Marian Butler Based on presentations by



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Referencing

  • Marian Butler
  • Based on presentations by
  • David Rowland, Mandy Symons, Katherine Samuelowicz, Lesley Chase, Renata Walker, Marian Butler

Why Reference?

  • Your benefit
  • To show off!
  • To add authority to your argument
  • To add credibility to your information
  • Reader’s benefit
  • To understand the context of your work
  • To allow your reader to track down your research

Ethical reasons:

  • Ethical reasons:
  • Intellectual integrity
  • To distinguish between:
    • Your ideas
    • Someone else’s ideas
  • Intellectual property issues
  • Why Reference?
  • Hey, gimme  my BALL back!!  
  • Referencing in your essay
  • (In text referencing)

What should be referenced?

  • Ideas, information, results, opinions from any source that you have summarised, paraphrased or directly quoted
  • Definitions of terms
  • Illustrations, tables, figures drawn from sources
  • Your ideas that are also those of an author you have read
  • Plans, ideas or anything that was stimulated by others
  • Is there anything here
  • you don’t need to reference?

Guiding principles

  • Respect the
    • Creation of ideas by others
    • Concept of intellectual property
  • Acknowledge the ideas of others
  • But,
  • Don’t reference “common knowledge”

As general rules of thumb:

  • What is common knowledge?
  • As general rules of thumb:
  • If you didn’t know it before you read the research, then it is not common knowledge and you need to reference it.
  • If most classmates would know it then it probably is common knowledge.
  • The first fleet arrived in Australia in 1788.
  • Yes (for someone who grew up in Australia)
  • Driver fatigue is well recognised as a cause of accidents.
  • Yes: from driver safety campaigns on TV.
  • Alkaloids are the most important biochemical components of Areca Nuts.
  • Not for the general public, but possibly for food biochemists.
  • Women who enrol in postgraduate studies are at greater risk than men of late completion.
  • Probably not.
  • Which of the following are common knowledge?

HOW does one reference accurately

  • Many conventions
  • Vary – university, country, even school and subject area
  • Much variety here at UQ

Faculty, school or subject guides

  • Guidance from:
  • Faculty, school or subject guides
  • Software such as RefWorks, EndNote
  • Library homepage
  • Websites devoted to referencing!
  • Articles you read

Common requirements of all conventions

  • Acknowledge within the text
  • Acknowledge closely as possible to the point
  • Include all sources referred to in a list at the end of your essay
  • This list is usually called a Reference List
  • Sometimes called List of Works Consulted or Bibliography
  • Include all details about the sources in your list

Works consulted or referred to?

  • Naming tne list?
  • Works consulted or referred to?
  • Works on topic, but not necessarily consulted?
  • Need both??
  • Reference list or List of works consulted
  • Bibliography
  • Not usually

Acknowledging sources is called citing or referencing

  • A citation or reference in the text is where you refer to an author
  • It may be in the form of a direct quote or a summary or paraphrase of an author
  • Whenever referring to an author, explain his/her position and your critique/comment on it

  • Quotations
  • Use exact words
  • Use them to support or illustrate your argument
  • Avoid lengthy/frequent quotations
  • Use the exact spelling and punctuation from the source, even when it is rong [sic]!
  • Quotes are not included in your word count

Use for more than 4 lines of text, 3 lines of verse

  • Use for more than 4 lines of text, 3 lines of verse
  • Separate from essay by two lines
  • Usually single spaced
  • Indent ten spaces from left margin
  • No quotation marks
  • Usually introduced by a colon
  • At end of quote, leave space and give reference in brackets
  • Short Quotations
  • In quotation marks
  • Acknowledgement is included in the sentence
  • Longer Quotations
  • According to Brown (2008),
  • students who are “open to new
  • ideas are more likely to succeed
  • at tertiary studies”. This is likely…
  • There are a number of definitions of health in use, however The World Health Organisation (WHO) defines it as:
  • the state of being in which an individual or group of individuals are able to function without feeling unwell either
  • physically or mentally.
  • (World Health Organisation, p. 32, 2008).
  • OR
  • Students who are “open to new ideas are more likely to succeed at tertiary studies” (Brown, 2008).

Leaving out words in a quote?

    • "Plagiarism is the act of misrepresenting as one's own original work the ideas, interpretations, words or creative works of another . … These ideas, interpretations, words or works may be found in print and/or electronic media."
    • (UQ Definition of Plagiarism)
  • Omissions from Quotations
  • Leaving out words in a quote?
  • Use three dots with a space at either end

Inside the quote:

  • Additions to quotations
  • Inside the quote:
    • Use square [---] brackets
    • This shows your comment, explanation
    • [sic] shows your accuracy of transcription but an error in the original
  • Use of italics indicates your emphasis of words

It is the “disparate expectations of language [which] contribute to misunderstanding and confusion between staff and their students” (Meyer, 1988, p.89).

  • Square bracket examples:
  • It is the “disparate expectations of language [which] contribute to misunderstanding and confusion between staff and their students” (Meyer, 1988, p.89).
  • … but plagiarism is literary fraud whereby ‘one writer sets forth the words or ideas of another writer as his [sic] own in order to get gain’ (Hatch, 1992, p.12).

By including oracy in this discussion, I am subscribing to the definition of literacy provided by the federal Department of Employment, Education and Training (DEET):

  • Adding emphasis (italics) example
  • By including oracy in this discussion, I am subscribing to the definition of literacy provided by the federal Department of Employment, Education and Training (DEET):
  • Literacy involves the integration of reading, writing, listening, speaking and critical thinking. It includes the knowledge which enables a speaker, writer or reader to recognise and use language appropriate to different social situations (my italics).
  • (Dawkins, 1990, p.4).

Use of single quote marks inside the existing quote:

  • The reporter told me, When I interviewed the quarterback, he said they simplyplayed a better game’.
  • Quotations within a Quotation
  • Use of single quote marks inside the existing quote:
  • OK paraphrase?
  • Flyn (2003, p. 17) claims that there is a shortage of artists at a nation wide level which government has dealt with by means of short and long term plans.
  • Summarising & Paraphrasing
  • OK paraphrase?
  • Recent national reports have described a significant shortage of artists as well as long short or long term methods to address the issue (Flyn, 2003, p.17).
  • ‘National reports have detailed a serious shortage of artists along with both long and short term strategies to address the issue’ (Flyn, 2003, p.17).

Start with your own words (not the text)

  • When summarising/paraphrasing
  • Start with your own words (not the text)
  • Explain only the main ideas
  • Reduce it so that it is shorter than the original text
  • Helpful when:
    • Describing different authors’ views on a topic.
    • Providing research evidence to support your writing. 
  • Always acknowledge the original source

There is much anecdotal evidence from academic staff, learning support staff and students that mature age students study differently compared with younger students (Jenkins, 1989). Student age has been found to be a factor in study success. Comparing older and younger students, Hong (1982) reported a higher level of study habits and skills and motivation amongst older students. In a similar comparison, Owens (1989) reported that …

  • A Summary example:
  • There is much anecdotal evidence from academic staff, learning support staff and students that mature age students study differently compared with younger students (Jenkins, 1989). Student age has been found to be a factor in study success. Comparing older and younger students, Hong (1982) reported a higher level of study habits and skills and motivation amongst older students. In a similar comparison, Owens (1989) reported that …
  • Source: Devlin, M 1996, Higher Education Research and Development, vol.15, No.1, pp.51-60.

Working in teams has many advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include such things as …. In contrast to these potential benefits, working in teams may have disadvantages such as …. Disadvantages are most obvious when conflict arises (Jones, 2001).

  • Is this referencing OK?
  • Working in teams has many advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include such things as …. In contrast to these potential benefits, working in teams may have disadvantages such as …. Disadvantages are most obvious when conflict arises (Jones, 2001).
  • Not really OK:
  • Last sentence comes from the source.
  • Let reader know the source from the beginning.

According to Jones (2001), working in teams has the following advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include such things as …. In contrast to these potential benefits, she argues that working in teams may have disadvantages such as ….

  • According to Jones (2001), working in teams has the following advantages and disadvantages. Advantages include such things as …. In contrast to these potential benefits, she argues that working in teams may have disadvantages such as ….
  • Smith (2005) argues that there are three main problems with doing X in situation Y. First, it neglects, … Second, …. Finally, doing X may result in ….

Most researchers agree that it is inappropriate to attempt to isolate a single main cause of an accident. However, earlier motor vehicle crash studies demonstrated that about 90% of all accidents could be attributed to road user characteristics. Hence, road user behaviour is often examined for compliance with existing traffic rules and regulations. “Speed Kills” has been used for many years as an educational slogan to drive at reasonable speeds.

  • Where would you reference in the following extract?
  • Most researchers agree that it is inappropriate to attempt to isolate a single main cause of an accident. However, earlier motor vehicle crash studies demonstrated that about 90% of all accidents could be attributed to road user characteristics. Hence, road user behaviour is often examined for compliance with existing traffic rules and regulations. “Speed Kills” has been used for many years as an educational slogan to drive at reasonable speeds.
  • Source: Bener, A & Alwash, R 2002, Traffic Injury Prevention Vol. 3, pp.61-64.

Most researchers attempt to isolate a single main cause of an accident agree that it is inappropriate to (refs). However, earlier motor vehicle crash studies demonstrated that about 90% of all accidents could be attributed to road user characteristics (refs). Hence, road user behaviour is often examined for compliance with existing traffic rules and regulations (refs). “Speed Kills” has been used for many years as an educational slogan to drive at reasonable speeds. (not here because it is common knowledge)

  • Positioning references
  • Most researchers attempt to isolate a single main cause of an accident agree that it is inappropriate to (refs). However, earlier motor vehicle crash studies demonstrated that about 90% of all accidents could be attributed to road user characteristics (refs). Hence, road user behaviour is often examined for compliance with existing traffic rules and regulations (refs). “Speed Kills” has been used for many years as an educational slogan to drive at reasonable speeds. (not here because it is common knowledge)

I don’t need to use quotation marks if I change a few words from the original.

  • True or False?
  • I don’t need to use quotation marks if I change a few words from the original.
  • FALSE:
  • No quotation marks suggests the wording is yours!
  • Changing a word here or there can result in accusations of plagiarism!

  • Basic referencing systems: in the text
  • Author and date – Harvard, APA, MLA (later versions)
  • Numbering which links to footnotes or endnotes – Oxford, Chicago
  • Numbering which links to the reference list – Vancouver

There is much anecdotal evidence from academic staff, learning support staff and students that mature age students study differently compared with younger students (Jenkins, 2008, p.97). Student age has been found to be a factor in study success. Comparing older and younger students, Hong (2007, p. 45) reported a higher level of study habits and skills and motivation amongst older students. In a similar comparison, Owens (2004) reported that ….etc..

  • In-text examples: author+date
  • There is much anecdotal evidence from academic staff, learning support staff and students that mature age students study differently compared with younger students (Jenkins, 2008, p.97). Student age has been found to be a factor in study success. Comparing older and younger students, Hong (2007, p. 45) reported a higher level of study habits and skills and motivation amongst older students. In a similar comparison, Owens (2004) reported that ….etc..
  • Note location of brackets in the:
    • first citation, author’s name NOT part of sentence hence brackets surround BOTH the author’s name AND the year of publication;
    • second and third citations, authors’ names ARE part of sentence hence brackets surround ONLY the year of publication.

Surveys have consistently found that more people mention alcohol as a cause of drug-related death than tobacco [2, 3]. Similarly, alcohol is more likely to be viewed as part of the ‘drug problem’ than tobacco, although both tobacco and alcohol are mentioned far less frequently than either heroin or marijuana [2]. Nevertheless, alcohol accounts for a wide range of community problems, such as … [4–6].

  • In-text example: numerical
  • Surveys have consistently found that more people mention alcohol as a cause of drug-related death than tobacco [2, 3]. Similarly, alcohol is more likely to be viewed as part of the ‘drug problem’ than tobacco, although both tobacco and alcohol are mentioned far less frequently than either heroin or marijuana [2]. Nevertheless, alcohol accounts for a wide range of community problems, such as … [4–6].
  • Note
  • Citations appear in the same places as for author-date system,
  • numbers instead of author’s name and date of publication used to identify which reference in the reference list the idea(s) came from.
  • In this case, square brackets have been used around numbers. In other systems, the numbers are written as superscripts to the text.

Thus, although Barlogie et al. [4] found an incidence of <2% of deep vein thromboses using thalidomide with chemotherapy, it would still be important to consider that thalidomide might cause thromboembolism, ….

  • In-text, numerical
  • Thus, although Barlogie et al. [4] found an incidence of <2% of deep vein thromboses using thalidomide with chemotherapy, it would still be important to consider that thalidomide might cause thromboembolism, ….
  • … This is supported by the smaller doses used in the early data from Osman and Comenzo [3] where patients were on 100mg for …
  • Note:
  • Numerical system used in conjunction with reference to author(s)
  • Used to highlight who has done what or simply to vary sentence structure in order to keep writing interesting.

Treat the organisation like an author:

  • Referencing newspaper articles, organisations, corporations
  • Treat the organisation like an author:
  • A recent report (NHMRC, 2003) has suggested that …
  • Recently released crime statistics for Australia indicate that … (Australian, 27 May 2004, p. 5).

  • In-text references to websites
    • Use author and publication date or latest update
    • Unknown author?
      • Treat organisation as author
    • Organisation unknown?
      • Use title of the web page as author
    • Site not dated?
      • use ‘n.d.’ for ‘no date’
    • In reference list include date you accessed the site as well as author, date, title of website and url.

Introductions don’t need references.

  • True or False?
  • Introductions don’t need references.
  • BOTH:
  • True when stating your thesis and outlining your essay and not drawing on authors.
  • False when you do draw on authors. Then you must acknowledge.

In the text there will be:

  • Using footnotes
  • In the text there will be:
    • a number next to the reference
  • At the bottom (foot) of the page there will be:
    • The same number + name of author, date and details about the publication
    • Sometimes a comment by the author
  • Footnote systems list sources used at the end of the work
  • Note Footnote 1 - Authorial comment & added reference
  • Work cited; Corresponding reference; Chronological order

References in the text

  • Academic writing needs:
  • References in the text
  • PLUS
  • References in a list at the end of your work
  • Compiling the Reference List

Names of authors (family names and at least initials)

  • Necessary Information
  • Names of authors (family names and at least initials)
  • Name of journal article, chapter or conference paper
  • Name of journal, book, conference, etc.
  • Date of publication
  • Volume number (for journals)
  • Editor of book (if applicable)
  • Publisher (for books)
  • Place of publication (for books)
  • Page numbers (of article or book chapter )

Alphabetical

  • Basic Referencing Systems: Reference Lists
  • Alphabetical
  • Sources appear alphabetically according to the family name of the first author – this is the most common system.
    • Burnett, T.E.D.
    • Wishart, Jennifer

Barry, M and Molyneux, M 1992, “Ethical dilemmas in malaria drug and vaccine trials: a bioethical perspective”, J Med Ethics, vol. 18, pp.189-192.

  • Examples: reference lists for author-date citations
  • Barry, M and Molyneux, M 1992, “Ethical dilemmas in malaria drug and vaccine trials: a bioethical perspective”, J Med Ethics, vol. 18, pp.189-192.
  • Christakis, NA 1992, “Ethics and local: engaging cross-cultural variation in the ethics for clinical research”, Soc Sci Med, vol. 35, pp.1079-1091.
  • Format: [Author’s family name, Initial, year of publication. Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number, page numbers of article.]
  • Organised alphabetically by first author’s family name (in red).
  • Note that lines after the first are indented to make it easy to see where each reference begins.

Strang J, Smith, M and Spurrell S 1992, “The Community Drug Team”, British Journal of Addiction, vol. 87, pp.169-78.

  • Examples: reference lists for author-date citations
  • Strang J, Smith, M and Spurrell S 1992, “The Community Drug Team”, British Journal of Addiction, vol. 87, pp.169-78.
  • [Journal article]
  • Tripp, M 2003, In: Judson, H (ed.) Heroin Addiction in Britain, pp 46-93, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich: New York.
  • [Chapter in edited book]
  • White, P 2008, Study Secrets, HBJ Books, London.
  • [Book]
  • Look out for differences
  • APA uses brackets around year of publication
  • APA uses place of publication before publisher
  • Full stops after initials in APA, but not Harvard

Numerical (eg. Vancouver)

  • Numerical (eg. Vancouver)
  • Sources are listed
    • numerically by order of their first citation in the text
    • by the family name of the first author
    • in other words, each source is given a number that it retains throughout the work.
    • Getzen TE. Health economics: fundamentals and flow of funds. New York (NY): John Wiley & Sons; 1997.
    • 2. Millares M, editor. Applied drug information: strategies for information management. Vancouver,WA: Applied Therapeutics, Inc.; 1998.
    • 3. Australian Government Publishing Service. Style manual for authors, editors and printers. 5th ed. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service; 1994.
  • Basic Referencing Systems: Reference Lists

  • Example: electronic source
  • Fine, M & Kurdek, LA 1993, “Reflections on determining authorship credit and authorship order on faculty-student collaborations”. American Psychologist, Vol. 48, pp.1141-1147. Retrieved June 7, 1999, from http://www.apa.org/journals/amp/kurdek.html.
  • Note that both the publication date of the material and the date the material was accessed is required for electronic sources.
  • Electronic journal or ejournal

Electronic magazine

  • Electronic magazine
  • Adler, J 1999, May 17, “Ghost of Everest”, Newsweek. Retrieved May 19, 1999, from http://newsweek.com/nwsrv/issue/20_99a/printed/int/socu/so0120_1.htm.
  • Website
  • McGann, J 1995, “The rationale of HyperText”. Retrieved June 27, 2001, from University of Virginia, Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities Web site http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/public/jjm2f/rationale.html.

To date, research has indicated that diversity among members in small groups can yield both benefits and costs. For example, Campion et al found that difference in member background and expertise either had no impact or decreased group effectiveness depending on the criterion measures used. Magjuka and Baldwin found that within-group diversity had positive effects on group performance …

  • Is anything missing in the following text?
  • To date, research has indicated that diversity among members in small groups can yield both benefits and costs. For example, Campion et al found that difference in member background and expertise either had no impact or decreased group effectiveness depending on the criterion measures used. Magjuka and Baldwin found that within-group diversity had positive effects on group performance …
  • Source: Shaw, J. B. & Barrett-Power, E (1998) Human Relations, vol 51, no 10, pp1307-1325.
  • Think different
  • systems

Mention of the authors’ names not sufficient. For reference to be complete:

  • Missing?
  • Mention of the authors’ names not sufficient. For reference to be complete:
  • Author-date system must include years of publication of the research cited.
  • MLA system: year of publication is not required but page numbers generally are.
  • If numerical referencing system is being used, the numbers of the references must be added.

Morgan, Glickman, Woodward, Blaiwes, and Salas define a team simply as “… a distinguishable set of two or more individuals who interact independently and adaptively to achieve specified, shared and valued objectives.” Elizabeth (1995) suggests that “teams and teaming have become hot topics … as organisations have come to rely on team-based arrangements to improve quality, productivity, and customer service.”

  • Find the Mistakes
  • Morgan, Glickman, Woodward, Blaiwes, and Salas define a team simply as “… a distinguishable set of two or more individuals who interact independently and adaptively to achieve specified, shared and valued objectives.” Elizabeth (1995) suggests that “teams and teaming have become hot topics … as organisations have come to rely on team-based arrangements to improve quality, productivity, and customer service.”

Morgan et al. (1986, p. 3) define a team simply as “… a distinguishable set of two or more individuals who interact independently and adaptively to achieve specified, shared and valued objectives”. [Elizabeth not family name of author] suggests that “teams and teaming have become hot topics … as organisations have come to rely on team-based arrangements to improve quality, productivity, and customer service.”

  • Mistakes?
  • Morgan et al. (1986, p. 3) define a team simply as “… a distinguishable set of two or more individuals who interact independently and adaptively to achieve specified, shared and valued objectives”. [Elizabeth not family name of author] suggests that “teams and teaming have become hot topics … as organisations have come to rely on team-based arrangements to improve quality, productivity, and customer service.”
  • Note: “et al.” is Latin for “and others”, and is generally used in the in-text citation (not generally in the reference list) if an article has three or more authors. Check the relevant style guide for the precise rules of the usage of et al.

Avoiding plagiarism

  • Reduce the amount of direct paraphrasing you have to do
  • Rather, take notes (wherever possible) at a distance from the text
  • But how?

Taking notes ‘at a distance’

  • Develop research questions for your assignment:
    • What do I need to find out/check out?
    • What are the key issues in this topic?
  • As you read, look for answers to your research questions
  • Write key words in the margin or on a piece of paper for each relevant paragraph
  • Read the whole article before you write long hand notes
  • Record information under research questions or headings after you have finished reading the article

Example:

  • Essay topic:
  • “Plagiarism has now reached endemic proportions and should be punished by automatic exclusion”. Discuss.
  • Develop research questions:
    • What is plagiarism?
    • Is it on the increase?
    • Why do people plagiarise?
    • What types of penalties reduce it?

Academic Crime and Punishment: Faculty Members’ Perceptions of and Responses to Plagiarism Carol Robinson-Zañartu, Elizabeth D. Peña, Valerie Cook-Morales, Anna M. Peña, Rosalyn Afshani, and Lynda Nguyen (2005)

  • Plagiarism of printed material has long been considered academic misconduct, punishable in forms varying from mild reprimands to expulsion from the institution in which it occurs. However, the advent of the “information age,” as well as access to website-based resources (ranging from journal abstracts to entire papers, visual materials, and commentaries), broadens not only the field of resources, but also the problems associated with their access and use. For decades, guidelines have defined plagiarism broadly as the public misrepresentations of work as original, or any activity in which a person knowingly or unknowingly and for some form of gain, represents the
  • Long term problem
  • New methods,
  • New problems
  • Definition

work of another as his/her own (Decoo, 2002; Lindey, 1952; Office of Research Integrity [ORI], 1994; Office of Science and Technology Policy, 2000). Martin (1994) specifies multiple kinds of plagiarism, from plagiarism of authorship (whole documents) to word-for-word plagiarism (unacknowledged use of whole phrases or paragraphs), paraphrasing plagiarism, and plagiarism of secondary sources. He raises the intriguing issue that most concern in academe is centered on the least serious of these. The least serious (in his estimation), word-for-word plagiarism, is the easiest to detect and the most frequently punished; the most difficult to detect (plagiarism of authorship) is least frequently punished because it is most difficult to find and prove.

  • work of another as his/her own (Decoo, 2002; Lindey, 1952; Office of Research Integrity [ORI], 1994; Office of Science and Technology Policy, 2000). Martin (1994) specifies multiple kinds of plagiarism, from plagiarism of authorship (whole documents) to word-for-word plagiarism (unacknowledged use of whole phrases or paragraphs), paraphrasing plagiarism, and plagiarism of secondary sources. He raises the intriguing issue that most concern in academe is centered on the least serious of these. The least serious (in his estimation), word-for-word plagiarism, is the easiest to detect and the most frequently punished; the most difficult to detect (plagiarism of authorship) is least frequently punished because it is most difficult to find and prove.
  • Types
  • Severity

Note take after reading:

    • What is plagiarism?
      • Defn. Decoo, 2002; Lindey, 1952; Office of Research Integrity [ORI], 1994; Office of Science and Technology Policy, 2000) in Robinson-Z (2005)
      • Martin (1994) – types: authorship, word for word, paraphrasing, secondary sources in RZ
    • Is it on the increase?
      • Robinson-Zanartu (2005) – more opportunities
    • Why do people plagiarise?
      • Ignorance (Robinson-Zanartu, 2005)

Adopt a thinking not “cut and paste” approach to writing the assignment:

  • Cut and paste:
    • Which ‘quotes’ do I want to use?
    • How many words do I need for that idea?
  • Thinking approach:
    • What are the main issues I want to discuss?
    • What is my thesis or controlling idea?
    • What will I say in this paragraph and how will I link it to the thesis and topic?

“Plagiarism has now reached endemic proportions and should be punished by automatic exclusion”. Discuss.

  • Cut and paste or thinking?
    • Plagiarism of printed material has been a problem for many years and has been punished in a variety of ways. Technology has made it easier for students to plagiarise than ever before. This essay will examine how common plagiarism is and what the best forms of punishment are.
  • Cut and past or thinking intro?
    • While it may be an exaggeration to suggest that there is currently an epidemic of plagiarism, there is little doubt that it is an important concern for educators and that there is an urgent need for it to be addressed, particularly in universities. Since the topic has received little research attention until recently, it is difficult to ascertain the extent to which plagiarism has increased, however

“Plagiarism has now reached endemic proportions and should be punished by automatic exclusion”. Discuss.

    • there are several good reasons why plagiarism should be discouraged. This essay will present an examination of strategies that can be used to minimise plagiarism – both punitive and preventative. The argument that the best way to discourage plagiarism is skill development, rather than punishment, will be presented.

Turnitin (www.turnitin.com)

  • You can use Turnitin to identify inadvertent plagiarism before you hand in your assignment
  • Lecturers can use Turnitin reports to identify plagiarism.
  • Allow time before you hand in to give the system time to generate a report.
  • Turnitin is only available if your lecturer makes it available on a Blackboard website for your course.
  • Logo for a Turnitin assign-ment

Accessing the Turnitin report

  • To view report, click here
  • Sample Turnitin Report.
  • Matching text
  • Matching source
  • Select these to exclude quoted material and your reference list from the text matching.

Know which system is required

  • A Final Word
  • Know which system is required
  • When recording ideas from readings, record all the bibliographic details
  • Always take note of the page number
  • Distinguish between information from the source, and your own thinking
  • Be consistent!
  • Follow the rules implicitly (don’t question why the system wants a colon and not a comma – just do it!)
  • Check referencing before submitting

Websites

  • Referencing Help
  • Websites
  • UQ Library Citation Guides: http://www.library.uq.edu.au/nott/subject_vr.php?id=CI
  • UQ Library Referencing Software and Guides, e.g. EndNote, EndNoteWeb, RefWorks on-line library tutorials and library training courses available. Further information on course-relevant websites or contact Library for further.
  • Citing Electronic Sources: http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online/citex.html
  • General Information – APA & MLA styles: http://www.murdoch.edu.au/dirs/citegdes.html
  • General Information – Harvard and Vancouver Styles: http://lib.monash.edu.au/vl/cite/citecon.htm
  • Thank you!

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    • Learn what lecturers are looking for in essays and reports at uni; and
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