application of Reading Recovery in Spanish.
K. Escamilla, 1992
This English to Spanish translation (with Spanish to English back translation) of Reading Recovery Materials includes: Descubriendo la Lectura lesson format , List of Spanish literature books for Descubriendo la Lectura Program, Observation tasks, Data collection forms
This bilingual site provides useful information about reading for parents and educators. This particular article identifies specific behaviors to look for when a child is struggling with learning to read and ways to respond
THE CDE DOCUMENTS
Appendix B1: Testing Variations, Accommodations, and Modifications for CELDT & English Learners Matrix 1. Matrix of Test Variations, Accommodations, and Modifications
for Administration of California Statewide Assessments – CELDT Only
Test Variation (1)
Test administration directions that are simplified or clarified (does not apply to test questions)
Student marks in test booklet (other than responses) including highlighting
Marked test booklets may not be used again.
Test students in a small group setting
Extra time on a test within a testing day
Test individual student separately, provided that a test examiner directly supervises the student
Visual magnifying equipment
Audio amplification equipment
Noise buffers (e.g., individual carrel or study enclosure)
Special lighting or acoustics; special or adaptive furniture
Colored overlay, mask, or other means to maintain visual attention
Manually Coded English or American Sign Language to present directions for administration (does not apply to test questions)
Student marks responses in test booklet and responses are transferred to a scorable answer document by an employee of the school, district, or nonpublic school
Responses dictated [orally, or in Manually Coded English or American Sign Language] to a scribe for selected-response items (multiple-choice questions)
Word processing software with spell and grammar check tools turned off for the essay responses (writing portion of the test)
Essay responses dictated orally or in Manually Coded English to a scribe, audio recorder, or speech-to-text converter and the student provides all spelling and language conventions
Assistive device that does not interfere with the independent work of the student on the multiple-choice and/or essay responses (writing portion of the test)
Braille transcriptions provided by the test contractor
Arithmetic table or formulas (not provided) on the mathematics tests
Arithmetic table or formulas (not provided) on the science tests
Math manipulatives on the mathematics tests
Math manipulatives on the science tests
Word processing software with spell and grammar check tools enabled on the essay responses writing portion of test
Unlisted Accommodation or Modification
Check with CDE prior to use
All students may be provided these test variations.
Test Variation (1)
Students may have these testing variations if regularly used in the classroom.
Eligible students shall be permitted to take the examination/test with accommodations if specified in the eligible student’s IEP or Section 504 Plan for use on the examination, standardized testing, or for use during classroom instruction and assessment.
For the STAR Program and CELDT, eligible students shall be permitted to take the tests with modifications if specified in the eligible student’s IEP or Section 504 Plan. Eligible students shall be permitted to take the CAHSEE with modifications if specified in the eligible student’s IEP or Section 504 Plan for use on the examination, standardized testing, or for use during classroom instruction and assessment.
Matrix 2. Matrix of Test Variations for Administration of California
Statewide Assessments for English Learners
Because the CELDT and STS are tests specifically for English learners, there are not separate guidelines for administering the CELDT and the STS to this population. Please refer to the Matrix of Test Variations, Accommodations, and Modifications for Administration of California Statewide Assessments, the first table in this section, for additional variations for all students, including English learners.
Hear the test directions printed in the test administration manual translated into the student’s primary language. Ask clarifying questions about the test directions in the student’s primary language.
Additional supervised breaks within a testing day or within a test part provided that the test part is completed within the day of testing. The end of a test part is identified by a “STOP” sign.
English learners (ELs) may have the opportunity to be tested separately with other ELs provided that the student is directly supervised by an employee of the school who has signed the test security affidavit and the student has been provided such a flexible setting as part of his/her regular instruction or assessment.
Access to translation glossaries/word lists (English-to-primary language). Glossaries/word lists shall not include definitions or formulas.
Math, Science, History–Social Science
Appendix B2: Sample Annual Title III Parent Notification Letter [Use District letterhead]
Dear Parent or Guardian:
[Name of district, county office or charter school] receives Title III funding from the federal government to help English learners to speak, read, and write in English and to achieve in reading and mathematics. School districts and other agencies that receive Title III funds are required to send parents/guardians of English learners the following information
(1) the reasons for their student’s identification as an English learner and (2) the need for placement in the specified program. (3) Parents or guardians of English learners with an individualized education program (IEP) must be notified how the recommended placement will help their children meet the objectives of the IEP.:
For the [put year] school year, [Name of student] continues to be classified as an English learner since he/she has not met the reclassification criteria which are:
1) Assessment of English Language Proficiency (CELDT scores of Early Advanced overall and score of intermediate or higher in all areas
2) Performance on basics skills (CST English Language Arts)
Based on district criteria; must be in the beginning of “basic” to mid point of “basic” range
3) Teacher Evaluation of Student Academic Performance
4) Parent or Guardian Opinion or Consultation
[Name of student] scores on the most recent administration of CELDT were:
[insert CELTD Scores]
[Name of student] most recent results of statewide testing (CST) in ELA are:
[insert star testing results in ELA]
Your student will be provided English development services that will assist him or her in acquiring English in listening, speaking, reading, and writing. [Name of student] will be provided [describe the type of ELD services] daily for 45 minutes. In addition [Name of student] will receive services [you may want to be specific about the services where the goals will be addressed] as per his or her Individualized Education Program (IEP) and these services will assist [Name of student] to meet his or her linguistically appropriate goals and objectives.
If you would like more information about how your child is performing in the area of English language development (ELD) please contact [Name of student’s teacher or other personnel and phone number]
[District Administrator’s name]
Office of Civil Rights Communication
Regarding English Learners
Reclassification of English Learners with Disabilities
OFFICE OF CIVIL RIGHTS OPINION 2008-09 In addition to meeting state standards for academic achievement, a central educational goal for English learners (ELs) is to demonstrate proficiency in comprehension, speaking, reading, and writing in English. Until the criterion for English proficiency is reached, LEAs must continue to provide services in English Language Development (ELD) to assist the student in achieving proficiency in all four domains. Once English proficiency has been obtained, LEAs are still obligated to monitor student progress for a minimum of two years.
Criteria for Reclassification
It is the responsibility of the LEA to develop and adopt reclassification policies and procedures for English learners. Both should be included in the LEA’s plan for EL services. The policies and procedures, at a minimum, must include the following four criteria which are codified, in statute, in both the California Code of Regulations and Education Code.
Assessment of English language proficiency using the CELDT as the primary criterion (EC313[d];5CCR11303[a])
Comparison of performance in basic skills against an empirically established range of performance such as the California Standards Test for English-Language Arts (EC 313[d]; 5 CCR 11303[d])
Teacher evaluation that includes, but is not limited to the pupil’s academic performance (EC 313[d]; 5 CCR 11303[b])
Parent opinion and consultation (EC 313[d]; 5 CCR 11303[c])
Monitoring Progress toward Reclassification The reclassification process applies to EL students in special education as well as to those in general education. Districts must monitor the progress of all EL toward acquiring proficiency in English as well as their progress in meeting grade level content standards.
Reclassification of the English Learner Who has an Active IEP and is Receiving Special Education and Related Services. English learners with a disability, who have an active IEP, must meet the same objective criteria outlined in the LEA’s reclassification policies and procedures, in order to be reclassified as English proficient. A student with a learning disability may take longer to satisfy the requirements related to reclassification, but is expected to do so, just as that same student is expected to meet the criteria, referenced in California Education Code, adopted by the LEA in order to be awarded a high school diploma. The LEA shall not create or adopt “blanket” alternative criteria for students with disabilities.
Sample EL Reclassification Documents
Appendix D1: EL/SPED Reclassification Checklist by Jarice Butterfield EL / SPED RECLASSIFICATION CHECKLIST NOTE: Reclassification of EL / SPED students is not an IEP team function; it is the role of special education staff members to consult with the EL reclassification team or committee. √ Check each box below to indicate that the student has met each of the four criteria required to be considered for reclassification
Criteria 1: Assessment of Language Proficiency Using an *Objective Assessment Instrument
*CELDT is used as the primary criterion for the objective assessment instrument in California. Students should be considered for reclassification whose overall proficiency level is early advanced or higher, listening is intermediate or higher, speaking is intermediate or higher, reading is intermediate or higher, and writing is intermediate or higher.
Note: Those students whose overall proficiency level is in the upper end of the Intermediate level also may be considered for reclassification if additional measures determine the likelihood that a student is proficient in English. Also, CDE State Board Adopted CELDT Guidelines (2008-09) allow the IEP team to designate an alternate assessment to CELDT if deemed appropriate.
Criteria 2: Teacher Evaluation
Sample Teacher Criteria: Evidence of student’s academic performance (in class), completion of a Solom Checklist, and student progress towards IEP linguistically appropriate goals
Note: According to CDE State Board Adopted CELDT Guidelines Document (2008-2009) incurred deficits in motivation and academic success unrelated to English language proficiency do not preclude a student from reclassification. A disability may be a factor that contributes to low academic achievement and is unrelated to “English language proficiency.”
Criteria 3: Parent Opinion and Consultation
Provide notice to parents or guardians of their rights and encourage them to participate in the reclassification process by inviting them to a face-to-face meeting
Criteria 4: Comparison of Performance in Basic Skills
“Performance in basic skills” means the score and/or performance level resulting from a recent administration of the California English–Language Arts Standards Test (CST in English–language arts) as set forth in the following criteria.
1) CST score in English/language arts (ELA) must be at least beginning of basic level to midpoint of basic - each district may select exact cut point.
(2) Pupils with scores above the cut point selected by the school district should be considered for reclassification.
(3) For pupils scoring below the cut point, school districts should attempt to determine whether “factors other than English language proficiency are responsible for low performance on the CST in English–language arts and whether it is reasonable to reclassify the student.” The impact of a student’s disability could be a factor to consider (CDE State Board Adopted CELDT Guidelines (2009-2010)).