Manual do professor



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. Accessed on May 16, 2016.

Newscast 3

Anchor: Over in Brazil the President, Dilma Roussef, announced a 65 billion dollar plan to help stimulate the economy there centered on infrastructure. The plan offers 14,000 kilometers of its roads and railways to the private sector. Karina Huber has more.

Reporter: Brazil is gearing up for a massive influx of visitors. In 2016 it will host the Olympics. Two years before that the Football World Cup. In February it privatized three of its largest airports in a bid to improve its infrastructure ahead of the arrival of all those athletes and tourists. Now President Roussef has announced Brazil will be offering concessions to roads, railways, ports and maybe some other airports to the private sector. Growth in Brazil is predicted to be under two percent this year – a big drop from its 7.5 percent rate in 2010. Part of its slowdown is due to slower global growth, but also due to weak infrastructure. International economists with a specialty in emerging markets, like Joseph Foudy, think 65 billion dollars is not enough to get Brazil’s economy back on track, but he says focusing on improving its infrastructure is a good first step.

Joseph Foudy: The number one challenge that, uhm,
Página 161

Brazilian observers and international observers see is the quality of infrastructure. We really worry this is a bottleneck on GDP that when the country starts growing too fast, uhm, inflation sets in, uhm, earlier and faster in Brazil than in other countries, so anything they can do to really improve the quality of infrastructure is gonna pay big dividends down the road.



Reporter: Brazil is also preparing to get rid of some taxes industries have to pay for energy.

Available at . Accessed on May 16, 2016.



Track 11

At times, it doesn’t even look like a regular soccer field. It is someone’s desperate home, not a manicured pitch, and cattle saunter by. But the players are not regular soccer players either – they kick with the same leg they stand on. Goalies play with the only arm they have. These are the members of Haiti’s amputee soccer teams, men and women who lost limbs almost all during the earthquake in 2010. A balcony collapsed on Judith Facile: she had two choices: amputation or death. Soccer soothes her pain.



Judith: “Now I feel like I’m alive because, before that, after I lost my leg, I didn’t have any hope for the future. Even though I was walking on crutches.”

And they are a sight to behold beyond the normal bounds of balance. Team president Cedieu Fortilus says the players have changed the entire country’s attitude about the disabled.

“When I see they are playing like that I’m so proud, I’m so proud I think I’m doing a good job. So I see so many people, even Haitians, even if they are crossing in the street, they take time to look at them because they are doing something very strange. Something many Haitians never see in their life.”

Off their crutches they tend to blend in. Each player is fitted with a state of the art prosthetic for home use. Every centimeter of it is designed to mimic a real leg. Legs like these cost about fifty thousand dollars in the US. Here in Haiti they are free.

Several private non-profit organizations in the United States fund a team and prosthetics for all Haitians who need them.

“Just do it without the crutches, ha?”

The team name, Zorian, is creole for Tarantula, a spider that can function without a limb.

“Soccer has taught me to do a lot of things on one leg that I wasn’t used to doing before. I feel comfortable when I’m playing.”

Team Zorian, showing the world not what its players can’t do without two legs, but what they can do with just one.

In Cite Soleil, Haiti, Carolyn Presutti, VOA News.

Available at . Accessed on May 12, 2016.

Unit 7 - IT’S ON TV

Page 112

Track 18

Reporter: What do you think the future of TV will be?

Interviewee: For me, if we begin to break it down, it’s really about taking something that everybody loves, which is television, and bringing it together with the speed and power and intelligence of a computer.

Reporter: Will it still be called television after all these social aspects and things are kind of integrated into what we traditionally think of as our television set?

Interviewee: I think TV as a concept in consumers’ minds will continue to change and will continue to evolve. So, really, the Internet won’t kill TV at all. TV is so powerful, people love it so much, that they’ll just absorb it and just keep on moving. For us, as we move forward, when you have the Internet and that connectivity, what it means is you have personalization. And I think, as we continue to move further out, TV is gonna move off the wall. Or you’ve got smart phones, you’ve got laptops, you’ve got cars, we’re beginning to see that, like we’re beginning to see some cool little apps that are coming out to do that. And I think you’ll see more of them.

Reporter: It’s safe to say television isn’t going anywhere. It’s just going to evolve like it’s been doing for the past seventy years. I’m Ellie Rountree and this has been Rocketboom tech.

Available at . Accessed on May 16, 2016.



Unit 8 - YOU BROADCAST

Page 129

Track 20

A simple method to make a chicken sandwich. The ingredients: four pieces of bread, one boiled chicken breast, two pieces of lettuce, some parsley for seasoning, tomato and onion slices, and a tablespoon of lemon juice. First, shred the chicken breast. Then put in the chicken onto the bread slice. Next, add the lettuce, the tomato and the onion slices. Lastly, season with the parsley and the lemon juice. Chicken sandwich is suitable as a simple healthy dinner serving.


Página 162

GLOSSARY

A

addicted: viciado(a)

addiction: vício

advice: conselho

agree: concordar

averages: médias

aware: consciente, informado(a)

B

background: histórico

battle: lutar; luta, batalha

beforehand: de antemão

belief: crença

believe: acreditar

belong: pertencer

beware: tomar cuidado, precaver-se

bond: estabelecer vínculo; união

boost: impulso, reforço

border: fronteira

branch: filial, ramo

bright: claro(a), vivo(a), resplandecente

broken down: quebrado

build equity: criar redes de relacionamento

burst onto: estourar

C

cave in: ceder à pressão

challenge: desafio; desafiar

chart: gráfico

cheat: colar (em prova, exame)

close: próximo(a), íntimo(a)

complaint: reclamação; reclamar

confident: confiante, seguro(a)

countless: incontável

D

deal: negócio; lidar

drop: queda; cair, baixar

due to: devido a

E

earn: ganhar

endear: enaltecer, tornar importante

endorse: aprovar, sancionar, confirmar

engage: envolver-se

enough: suficiente

ensure: assegurar

entrepreneur: empreendedor(a)

eyeliner: delineador de olhos

F

fad: tendência, moda

fear: medo, receio; temer, recear

few: poucos, poucas

footstep: passo, pegada

former: ex, anterior

fortunate: sortudo(a) G

gap: lacuna

guest: convidado(a) H

half: metade

hang around: vadiar, vagabundear

hard-driving: de pulso forte, de forte condução

hurt: doer, machucar

I

indeed: realmente

instead of: em vez de

iron filings: limalha de ferro

K

keep: manter

kick: chutar

kill: matar

L

launched: lançado

lawn mower: cortador de grama

led: levou, conduziu

losing touch: perdendo contato

lurk: espreitar, emboscar; esconderijo
Página 163

M

manage: gerenciar

meaning: significado

misquoted: citado de forma errada

miss: perder, deixar escapar

mold: modelo, molde; moldar, formar

mourned: velado(a), em situação de luto

N

nowadays: hoje em dia

O

often: frequentemente

open-minded: de mente aberta, liberal

overcome: superar overnight: da noite para o dia

overwhelming: irresistível

P

pay forward: pagar depois (sentido de retribuição)

perv (abreviatura para perverted): pervertido(a)

pic (abreviatura para picture): foto

praise: elogiar; elogio

pundit: pessoa sábia, pândita

purchase: compra; comprar, adquirir

pursue: buscar, ir atrás de

push out: enviar

pushy:insistente, intrometido(a)

R

realize: perceber

referee: árbitro(a) de partida esportiva

refresh: refrescar, revigorar

regardless: independentemente de

resentment: ressentimento, indignação

rule: regra

S

safe: seguro(a), fora de perigo

safer: mais seguro

sales: vendas

savvy: bem informado(a), conhecedor(a)

seasonal: sazonal (que ocorre sempre numa época do ano)

seek out: buscar

seem: parecer set: estabelecer

shortage: falta de, insuficiência

sign-up sheet: ficha de inscrição

skeletal list: lista resumida

snack: refeição leve, pequeno lanche

snatch: roubar, sequestrar

sort: tipo, espécie; classificar, ordenar

spark: fagulha, faísca

speech: fala, discurso

spent: gasto, despendido

stand: permanecer, ficar

stopwatch: cronômetro

straight: reto(a)

strength: força

strict: rigoroso(a)

surroundings: arredores

swinging: balançando

T

threat: ameaça; ameaçar

through: através de

throw: arremessar, lançar

thunderstorm: tempestade (com raios e trovoadas)

toward: em direção a, para

trustworthy: confiável

try: tentar

turn down: dispensar, rejeitar

U

unlike: ao contrário, diferentemente utterly: completamente

W

waste: desperdiçar; perda, desperdício

wave: onda

way: maneira, modo

wildly popular: super popular

wintry: algo referente ao inverno

wish: desejar; desejo
Página 164

LANGUAGE REFERENCE

Falar sobre hábitos e verdades

Use o presente simples para falar sobre situações permanentes ou verdades genéricas, e para falar sobre coisas que acontecem com frequência:



Social networking sites make these connections between people visible.

Nowadays we have more friends in social network rather than in real life.

Com he, she e it usamos regras diferentes:



Casos especiais (grafia)

Exemplos

Para a maioria dos verbos

adicione -s



But a call to a friend works just as well as a Facebook message […]. In my point of view, Internet becomes part of our life

Para verbos que terminam em vogal + y

adicione -s



A good listener pays attention by making eye contact

Para verbos que terminam em consoante + y

troque o y por -ies



Find an example that justifies your answer.

Para verbos que terminam em -ch, -sh ou -o

adicione -es



[…] the list goes on and on.

Formas irregulares

be > is

have > has


Social networking is a major worldwide success.

Use don’t ou doesn’t seguido pelo verbo em sua forma básica para formar a negativa:

Your family and friends don’t see you […].

The video doesn’t talk about the rise and decline of some social networks.

Formas completas e formas contraídas

I do not

I don’t



have to use social networks in the office.

He does not/She does not/It does not

He doesn’t/She doesn’t/It doesn’t



We do not/You do not/They do not

We don’t/You don’t/They don’t



Insira o verbo auxiliar do (ou does) antes do sujeito para fazer perguntas.

Verbo auxiliar + Sujeito + Infinitivo do verbo principal

Do

I/we/you/they

have to use social networks in the office?

Does

he/she/it



Respostas curtas

Afirmativa

Negativa

Yes,

I/we/you/they

do.

No,

I/we/you/they

don’t.

do not.

he/she/it

does.

he/she/it

doesn’t.

does not.

Página 165



Falar sobre ações em progresso

Use o presente contínuo para ações que estão em progresso ou acontecendo agora (hoje, neste segundo/mês/ano/século):



[…] human interaction, something we are losing touch with.

The simplest way to ensure you aren’t wasting time in any one place […]

Is social media changing the way we communicate?

Afirmativas

Verbo to be + verbo na forma -ing

Expressões de tempo

I

am studying

English

now.

at the moment.



He/She/It

is studying

We/You/They

are studying



Negativas

I am not

I’m not



wasting time in any one place […].

He is not/She is not/It is not

He isn’t/She isn’t/It isn’t

He’s not/She’s not/It’s not


We are not/You are not/They are not

We aren’t/You aren’t/They aren’t

We’re not/You’re not/They’re not


Insira o verbo to be antes do sujeito para formar perguntas.

Perguntas

Verbo to be + Sujeito + Verbo na forma -ing

Am

I

keeping regular contact with English?

Is

he/she/it

Are

we/you/they

Os verbos principais podem sofrer alterações para formar o presente contínuo.

Ortografia

Exemplos

Para a maioria dos verbos

adicione -ing



Am I keeping regular contact […]?

Para verbos que terminam em -y

adicione -ing



I’m studying English now.

Para verbos que terminam em -e

troque o -e por -ing



We aren’t wasting time. Exceptions: be > being; see > seeing

Para verbos que terminam em consoante + vogal + consoante na sílaba tônica

repita a consoante final + -ing



We’re beginning to see some cool little apps that are coming out to do that.

Página 166

Use palavras WH- e coloque o verbo to be antes do sujeito para fazer perguntas.

Perguntas

Palavra WH- + Verbo to be + Sujeito + Verbo na forma -ing

What

am

I

doing in this picture?

is

he/she/it

are

we/you/they

Fazer recomendações e dar ordens

Use o imperativo para dar dicas.



Afirmativa: verbo

Negativa: don’t + verbo

Listen and Ask Questions

Give a Compliment

Form a Study Group

Don’t ask embarrassing questions.

Don’t be impolite.

Don’t complain too much.

Use o imperativo para fazer recomendações, sugestões, avisos e para dar instruções ou ordens:

Use anti-virus software on your computer.

Don’t accept unknown friend requests.

Falar sobre ações no passado

Use os verbos na forma do passado simples para descrever fatos, ações e eventos terminados no passado.



Afirmativa com a maioria dos verbos

I/You/He/She/It/We/You/They

And I had, like, an eating disorder in high school […].

She moved to L.A. from Texas to pursue her dream […].

Afirmativa com o verbo to be

I/He/She/It/

All that was left was the Russian, Alexander Popoff, to create a vertical metal pole […]

We/You/They

[…] those months you lived in L.A. were kind of a disaster, right?

Use o verbo auxiliar did para fazer perguntas e negativas no passado simples.

Verbo auxiliar + Sujeito + Infinitivo do verbo principal

Did

I

he/she/it

we/you/they


invent the radio?



Respostas curtas

Afirmativa

Negativa

Yes,

I he/she/it

we/you/they



did.

No,

I

he/she/it

we/you/they


did not. didn’t.

Página 167

Adicione n’t ou not ao verbo auxiliar did para formar a negativa:

[...] they didn't allow us to use their kitchen.

Formas completas e formas contraídas

I

He/She/It

We/You/They


did not

didn’t

invent the radio alone.

Nota: O verbo principal permanece na sua forma básica na negativa.

Adicione n’t ou not às formas do verbo to be (was e were) para formar a negativa.



Formas completas e formas contraídas

I was not/He was not/She was not/It was not

I wasn’t/He wasn’t/She wasn’t/It wasn’t



a big radio fan.

We were not/You were not/They were not

We weren’t/You weren’t/They weren’t



big radio fans.

Use palavras WH- para fazer perguntas.

Palavra WH- como objeto de questão

Palavra WH-

Verbo auxiliar (was/were ou did)

Sujeito

Verbo principal

How

did

the radio

originate?

Where

was

Guglielmo Marconi

born?

When

were

the first formulas

reated?



Palavra WH- como sujeito da sentença

Palavra WH-

Verbo principal

Complemento

Who

created

the name “coherer”?

What

was constructed

in 1888?

Nota: As formas verbais was e were devem concordar com o sujeito.

Use o sufixo -ed para formar o passado simples de verbos regulares.



Formação de palavras

Exemplos

Para a maioria dos verbos

adicione -ed



Guglielmo Marconi discovered that radio waves travel through an obstacle.

Para verbos que terminam em e

adicione -d



James Maxwell created the first radio-wave formula.

Para verbos que terminam em consoante + y

troque o y por -ied



I studied about the invention of the radio with interest.

Nota: verbos irregulares possuem formas especiais. Confira uma lista desses verbos no final desta seção.=PG=168=

LANGUAGE REFERENCE

Falar sobre experiências em um tempo indefinido no passado

Use o presente perfeito para falar sobre experiências que ocorreram em um tempo indefinido no passado ou eventos no passado com consequências no presente.



Formas completas e formas contraídas

Verbo to have + Particípio passado do verbo principal

I have/We have/You have/They have

I’ve/We’ve/You’ve/They’ve



used social networks a lot lately.

He has/She has/It has

He’s/She’s/It’s



Nota: O particípio passado de verbos regulares é formado adicionando-se o sufixo –ed; por exemplo, used. Verbos irregulares possuem formas especiais; por exemplo, seen. Confira o quadro com verbos irregulares no final desta seção.

Adicione n’t ao verbo auxiliar have ou use-o seguido de not para formar a negativa.



Negativas

Verbo to have + not + Particípio passado do verbo principal

I/We/You/They

haven’t

used social networks a lot lately.

He/She/It

hasn’t

Insira o verbo to have antes do sujeito para fazer perguntas.

Perguntas

Verbo to have + Sujeito + Particípio Passado do verbo principal

Have

I/we/you/they

used social networks a lot lately?

Has

he/she/it

Use ever para perguntar sobre uma experiência prévia ocorrida em qualquer momento do passado:

Have you ever left a message on a friend’s cell phone?

Has he ever used a tablet?

Respostas curtas

Afirmativa

Negativa

Yes,

I/we/you/they

have.

No,

I/we/you/they

have not.

haven’t.

he/she/it

has.

he/she/it

has not.

hasn’t.

Use never, already, just e yet para responder perguntas que estão no presente perfeito:

I have never used the new tablet. (A ação não aconteceu em nenhum momento.)

I’ve already used the new tablet. (A ação aconteceu previamente.)

I’ve just used the new tablet. (A ação aconteceu recentemente.)

I haven’t used the new tablet yet. (A ação ainda não aconteceu.)

Página 169



Nota 1: O advérbio never é usado em sentenças afirmativas, enquanto yet é usado no final de sentenças negativas.

Nota 2: Os advérbios already e yet podem ser usados como sinônimos em perguntas.

Have you texted your friend about the party yet? (Are you done? I’m waiting.)

Have you already texted your friend about the party? (So fast. I’m shocked!)

Use for ou since para falar sobre eventos ou estados que começaram no passado e ainda permanecem agora.



Delicious [ the website] has been available for several years. (Foco no período de tempo)

Wikipedia has been available since 2001. (Foco no início do evento)

Falar sobre ações em progresso no passado

Use o passado contínuo para falar sobre uma atividade que estava em progresso ou fornecer o pano de fundo de uma narrativa no passado.



[…] because I was texting my friends and checking my e-mail. (Atividade em progresso)

I was doing the challenge so I made myself a sandwich and went back to work. (Acontecimento paralelo)

Afirmativas

Verbo to be + Verbo na forma -ing

I/He/She/It

was

texting some friends and checking e-mails.

We/You/They

were

Adicione n’t às formas de passado do verbo to be ou use essas formas seguidas por not para fazer a negativa.

Formas completas e formas contraídas

I was not/He was not/She was not/It was not

I wasn’t/He wasn’t/She wasn’t/It wasn’t



texting friends or checking e-mails.

We were not/You were not/They were not

We weren’t/You weren’t/They weren’t



Use palavras WH- e insira o verbo to be antes do sujeito para fazer perguntas.

Perguntas

Palavra WH- + Verbo to be + Sujeito + Verbo na forma -ing

What

was

I/he/she/it

doing

when the teacher arrived in class?

yesterday at 7 pm?



were

we/you/they

Use when ou before para falar sobre uma ação completa que interrompeu a ação em progresso no passado.

When I met my best friend, I was playing soccer with neighbors.

We were talking noisily before the teacher arrived in class.

Nota: Quando a sentença começa com um advérbio, colocamos uma vírgula após o advérbio.

Página 170



LANGUAGE REFERENCE

Distinguir fatos de opiniões

Use verbos estativos para expressar opiniões, estados duradouros. Veja alguns exemplos:



agree, believe, dislike, doubt, guess, know, imagine, like, love, realize, remember, think (= have an opinion), understand

I think that it’s a mistake to substitute modern languages for an ancient universal one […]

I agree with Natascia L.

Nota: Verbos estativos são diferentes de verbos dinâmicos, que normalmente descrevem ações: eles geralmente não são usados na forma contínua. Não é considerado padrão, por exemplo, perguntar “Are you understanding this topic?”.

Falar sobre eventos futuros

Use o futuro simples para falar sobre eventos futuros, expressar decisões, consequências, previsões e promessas.



Afirmativas

Will + Infinitivo do verbo principal

I/He/She/It

We/You/They



will change

the nature of global media.

Adicione not ao verbo auxiliar, ou altere a sua ortografia adicionando n’t, para formar a negativa (will not ou won’t).

Formas completas e contraídas

I/He/She/It

We/You/They



will not won’t

change the nature of global media.

Insira o auxiliar will antes do sujeito para fazer perguntas.

Perguntas

Will + Sujeito + Infinitivo do verbo principal

Will

I/he/she/it

we/you/they



change the nature of global media?



Respostas curtas

Afirmativa

Negativa

Yes,

I he/she/it

we/you/they



will.

No,

I he/she/it

we/you/they



will not.

won’t.

Adicione palavras WH- antes do auxiliar will para fazer outros tipos de perguntas.

Perguntas

Palavra WH- + will + Sujeito + Infinitivo do verbo principal

What

will

I/he/she/it

we/you/they



do in the future?

Página 171



Conectar ideias

Use palavras de ligação para conectar ideias dentro de um parágrafo e entre parágrafos.



Ideias

Palavras de ligação

adição

in addition, moreover, besides, as well as, and, also

contraste

however, nevertheless, even though, while, but, yet, although

comparação

similarly, in the same way/manner, likewise

ênfase

in fact, indeed

exemplificação

for example, such as

exceção

aside from, except (for)

explicar razão

since, because, because of, due to, as

resultado

thus, therefore, then

sequência

first, second, next, then, after that, lastly, finally

resumo

in conclusion, finally, in brief

condição

if, whether

simultaneidade

while, as

Formar palavras

Adicione sufixos às palavras para criar novos significados.



Formação de palavras

Sufixo

Significado

Exemplos

-ance

(substantivo) caracterizado por (verbo) caracterizar

performance finance

-ist

(substantivo) pessoa envolvida com

tourist

-ment

(substantivo) ação, condição, resultado

empowerment

-ism

(substantivo) ação ou prática

tourism

-tion

(substantivo abstrato) ação, processo de

classification

-ed

(adjetivo) resultar qualidade ou estado

empowered (with power)

-ing

(adjetivo) atributos contínuos

empowering (that gives power)

-al

(adjetivo) ter o caráter de

financial

-ive

(adjetivo) tendência, disposição, condição

informative

-ate

(verbo) ação

donate

-ify

(verbo) fazer, tornar-se, fazer mudar

classify

Use advérbios de modo para falar sobre como algo acontece (verbo) ou é (adjetivo).

Adjetivo + -ly

Exemplos

continually modifica o verbo post

[…] you have to be willing to […] continually post new content on Facebook and YouTube.

relatively modifica os adjetivos easy e efficient

YouTube is still a relatively easy and efficient way to discover the next big star […]

Página 172



LANGUAGE REFERENCE

Verbos irregulares



Forma básica

Passado simples

Particípio passado

Tradução

arise /əˈraɪz/

arouse /əˈroʊz/

arisen /əˈrɪz ən/

levantar(-se); surgir; originar(-se)

be /bi/

was /wʌz/, were /wɜr/

been /bɪn/

ser, estar

bear /bɛər/

bore /bɔr/

born, borne /bɔrn/

carregar; espalhar; exibir, ostentar

beat /bit/

beat /bit/

beaten /ˈbit n/

bater

become /bɪˈkʌm/

became /bɪˈkeɪm/

become /bɪˈkʌm/

tornar-se

begin /bɪˈgɪn/

began /bɪˈgæn/

begun /bɪˈgʌn/

começar

bend /bɛnd/

bent /bɛnt/

bent /bɛnt/

inclinar-se, curvar-se

bet /bɛt/

bet /bɛt/

bet /bɛt/

apostar

bid /bɪd/

bid /bɪd/, bade /bæd/

bid /bɪd/, bidden /ˈbɪd n/

mandar; declarar; fazer um lance

bind /baɪnd/

bound /baʊnd/

bound /baʊnd/

ligar, unir

bite /baɪt/

bit /bɪt/

bitten /ˈbɪt n/

picar

blow /bloʊ/

blew /blu/

blown /bloʊn/

soprar; florescer; espalhar

break /breɪk/

broke /broʊk/

broken /ˈbroʊ kən/

quebrar, partir

breed /brid/

bred /brɛd/

bred /brɛd/

produzir; dar cria, procriar

bring /brɪŋ/

brought /brɔt/

brought /brɔt/

trazer; produzir; levar

broadcast /ˈbrɔdˌkæst/

broadcast /ˈbrɔdˌkæst/

broadcast /ˈbrɔdˌkæst/

transmitir por rádio ou TV; espalhar

build /bɪld/

built /bɪlt/

built /bɪlt/

construir; montar

burst /bɜrst/

burst /bɜrst/

burst /bɜrst/

rebentar, estourar

buy /baɪ/

bought /bɔt/

bought /bɔt/

comprar

cast /kæst/

cast /kæst/

cast /kæst/

lançar; emitir

catch /kætʃ/

caught /kɔt/

caught /kɔt/

pegar; capturar

choose /tʃuz/

chose /tʃoʊz/

chosen /ˈtʃoʊ zən/

escolher

come /kʌm/

came /keɪm/c

ome /kʌm/

vir

cost /kɔst/

cost /kɔst/

cost /kɔst/

custar

cut /kʌt/

cut /kʌt/

cut /kʌt/

cortar

deal /dil/

dealt /dɛlt/

dealt /dɛlt/

lidar

dig /dɪg/

dug /dʌg/

dug /dʌg/

cavar, furar; indagar

do /du/

did /dɪd/

done /dʌn/

fazer

draw /drɔ/

drew /dru/

drawn /drɔn/

desenhar; puxar; traçar

drink /drɪŋk/

drank /dræŋk/

drunk /drʌŋk/

beber

drive /draɪv/

drove /droʊv/

driven /ˈdrɪv ən/

deixar; levar a; dirigir; pôr em movimento

eat /it/

ate /eɪt/

eaten /ˈit n/

comer

fall /fɔl/

fell /fɛl/

fallen /ˈfɔ lən/

cair

feed /fid/

fed /fɛd/

fed /fɛd/

alimentar(-se)

feel /fil/

felt /fɛlt/

felt /fɛlt/

sentir

fight /faɪt/

fought /fɔt/

fought /fɔt/

brigar, lutar; combater

find /faɪnd/

found /faʊnd/

found /faʊnd/

achar; julgar; encontrar; procurar

fit /fɪt/

fit /fɪt/

fit /fɪt/

encaixar; ajustar

flee /fli/

fled /flɛd/

fled /flɛd/

fugir

forecast /ˈfɔrˌkæst/

forecast /ˈfɔrˌkæst/

forecast /ˈfɔrˌkæst/

prever; projetar

forget /fərˈgɛt/

forgot /fərˈgɒt/

forgotten /fərˈgɒt n/, forgot

esquecer

forgive /fərˈgɪv/

forgave /fərˈgeɪv/

forgiven /fərˈgɪv ən/

perdoar

fly /flaɪ/

flew /flu/

flown /floʊn/

voar

freeze /friz/

frozen /froʊz/

froze /ˈfroʊ zən/

congelar

Página 173



Verbos irregulares



Forma básica

Passado simples

Particípio passado

Tradução

get /gɛt/

got /gɒt/

got, gotten /ˈgɒt n/

conseguir; receber; entender; ficar; pegar, contrair

give /gɪv/

gave /geɪv/

given /ˈgɪ vən/

dar

go /goʊ/

went /wɛnt/

gone /gɒn/

ir

grow /groʊ/

grew /gru/

grown /groʊn/

crescer; criar; ficar cada vez mais; cultivar

hang /hæŋ/

hung /hʌŋ/

hung /hʌŋ/

dependurar; ficar

have /hæv/

had /hæd/

had /hæd/

ter

hear /hɪər/

heard /hɜrd/

heard /hɜrd/

ouvir, escutar

hide /haɪd/

hid /hɪd/

hidden /ˈhɪd n/

esconder(-se)

hit /hɪt/

hit /hɪt/

hit /hɪt/

atingir; chegar a

hold /hoʊld/

held /hɛld/

held /hɛld/

sediar; reunir; segurar

hurt /hɜrt/

hurt /hɜrt/

hurt /hɜrt/

machucar, ferir; causar prejuízo, doer

keep /kip/

kept /kɛpt/

kept /kɛpt/

manter; permanecer

know /noʊ/

knew /nyu/

known /noʊn/

conhecer; saber

lay /leɪ/

laid /leɪd/

laid /leɪd/

pôr; estender

lead /lid/

led /lɛd/

led /lɛd/

conduzir, levar

learn /lɜrn/

learnt /lɜrnt/

learnt /lɜrnt/

aprender; ficar sabendo, descobrir

leave /liv/

left /lɛft/

left /lɛft/

partir; sair; sobrar

lend /lɛnd/

lent /lɛnt/

lent /lɛnt/

emprestar

let /lɛt/

let /lɛt/

let /lɛt/

fazer com que; deixar

lie /laɪ/

lay /leɪ/

lain /leɪn/

jazer, estar deitado(a)

light /laɪt/

lit /lɪt/

lit /lɪt/

iluminar; acender

lose /luz/

lost /lɔst/

lost /lɔst/

perder

make /meɪk/

made /meɪd/

made /meɪd/

fazer

mean /min/

meant /mɛnt/

meant /mɛnt/

querer dizer; significar

meet /mit/

met /mɛt/

met /mɛt/

conhecer; encontrar

overcome /ˌoʊvərˈkʌm/

overcame /ˌoʊvərˈkeɪm/

overcome /ˌoʊvərˈkʌm/

superar

pay /peɪ/

paid /peɪd/

paid /peɪd/

pagar; prestar

put /pʊt/

put /pʊt/

put /pʊt/

pôr, colocar

quit /kwɪt/

quit /kwɪt/

quit /kwɪt/

renunciar, abandonar, desistir, deixar

read /rid/

read /rɛd/

read /rɛd/

ler

rid /rɪd/

rid /rɪd/

rid /rɪd/

livrar-se

ride /raɪd/

rode /roʊd/

ridden /ˈrɪd n/

cavalgar; andar de

ring /rɪŋ/

rang /ræŋ/

rung /rʌŋ/

tocar (campainha, telefone)

rise /raɪz/

rose /roʊz/

risen /ˈrɪz ən/

levantar, sair da cama; subir; tornar-se audível

run /rʌn/

ran /ræn/

run /rʌn/

correr; dirigir, administrar; ter a duração de; executar (programa)

say /seɪ/

said /sɛd/

said /sɛd/

dizer

see /si/

saw /sɔ/

seen /sin/

ver

seek /sik/

sought /sɔt/

sought /sɔt/

buscar; aspirar; empenhar-se

sell /sɛl/

sold /soʊld/

sold /soʊld/

vender

send /sɛnd/

sent /sɛnt/

sent /sɛnt/

enviar

set /sɛt/

set /sɛt/

set /sɛt/

estabelecer; passar-se; ter lugar

sew /soʊ/

sewed /soʊd/

sewn /soʊn/, sewed

costurar

shake /ʃeɪk/

shook /ʃʊk/

shaken /ˈʃeɪkən/

sacudir, agitar

Página 174



LANGUAGE REFERENCE

Verbos irregulares

Forma básica

Passado simples

Particípio passado

Tradução

shine /ʃaɪn/

shone /ʃoʊn/

shone /ʃoʊn/

brilhar; refletir luz

shoot /ʃut/

shot /ʃɒt/

shot /ʃɒt/

filmar; percorrer em grande velocidade; dizer logo

show /ʃoʊ/

showed /ʃoʊd/

shown /ʃoʊn/

mostrar, apresentar

shut /ʃʌt/

shut /ʃʌt/

shut /ʃʌt/

fechar

sing /sɪŋ/

sang /sæŋ/

sung /sʌŋ/

cantar

sink /sɪŋk/

sank /sæŋk/, sunk /sʌŋk/

sunk /sʌŋk/

descer; afundar; decair

sit /sɪt/

sat /sæt/

sat /sæt/

sentar-se; deixar por um tempo

sleep /slip/

slept /slɛpt/

slept /slɛpt/

dormir

slide /slaɪd/

slid /slɪd/

slidden /ˈslɪd n/, slid

deslizar

speak /spik/

spoke /spoʊk/

spoken /ˈspoʊ kən/

falar

spend /spɛnd/

spent /spɛnt/

spent /spɛnt/

passar (tempo); gastar

spill /spɪl/

spilt /spɪlt/

spilt /spɪlt/

derramar

spin /spɪn/

spun /spʌn/

spun /spʌn/

girar; torcer

split /splɪt/

split /splɪt/

split /splɪt/

rachar; separar(-se); dividir

spread /sprɛd/

spread /sprɛd/

spread /sprɛd/

espalhar; estender

spring /sprɪŋ/

sprang /spræŋ/

sprung /sprʌŋ/

surgir

stand /stænd/

stood /stʊd/

stood /stʊd/

aturar, suportar; estar de pé; estar; encontrar-se; ser; ocupar certo lugar

steal /stil/

stole /stoʊl/

stolen /ˈstoʊ lən/

roubar

stick /stɪk/

stuck /stʌk/

stuck /stʌk/

grudar

sting /stɪŋ/

stung /stʌŋ/

stung /stʌŋ/

picar, ferroar; doer; ferir

strike /straɪk/

struck /strʌk/

struck /strʌk/

impressionar; abater

swear /swɛər/

swore /swɔr/

sworn /swɔrn/

jurar, prometer; xingar, praguejar

sweep /swip/

swept /swɛpt/

swept /swɛpt/

passar rapidamente; varrer

swim /swɪm/

swam /swæm/

swum /swʌm/

nadar

swing /swɪŋ/

swung /swʌŋ/

swung /swʌŋ/

balançar

take /teɪk/

took /tʊk/

taken /ˈteɪ kən/

agarrar; levar; fazer (aula); tomar, assumir; pegar

teach /titʃ/

taught /tɔt/

taught /tɔt/

ensinar

tear /tɛər/

tore /tɔr/

torn /tɔrn/

rasgar; dividir

tell /tɛl/

told /toʊld/

told /toʊld/

contar; dizer

think /θɪŋk/

thought /θɔt/

thought /θɔt/

achar; pensar

throw /θroʊ/

threw /θru/

thrown /θroʊn/

atirar, jogar

understand /ˌʌn dərˈstænd/

understood /ˌʌn dərˈstʊd/

understood /ˌʌn dərˈstʊd/

entender

upset /ʌpˈsɛt/

upset /ʌpˈsɛt/

upset /ʌpˈsɛt/

desarranjar; perturbar; impedir

wake /weɪk/

woke /woʊk/

woken /ˈwoʊkən/

acordar

wear /wɛər/

wore /wɔr/

worn /wɔrn/

usar; vestir; gastar (pelo uso)

win /wɪn/

won /wʌn/

won /wʌn/

ganhar, vencer

wind /waɪnd/

wound /waʊnd/

wound /waʊnd/

enrolar

withdraw /wɪðˈdrɔ/

withdrew /wɪðˈdru/

withdrawn /wɪðˈdrɔn/

retirar(-se); afastar(-se); sacar

write /raɪ t/

wrote /roʊt/

written /ˈrɪtn/

escrever

Página 175



RECOMMENDED BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR STUDENTS

Azar, B. S.; Hagen, S. A. Basic English Grammar. New York: Pearson; Longman, 2006.

Bromberg, M.; Gordon, M. Barron’s 1100 Words You Need to Know. Hauupauge, UK: Barron’s Educational Series, 1997.

Cambridge Advanced Learner's Dictionary (with CD-ROM). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2008.



Carter, R.; Hughes, R.; McCarthy, M. Exploring Grammar in Context: Upper-Intermediate and Advanced. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Collins Cobuild Dictionary of Idioms. London: Harper Collins, 1995.



Dicionário Oxford escolar para estudantes brasileiros de inglês: Português-Inglês/Inglês-Português. São Paulo: Oxford do Brasil, 2010.

Green, J. Cassell Dictionary of Slang. London: Cassell, 2006.

Hughes, R. Exploring Grammar in Writing: Upper-Intermediate and Advanced. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005.

Kernerman, L. Password: English Dictionary for Speakers of Portuguese. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 2010.

Lighter, J. E. (Ed.). Random House Historical Dictionary of American Slang. New York: Random House, 1994-97. v. 1, 2.

Marques, A. Dicionário de Inglês/Português Português/Inglês. São Paulo: Ática, 2004.

McCarthy, M.; O'Dell, F. English Vocabulary in Use (Upper-Intermediate). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Murphy, R. English Grammar in Use. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nettle, M.; Hopkins, D. Developing Grammar in Context Intermediate with Answers: Grammar Reference and Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Parkinson, D. (Ed.). Oxford Phrasal Verbs Dictionary for Learners of English. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Swan, Michael. Practical English Usage. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

LITERATURE

Atwood, M. The Edible Woman. Piscataway, NJ: Research & Education Association, 2000.

Austen, J. Pride and Prejudice. London: Collector’s Library, CRW Publishing, 2003.

Brontë, E. Wuthering Heights. New York: The Modern Library, 1950.

Drabble, M. The Milestone. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1980.

Hemingway, E. The Old Man and the Sea. New York: Bantam Books, 1965.

Joyce, J. Dubliners. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, England: Penguin Books, 1986.
Página 176

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Abreu-Tardelli, L. S.; Cristovão, V. L. L. (Org.). Linguagem e educação: o ensino e a aprendizagem de gêneros textuais. Campinas: Mercado de Letras, 2009.

Bazerman, C. Gênero, agência e escrita. Trad. e adap. Judith Chambliss Hoffnagel. São Paulo: Cortez, 2006.

Borges, E. F. V.; Paiva, V. L. M. O. Por uma abordagem complexa de ensino de línguas. Linguagem & Ensino, Pelotas, v. 14, n. 2, p. 337-56, jul./dez. 2011.

Brasil. Ensino médio inovador. Brasília: MEC/SEB, 2009. Disponível em:

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