We use the Present Perfect followed by for or since to talk about events or states which started in the past but are still true now.
Mario Friedlander/Pulsar Imagens
Member of ethnic group Paresi in “XII Jogos dos Povos Indígenas,” Cuiabá (MT), 2013.
6. You are going to read a text about how long some social media have been available. To find out the exact information, replace the letters with the words for or since or the correct form of the verbs in parentheses. Write the answers in your notebook.
a) Also known as “snail mail,” the postal service has been available A (for/since) 550 BC. More recently, electronic mail B (make) communication quicker and easier. In fact, people C (be able) to send e-mails for more than fifty years.
b) D (For/Since) Guglielmo Marconi first transmitted signals more than a century ago, radio E (become) one of the world’s most common sources of news and entertainment.
c) F (For/Since) its invention in 1890, the telephone G (change) significantly over the years. It H (come) a long way from two cups and a string. Today’s phones are technological wonders, constantly getting smaller, more sophisticated, and less expensive.
d) I (For/Since) 2003, social networking sites such as Facebook and MySpace allow visitors to create networks of friends and contacts and upload images, music, videos, and news stories. Facebook J (grow) into a website with millions of users who share vital information. Facebook is definitely the leading contender. At the beginning it was MySpace, but this site K (be) in decline for quite a few years now. Over the past two years, MySpace L (lose), on average, more than a million U.S. users a month.
e) Twitter M (be) around N (for/since) a while. A “tweet” is a text-based post comprised of up to 140 characters. Tweets O (evolve) from more simple everyday experiences to shared links to Web content, hot topic conversations, photos, videos, and songs.
BEYOND THE LINES...
a) Does everybody have access to communication technology in your community?
b) Do cell phone companies offer good service in your region?
c) Many people find it rude when a person takes a call during a private social engagement with others. In your opinion, what’s the balance between private vs. public when it comes to using cell phones?
d) How have the Internet and mobile devices contributed to communication and socialization in your community?
Before you read…
a) Can you write or read texting abbreviations?
b) Do you find abbreviations helpful? Why or why not?
1. Read the text and answer the following questions. Use your notebook.
Palavras da língua inglesa que se assemelham a palavras da língua portuguesa em forma e significado auxiliam na compreensão da leitura.
‘I wrote 2U B4’! British Library Shows Up Textspeak as soooo 19th Century
guardian.co.uk, Wednesday 18 August 2010 19.31 BST
If u really r annoyed by the vocabulary of the text generation, then a new exhibition at the British Library should calm you down. It turns out they were doing it in the 19th century – only then they called it emblematic poetry, and it was considered terribly clever.
Details were announced today of the library’s new exhibition devoted to the English language, exploring its 1,500-year history from Anglo-Saxon runes and early dictionaries to not dropping your Hs and rap.
The exhibition will open this winter after three years of planning.
There will be examples of the linguistic games people played, and a poem from Gleanings From the Harvest-Fields of Literature, published in 1867. In it, 130 years before the arrival of mobile phone texting, Charles C Bombaugh uses phrases such as “I wrote 2 U B 4”. Another verse reads: “He says he loves U 2 X S,/U R virtuous and Y’s,/In X L N C U X L/All others in his i’s.”
• Evolving English: One Language, Many Voices will be at the British Library from 12 November 2010 until 3 April 2011.
David Levene/The Guardian
A typical text message on a mobile phone. The British Library has unearthed examples of 19th century language using text msg abbreviation. GR8! Photograph: David Levene for The Guardian