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. Accessed on April 11, 2016.

4. In your notebook, copy the first and the last word of the following parts of the text.

a) The introduction of the text.

b) The body of the text.

c) The closure of the text.

ÁUDIO 4 5. Now, read and listen to the excerpts in the correct order and check your answers.

6. The song Lady Gaga performed at the 88th Academy Awards ceremony, in 2016, was “Til It Happens to You.” It talks about the pain caused by sexual abuse.

a) Should people wait for bad things to happen in order to react?

b) What is your reaction when you listen to stories of child abuse?

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Before you read…

• Look at the text below. Pay attention to the title and subtitle. What kind of information do you expect to find there?

1. Now read the text carefully to check your predictions. Do the activities on the next page and make sure you answer them in your notebook.


Fazer previsões sobre o texto antes de lê-lo pode ajudar você a lidar com o vocabulário novo.

The Invention of the Radio

Radio is the branch of telecommunication that involves the propagation of electromagnetic waves through space.

How did the Radio Originate?

Many scientists dreamed of discovering a way to wireless communication, but didn’t succeed until the late nineteenth century. James Clerk Maxwell developed the first radio-wave theorem in 1864. He proved, mathematically, that if an electrical interruption is of short distance from the point at which it occurred, there would be effect or passage of electrical current due to “some sort of waves that move at the speed of light”, in which the electromagnetic energy would travel.

Heinrich Hertz experimented with Maxwell’s thesis in 1888. He demonstrated that “waves traveled in straight lines and that they could be reflected by a metal sheet.” He tested with two conductors separated by a short gap (5ft). This idealism was advanced by the Italian physicist Guglielmo Marconi (seen on the next page), who repeated Hertz’s experiments with a spark gap of 30ft and succeeded.

Augusto Righi, an Italian physicist, continued and refined Hertz’s work establishing the equality between electrical and optical vibrations. Another scientist, Temistocle Calzecchi-Onesti, constructed, in 1888, a “tube” due to his belief that electrical discharges of atmospheric perturbations influenceiron filings.

In 1894, Oliver Lodge named Temistocle’s famous “tube” the “coherer” and increased the reception gain of the hertzian waves. All that was left was the Russian, Popov (Alexander Popoff), to create a vertical metal pole by using Lodge’s coherer and collecting atmospheric disturbances in a rudimentary antenna. The invention of these instruments helped Guglielmo Marconi’s discovery. Marconi verified that electromagnetic waves travel between two points separated by an obstacle. This led to the creation of the first radio transmitter... This experiment was repeated with larger spark gaps (started with 5 ft; expanded to 100 km). Radiotelegraphy was born.

Available at . Accessed on April 11, 2016.

Did you know…?

Nova Quilombo/ID/BR

Radio New Quilombo FM was founded on April 6, 1986 in Palmares (PE). It is recognized as one of the largest stations in the Northeast. The radio is an absolute audience leader in more than 50 towns around the southern forest, wild, Pernambuco coast and north of Alagoas. […]

We can also listen to it on the Web: . Accessed on May 13, 2016.

Did you know…?


The objetive of Yande Radio is the dissemination of Brazilian indigenous culture.

Listen to it on the Web: . Accessed on May 13, 2016.

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a) What is the purpose of the text?

b) Relate the sentences below to the corresponding paragraphs and find out the main ideas of the text. Write down the answer in your notebook.

I. The behavior of radio waves was described.

II. A theoretical basis was established.

III. Understanding was refined to generate a working prototype.

IV. Scientists from other areas expanded the existing knowledge.

c) Do you think the information on the website is reliable? How do you check information when you search on the Web?

2. Many scientists were involved in the creation of the radio. Write the correct combination of letters–numbers to match the names to the facts. Answer in your notebook.


A Heinrich Hertz


B Guglielmo Marconi

NYPL/Science Source/Getty Images

C Oliver Lodge

Science Photo Library/Latinstock

D James Clerk Maxwell

Guglielmo Marconi Foundation, Bologna. Photography: ID/BR

E Temistocle Calzecchi-Onesti

Popov Memorial Museum, Saint Petersburg. Photography: ID/BR

F Alexander Popoff


G Augusto Righi

I He created the first radio-wave formula.

II He proved that radio waves are transmitted in straight lines.

III He discovered that radio waves travel through an obstacle.

IV He established the equality between electrical and optical vibrations.

V He believed in the influence of electrical discharges of atmospheric perturbations.

VI He came up with the name “coherer.”

VII He incorporated a rudimentary antenna.

Did you know…?

Antenna – plural antennas or antennae.

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3. In which tense is the text “The Invention of the Radio” mostly written? Answer in your notebook.

a) past

b) present

c) future

4. Make a list of the verbs in the text that justify your previous answer. What do most of them have in common?

5. Do you like listening to the radio? If so, what types of radio programs do you listen to?

Pronunciation spot – final -ed

1. In the Simple Past, the -ed sound is pronounced differently depending on the preceding sound.

Verbs ending in…

voiced sounds: -ed → /d/

voiceless sounds: -ed → /t/

/t/ or /d/: -ed → /ıd/

ÁUDIO 5 2. Listen to the verbs below. Then list them in the appropriate column: /d/, /t/ or /ıd/. Use your notebook.


Vocabulary Corner

1. Read the text “The Invention of the Radio” again and find the correct word for the definitions below.

a) Having no wires (adjective, 8 letters).

b) An electronic device consisting of a system of electrodes (noun, 4 letters).

c) Presenting magnetism produced by electric charge (adjective, 15 letters).

d) Electromagnetic radiations (noun, 5 letters).

e) Tests, trials (noun, 11 letters).

f) A device that sends and receives waves (noun, 7 letters).


Karina Kononenko/

RamCreativ/iStock/Getty Images

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Let’s focus on language!

1. Let’s remember! Read these sentences and pay special attention to the words in bold.

“How did the radio originate?”

“Many scientists dreamed of discovering a way to wireless communication, but didn’t succeed until the late nineteenth century.”

“[Heinrich Hertz] demonstrated that waves […] could be reflected by a metal sheet.”

“All that was left was the Russian, Popov (Alexander Popoff), to create a vertical metal pole […].”

“This led to the creation of the first radio transmitter…”

2. Copy in your notebook the answer for the following question. What is the function of the Simple Past?

a) To talk about completed actions in the past.

b) To talk about actions in progress in the past.

c) To talk about uncompleted actions.

d) To talk about unspecified time actions.

e) To talk about facts and habits in the past.

f) To talk about a sequence of events in the past.

3. Based on activity 1 and on your own knowledge, replace the letters below with the appropriated words to complete the rules. Use your notebook.

Add A to the end of regular verbs.

The Simple Past of the verb be is B (I, he, she, it) and C (you, we, they).

Use D for the interrogative and E for the negative forms.

F verbs have a special form which we need to know by heart.

4. Which of these statements about the radio are true? Answer in your notebook.

a) The invention of the radio was possible at the beginning of the 19th century.

b) James Clerk Maxwell invented the first radio.

c) In 1888, Heinrich Hertz tested Maxwell’s assumption.

d) Hertz’s experiment was replicated by Marconi without much success.

e) Temistocle named the coherer in 1888.

f) Scientists found that radio communication involves the transmission of electromagnetic waves.

5. In your notebook, write the correct combination of numbers–letters to match the questions to the answers. If necessary, read again the text “The Invention of the Radio”.

I Where was Guglielmo Marconi born?

II When was the first radio-wave formula created?

III Who created the name “coherer”?

IV What was constructed in 1888?

V How do radio waves travel?

VI Why can we say that the radio was collaboratively invented?

A In straight lines.

B Because many inventors were involved.

C In 1864.

D Oliver Lodge.

E A “tube”.

F In Italy.
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6. Replace the letters in the text with the past form of the verbs below, and learn about the history of podcasts. Use your notebook.

allow/ become (x2)/ explode/ help/ include/ start/ decide

A Brief History of Podcasting

Podcasting A part of the general lexicon almost overnight. The technology behind podcasting comes from RSS news feeds, which were developed by programmer and blogging pioneer Dave Winer. Former MTV VJ Adam Curry had been pushing for a new way to do RSS with multimedia, and B encourage Winer to develop RSS with enclosures.

That technology C people to publish RSS feeds with audio or video, but it took a few years before regular podcasts were launched. In the summer of 2004, Winer D a protopodcast called Morning Coffee Notes and Curry started his Daily Source Code sh ow. Curry E to start coding his own podcast software called iPodder, and was hoping to get other programmers to join in on the open source software project. Eventually, iPodder F the basis for other “podcatching” software programs, which help you manage and subscribe to podcasts. In 2005, when Apple’s iTunes G podcatching software as well as a podcast directory, the medium H . [...]

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