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ábra - Figure 3.: The black hole effect (based on Conner (1993))



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12.3. ábra - Figure 3.: The black hole effect (based on Conner (1993))

The change is a complex organisational process of which numerous features can be interpreted. As a process, the determining phase is the change itself, in which the key organisational characteristics are actually transformed. But the modification is the static approach of the change. It means a state which was taken out of context for the moment but this state has a primary and a final stage as well. This way it will be a process. The management tasks are not only the modification of the old one and the introduction of the new one from a managerial view, but also the preparing of openingand the closing of the process.

Several change management tactics are recognized from the professional literature. Zaltman – Duncan (1977) primarly dealt with the issues of behavioral change management. Four change management strategies were developed based on their investigations: the facilitative, the reducative, the persuasive and the power strategy.


  • The facilitative strategy should be used when the changes are of internal origins. The changes are initiated by the members of the organisation or perhaps its departments. The task of the management is to support and facilitate the change particularly when the change coincides with the organisation’s goal and the ideas of the management.

  • The application of the reducative is useful if there are any conscious, knowledge and approach barriers to changes ensuring the development of the organisation. The ’information hunger’ of the organisation members may be the success of the reducative strategy. In this case, it is appropriate to "take advantage" of the staff's interest with organized trainings.  

  • The persuasive strategy is when leaders affect the members of the organisation with different methods and strive to reduce the degree of resistance and thus realize the change.

  • The power strategy is based on coercion. The source of managerial power may originate from the personality and position of the leader. The power coming from the personality of the leader may have a role in the enforcement of change. The power of expert comes from the knowledge of the leader. The prestige, which is achieved by the leaders’ professional preparation is such a tool in the management of the changes which increases the trust of employees and it can result in the reduction of the resistance. The charismatic power coming from the personality of the leader may be effective in the enforcement of managerial will.

Kotter (1999) when developing change management methods analyzes the mistakes that organisations committed during the management of change. These are considered serious errors, which led to the failure of the changes.

„By any objective measure, the amount of significant, often traumatic, change in organizations has grown tremendously over the past two decades. Although some people predict that most of the reengineering, restrategizing, mergers, downsizing, quality efforts, and cultural renewal project will soon disappear, I think it is highly unlikely. Powerful macroeconomic forces are at work here, and these forces may grow even stronger over the next few decades. As a result, more and more organizations will be pushed to reduce costs, improve the quality of products and services, locate new opportunities for growth and increase the productivity. To date, major change efforts have helped some organizations adapt significantly to shifting conditions, have improved the competitive standing of others, and have positioned a few for a far better future. But in too many situations the improvements have been disappointing and the carnage has been appalling, with wasted resources and burned-out, scared or frustrated employees”.  

Kotter developed an 8 step method (Figure 4.) based on the analysation of mistakes occurring in the change. The method has eight steps. Each of them can be identify as one corresponding to the eight mistakes threatening transformation.  

12.4. ábra - Figure 4.: Kotter’s 8 step method (based on Kotter (1999))





  1. Creating a sense of urgency: the urgency and importance are a known managerial tactic, which means a type of coercion. The slogans ’we are at the last minute’ or ’the boat away’ or ’we are in the 24 hours' are the urging of the adoption of change. If we do not change there will be consequences. These are the points of the perception that change is urgent.

  2. Creating the team directing the change: it is equal to coalition building. It is a coalition between those who are committed to the change and they are professionally suitable for its direction. It is a well-known method for politics.

  3. The elaboration of the vision and strategy is the task and obligation of the top management. All the changes will be doomed if the managers can not formulate an attractive vision and they can not show a pre-formulated strategic vision.

  4. Good communication of the vision in which the emphasis is on ’good’ is communication. It is a tactic which mainly highlights positive consequences of the change. It can become a danger when first the negative effects are revealed.

  5. The empowerment of employees means that the organisational members (key factors) are put in a position during the change, namely we give the power to allow them that they have opportunity to contribute to the implementation of changes. The empowerment and the delegation also means alongside the transferring of tasks and rights obligations and liabilities as well.  

  6. Achievement of short-terms success and quicker victories. In particular, the results achieved in the changed system may have really important motivation effect in the stage of testing.

  7. The consolidation of results. The over communication of the part results is also allowed in the stage of testing. However, the emphasis is on consolidation and realistic assessments are required in actual operation.

  8. The institutionalization of the new solutions, which aims to restore stability.

In the Figure 5., the results of a previous examination carried out among managers can be seen. The study is focused on how the questioned managers classified the change management methods. The research was a built in questionnaire; the interviewees had to evaluate from 1 to 5 the given methods based on the effectiveness.



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