Management Skill Berde, Csaba Management Skill


ábra - Table 1: The advantages of using each types of consultants-internal or external (based on McLean(2006))



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15.2. ábra - Table 1: The advantages of using each types of consultants-internal or external (based on McLean(2006)).

Besides this role, Conner (1993) details the role of the sponsor. Citing the works of Conner (1993), Russo-Converso-Simonson (2000) have examined the function of it. A sponsor is defined as an individual or group who has the authority to legitimize and power to enforce the intervention. Sponsorship takes far more than ideas and rhetoric; it requires the ability and willingness to apply the meaningful rewards and pressure that produce desired results. There are two kinds of sponsors, initial and sustaining. An initial sponsor is defined as an individual or group who has the power to break from the status quo and sanction a significant change. An initial sponsor is usually higher in the hierarchy than those who must perform the duties of sustaining sponsors (Conner, 1993). A sustaining sponsor is defined as one who supports and follows through with the sponsor commitment and allocation of resources for his/her arena of influence. A sustaining sponsor has enough proximity to local targets, those individuals or groups who must actually change, to maintain focus and motivation on the change goals. They also define the role of the advocate, who are individuals or groups who wants to achieve a change but lacks the power to sanction it (such as stakeholders). However, advocates are influential and valued for the advice and recommendations given to the sponsor and others.

Organizational development requires numerous things, human participation, leverages, and usually financing funds, as well. The fundamental sources of it may be the following:


  • Private funds. Many organizations have identified the importance of internal development, and this is why they spend many on it.

  • Subsidies. After the EU accession, Hungary has accessed communal sources to promote EU integration. In the last years, we have witnessed organizational development projects mainly at municipalities and civic organizations.

According to Daft (2009) the process of organizational development may be best illustrated by the change management process of Lewin (1947):

  • Unfreezing: a stage for awareness of change and motivation for people to change

  • Change-people affected may experience new necessary behaviors and skills (intervention)

  • Refreezing: new attitudes, values, behaviors are acquired and these also should be reinforced.

According to Kinicki-Williams (2011) organizational development works as medical-like model (Figure 2):



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