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- Legal documentation to make an auto-employment project

- Financial Resources


To avoid exclusion we think it is necessary to create an environment in which the whole population is integrated. For example the butchers, Nowadays you have two types of butchers one that sells halal and one that sells normal meat. Instead of having two different ones they should be united to one Even in the little towns where there are very few Muslims



Theme 1: Enterprise development for ethnic minorities

Changing the enterprise culture: in terms of the importance of intervening at an early stage to create the “mindsets” and conditions required for opening up entrepreneurship to a wide public

What are the actions undertaken/services provided to meet these needs and what are the results obtained so far?

It is very difficult to start a new business. There are special public institutions, but in all cases the problem remains the same.


Even more because the economic situation of immigrants is often worse than the one of local people.
Once the residence-permit of the immigrant is done, the steps to start a new business are the same for all citizens of Spain.
Nowadays there are private finance institutions that offer better conditions to possible enterprising immigrants.


What are the priority needs not met by these services/actions?

The public institutions treat immigrants like local people but the difference is that immigrants have less resources.




Theme 2: Active inclusion in the labour market

Active inclusion is a comprehensive approach combining three elements:

  1. a link to the labour market through job opportunities or vocational training;

  2. income support at a level that is sufficient for people to have a dignified life;

  3. better access to services that may help remove some of the hurdles encountered by some individuals and their families in entering mainstream society, supporting their re-insertion into employment (through, for instance, counselling, healthcare, housing, child-care, lifelong learning, ICT training, psychological and social rehabilitation)




Theme 2: Active inclusion in the labour market

New comers


What are the actions undertaken/services provided to meet these needs and what are the results obtained so far?





There are a lot of services and institutions , about integration insitutions like :
PROYECTO RURAL IN : www.rural-in.es

ABRAZA LA TIERRA www.abrazalatierra.es

DIPUTACION GENERAL DE ARAGÓN: www.aragon.es

CRUZ ROJA www.cruzroja.es
VIA is a programme coordinated by the fundation of San Ezequiel Moreno and is based on supervised insertion in the sector of construction of 55 immigrants. To make this project a success they colaborated with the Instituto Aragonés de Empleo, Fundación Laboral de la Construcción and with Caja de Ahorros de la Inmaculada (C.A.I.).

In Aragón 29,3% of the immigrants with a work permit is working in the agriculture sector, 13,5% in the domestic sector 13,5% in the construction sector and 13,3% in the industrial sector.

Those percentages differ a lot from the local population in which just 8% is working in the agriculture, 26% in the industrial, 13,5 in construction and 57% in the service sector

UGT Aragón (ugt@aragon.ugt.org) has developed a programme of labour insertion that includes a methodology based not only on global attention but also at group and personal level.
The intervention takes between 6 and 12 months. In most of the cases this is a success and they get a job.

Although the main objective is to obtain a job, the intervention does not stop once a client finds a job. The intervention will continue for a while to minimize the chance of getting fired.

The main problem of the immigration in Aragón and Spain is the exclusion of immigrants that goes together with illegal immigration. Without work permit or residence permit integration is impossible.

The main objective of the information centres is to support and help to negotiate for the necessary residence and working permits as well as the process to obtain the regrouping of the family.

The region of Aragón has several of those information centres in Zaragoza, Huesca and Teruel. Those information centres focus on getting a higher population of immigrants in Aragón.

This programme has been in progress for over 10 years now. In 2001 there has been taken in account a budget of 60.101 Euro. The sources of the budget came from: Diputación Provincial de Zaragoza, The government of Aragón and UGT Aragón

One of the main problems to start a business for an immigrant is renting a dwelling. Often owners are affraid that immigrants won’t be able to pay the rent.

The programme rent of dwellings for immigrants offers a serial of services that helps to solve problems that an immigrant can have while finding a dwelling.

Most of the cases the economic situations of immigrants is the same. The money they gain is just enough to make it through the day. The problem is that the mayority of them have debts in their home country and on top of that they made promises to their family to send money.
So when something unexpected happens and they need to make a trip (family problems, illness etc) or because of troubles with recidence papers there is a serious problem of money.

The microcredit programme makes it possible to avoid these problems by making it possible


La Caja de Ahorros de la Inmaculada, reacts on this problem by its special programme called micro credits, a flexible loan, personalized tothe needs of the participants on this project.

Diputación Provincial de Zaragoza, The government of Aragón and UGT Aragón

One of the main problems for an immigrant is to rent a dwelling. The owners are affraid that immigrants won’t be able to pay the rent.

The programme rent of dwellings for immigrants offers a serial of services that helps to solve problems that an immigrant can have while finding a dwelling.

The employment is the Proud. of economic development and, at the same time, the generator of resources, that permits cover of the family needs, therefore, vital. It can be discussed, however, that employment that the small population centres can offer is certainly scarce, but surelly i twill increase, at least, in the service sector arisen by the population increase. This would happen after the implantation of new families, initially one would have to resort to all the employment available in the nearest environment of the population that one would like to recover, in order to do that, it is necessary to break current dynamics of living in the large population centres and go to work to the small ones, creating a new order, which is precisely the dynamics inversion. The improvement in quantity and quality of basic services of the municipalities would permit this inversion.





What are the priority needs not met by these services/actions?

In order to help enterprising, it would be necessary to contact local action groups
Also it is important that the townhalls apport financial aids to construct new locals or to pay lower rents, helping by this way to stablish new offers to the inhabitants of the municipalities.



Theme 2: Active inclusion in the labour market

Early school leavers


What are the actions undertaken/services provided to meet migrants’ needs in relation to this theme and what are the results obtained so far?



FROM WITHIN THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM

The social, familiar and cultural reality of the students who come from a socially marginalized and/or minority culture, is different from the one of the rest of students.

The cultural values of their social and familiar environment are usually different from the culture of the school context. This provokes risk situations which involve rootlessness and extreme or very difficult situations (inequality, marginalization, rejection, family dismantling, etc.) To avoid them, the educational system has designed a series of strategies based upon:

-Risk or social exclusion situations that imply educational demands

– Struggle against discrimination and inequality is one of the basic principles of our educational system  (Title V of the LOGSE)

– Multiple measures are adopted in centres and collectives which suffer from these situations.

(MEC, 1995, 1996, 1999; CECJA, 1994, 1999).

– The education of citizens is achieved on the basis of a more social proposal and a public service logic.

– The special educational needs are re-formulated towards plannings more attentive to frameworks and social contexts where the students develop.

– From the pedagogical perspective of complexity it is intended to achieve a high quality school for everybody.


The compensatory education 1 pursues, through the application of concrete educational programmes, to increase the level of preparation for learning, reduce the dispersion of individual levels so that they will fluctuate around an average level and diminish the index of correlation between the educational achievement and social origins in order to approach, the more the better, equal opportunities

In Spain, there exists an only regulation of basic character for the whole of the State, compiled in the Title V of the LOGSE: “About compensation of inequalities in education”, which basis is the “principle of equality in the execution of the right to education”, which make public authorities develop actions of compensatory kind with people, groups and territorial scopes that find themselves in unfavourable situations.

For the stage of Pre-school Education, it points out that public authorities should grant the most favourable conditions for schooling the children who present initial inequalities to have access to the compulsory education and to progress in the following levels.

In the case of Compulsory Education, it is obligation of the State to ensure, for each child, a free school place in their own municipality, facilitate the relevant scholarships and educational grants and promote equal opportunities. With the appearance of the concept of special educational needs, which entailed the modification of the ways to confront inequalities, there appears the concept of “normality” (plural and democratic society). Higher awareness of the system and educational projects towards diversity of the society. The multi-culturality as a perspective for paying attention to different collectives. The francophone idea of “pedagogy or differential didactics” comes back.

In Spain, the LOGSE is enacted.

The actions contemplated in the current legislation can be classified according to the objective they pursue:


A) Actions for the access and permanence in the educational system:

1. Extension of the offer of school places in the second cycle of pre-school education.

2. Guarantee the access of rural environment students and students in a disadvantaged situation at this school stage and to the services of educational resources.

3. Schooling of the students from socially and culturally disadvantaged groups with an equal distribution among centres public funded, in conditions that favour their insertion and adequate attention, avoiding so their concentration as well as their excessive dispersion.

4. Implementation of programmes of school monitoring to avoid absenteeism, with special attention to the transition between the different school stages.

5. Grants for the exemption of payment in the complementary services of school transport, canteens and, if it is necessary, residence, for the disadvantaged students whose families receive lower incomes.


B) Actions for the educational attention to the students:

1. Programs of educational compensation, of permanent or temporary character, in centres that school disadvantaged population, with complementary supportive resources.

2. Programs of educational compensation, through the constitution of support travelling units, addressed to the students, who, for reasons of work in their family, cannot follow a regular schooling process.

3. Programs of educational compensation,, through the creation of supportive units in hospital institutions, addressed to the hospitalized students who cannot follow a regular schooling process.


C) Actions to improve quality of education:

1. Stability and adequation of the training teams and, in the corresponding ones, provision of places in the same centre with trainer teams with a common pedagogical project for the compensation of inequalities

2. Incentivation of the training labour of the teachers, who develop educational compensation actions.

3. Programming of activities of permanent training of trainers, of the managing teams of the centres and of the external support services that develop educational compensation actions.

4. Promotion of initiatives and experiences of innovation and research, as well as experiences of elaboration and dissemination of curricular materials to attend the needs of these students.

5. Development and promotion of the participation of these students, of their families and entities that represent them.

6. Public allocation of funds and signature of collaboration agreements with associations of students’ parents, non-profit associations and non-governmental organisations, in order to develop socio-educational compensation actions.
The Order from 22 July 1999, obliges to develop the Royal Decree 299/1996 regulating the educational compensation actions in the training centres financed by public funds. It contemplates:

One centre will be able to impart educational compensation and will be endowed with the necessary resources (personal and material), when it schools, at least, 25 students with needs of educational compensation and, besides, complies with the following complementary conditions:

– High percentage of students with significant absenteeism levels and risk of early abandonment of the educational system.

– Significant percentage of students who do not reach the objectives proposed for a cycle or a stage.

– High proportion of students whose family prove to get an income lower than the minimum inter-professional wage.

When the conditions of quantity of students and complementary ones are fulfilled, the educational administration will compromise to create places of teachers of support to the programme of compensatory education, places that will be considered of high difficulty and difficult to develop, covered by point system for departmental transfers or voluntarily. Likewise, in the centres with educational compensation actions, the educational administration will be able to authorise the decrease up to 20% of the number of students per class established in the different educational stages, in all or in part of the units working.


Furthermore in Pre-school  and Primary Education:

- There will be a teacher of support for each 25 students needing educational compensation that will be schooled, up to 1 per each educational cycle of the stages imparted.

- When the number of students is smaller, the E.O.E.P. will carry out the necessary interventions for their proper educational attention.

-A travelling teacher of support will be able to be appointed, shared by more than one centre of the municipality with similar characteristics. They will be considered  of preferential action.

- A psycho-pedagogue will intervene from 1 to 3 days per week in the centre, according to the number of students.

- Also a technical teacher of Services to Community will directly intervene (1 to 3 days per week).

In Secondary Education, particularly:

-A support teacher will be appointed to the Department of Orientation for every 25 students with educational compensation needs who are schooled, up to a maximum of 2 per each educational cycle of the stages imparted.

- When the number of students is equal or inferior than 10% total students, the staff  of the Department of Orientation will be extended with a technical teacher of Services to Community

- When the number of students is inferior to the established one, the educational actions will be channelled through the Department of Orientation

- A travelling support teacher will be able to be appointed, shared by more than one centre of the municipality.

From thel C.A.R.E.I. (Aragonese Centre of Resources for the Inter-Culturality: carei@aragob.es) a PROTOCOL OF WELCOME TO THE IMMIGRANT STUDENTS has been created, which can be consulted at http://plataforma.cep-marbellacoin.org/moodle/file.php/50/Planes_de_Acogida/Plan_de_Acogida._Aragon.doc
The activities of students integration 'En-caja' and 'Amalgama take place in Aragon, in ten educational centres of Zaragoza from last September

It consists of a programme of the Delegation of Social Action and Co-operation to Development that is implemented through the Casa de las Culturas.Female and male students from then educational centres of Zaragoza (six from primary education and four from secondary one) will be able to make, during next school year, different activities of cultural integration, carried out from the Delegation of Social Action and Co-operation to the Development of the Zaragoza City Council through the House of Cultures. It is about the programmes "En-caja" (for primary school students) and "Amalgama" (secondary), through which it is intended to make conscious about multi-culturality, coexistence and prevent situations of intolerance or marginalisation.

People work from school centres,as, nowadays, they have become a space of encounters and coexistence of different cultures, which makes the implementation of a mutual approachment and awareness project more necessary.

In the case of the activities devoted to primary school students,"En-caja" has, among its objectives, to develop, through an animation, the essential values of coexistence and inter-personal relationships. While, in secondary education, "Amalgama" explains to their pupils, the fact. that all people are essentially equal, though different, fortunately, as well as prevent behaviour of intolerante and promote the idea of solidarity and the supply to multi-culturality.

The programme "En-caja" will be Developer by the entity Binomio, winner of the public contest constituted for this effect. It will carry out the project in six primary schools of the city, having a session of an hour and a half per group, six sessions per school. The sessions will be developed along the school year (from September 2007 to June 2008).

Several actions are being undertaken to avoid early school leavers like integrate a little of immigrants history in the school program. To keep their interest they get the change to tell about their home country in class. In order to help immigrants adapt to the Spanish educational system there are several organizations like:



  • Centro Aragonés de Recursos para educación intercultural (CARE)

  • Información recursos educativos

  • Formación continuada al profesorado

  • Aulas de español (ESO)

  • Cursos de lengua de acogida (adultos)

  • Cursos avanzados de español

  • Interculturalidad en APAS

  • Por una escuela intercultural






What are the priority needs not met by these services/actions?

Right now all school leavers just have one definition. There should be taken a closer look at the background of those immigrants. Most of the time those children have a lot of problems at home, their parents don’t speak the language and they have their own costumes in which maybe it is normal to leave school early. In general there is just one definition of an early school leaver there should be a more specific profile of each possible early school leaver. because every possibly early school leaver has an other profile that asks for a different approach and a different solution


It would be necessary to make a study of each profile to adapt the general procedure to the specific needs.
This Council reminds that it is necessary that we have results in the essential areas: social environment, school, family and students themselves so that the programmes of Compensatory Education have the expected results. For this reason, it is considered appropriate that the programmes will be revised in order to see if they act in these four fields and correct, if it was necessary, the shortcomings they could have.

The School Council of the State recommend that the various educational Administrations adopt a series of measures devoted to approach the school situation of socially and culturally unfavoured collectives:

1º) Make a diagnose of the real situation, starting by making a statistical study about schooling and population data, perfectly contrasted in all educational Administrations.

2º) Elaboration of General Schooling Plans (interdisciplinary) of the socially and culturally unfavoured collectives, with the aim of achieving the total and positive schooling of all the people belonging to these collectives, specially in what refers to the stage of compulsory education.

3º) Promote, on the part of Administration, the inter-culturalism through concrete measures.

4º)Creation of school units of support in hospitals for the male and female students who need a prolonged hospitalisation

5º) Orientation of the Training and Employment Programmes towards the most unfavoured collectives.

Territorial area managed directly by the MEC

The regulation about the order of actions devoted to the compensation of inequalities in education, in the territory managed directly by the MEC is compiled in the Royal Decree 299/1996, from 28 February. Actions of educational compensation in centres, actions of educational compensation devoted to the non-schooled students in centres and non-profit grants for private institutions for the development of actions of educational compensation, programmes of support to the integration of the pupils coming from other cultures, programmes of maintenance and dissemination of the own language and culture of the minority groups. During the school year 1997/98 the Programme of Compensatory Education had an increase in Teachers of Support of 28.47%.



Actions of educationa lcompensation in centres

This kind of actions were devoted to support the schooling and educational attention of students coming from unfavoured social sectors and from ethnic or cultural minorities in situation of socio-educational disadvantage. Within this line of action, Teachers, Technical Teachers of Vocational Training and Technical Teachers of Services to the Community were assigned to the centres. Furthermore, complementary economic assignations were proceded to be verified.

The Educational and Curricular of the teaching centres and the Annual General Programming should integrate the Annual Plans of Educational Compensation, in which the objectives, the organisational models adopted and the provision of activities Developer in the area of internal and external compensation were detailed, such as: a) activities of support devoted to the acquisition of communicative competencies of the autochthonous language; b) activities of support devoted to the acquisition and reinforcement of basic instrumental skills; c) programmes of cognitive development; d) programmes of development of social skills; e) programmes to favour the socio-affective insertion of the student; f) activities devoted to favour the continuity and regularity of schooling; g) programmes of mediation and co-ordination with the environment to promote participation of the students in disadvantage and their families in the centre.

During the school year 1997/98, the Pre-school and Primary Education Schools increased in 11.26% and the Secondary Education Institutes increased in 37.22%, which developed actions of educational compensation. Below the figures of the centres, teachers and students, attended in centres of the area managed by MEC during the school year 1997/98 (the data from the Autonomous Community of the Balearic Islands are excluded):



INFORMACIÓN GENERAL
Tabla 1: Evolución del alumnado extranjero en Enseñanza no Universitaria. Aragón. Cursos: 2000/2001 a 2005/2006.

Fuente: Servicio de Estudios CAI, según datos del Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia, Estadísticas de Enseñanzas no Universitarias. Cursos:



2000/2001 a 2005/2006. Datos Avance del curso académico 2005-2006

Gráfico 2: Alumnado extranjero según continente de procedencia. Aragón. Curso 2005-2006.




Theme 2: Active inclusion in the labour market

Single parents


What are the actions undertaken/services provided to meet migrants’ needs in relation to this theme and what are the results obtained so far?

This is a theme that not only includes immigrants but also the local population. Over the last 10 years the percentage of single parents has increased from 16% to 24%

The number of single mothers is 4 times higher than singles fathers
There are not much actions or services specially located in the region of Aragon to provide those needs.
There are some services set up for the whole country like the ´´cheque bebe´´ in which single mothers big families and families who have children with an handicap get an amount of 3.500 euros for every newborn baby.
In the region of Aragon we can find day care centres and information centres in which single parents can ask for specific information.

Then there are special student exchange programmes and summer camps.



Also there are federations like Asociaciones de Madres Solteras who organise jornadas para madres solteras. The lack of services is not only a problem for immigrants but also for the local population



What are the priority needs not met by these services/actions?

The lack of day-care centres and fulltime primary schools those factors make it almost impossible to work all day. It is very important to find a solution to these problems.





Theme 2: Active inclusion in the labour market

Women migrants


What are the actions undertaken/services provided to meet migrants’ needs in relation to this theme and what are the results obtained so far?


One of the projects to provided to meet migrants needs is an Integrated project for the promotion of female employment,


It consists of offering assistance to the employers and/or autonomous workers who can generate female employment, this assistance can be: non-recoverable funds per employment generated, grants for training and even grants for the construction and assembly of the companies.
The Integrated Project for the promotion of employment for young people is similar to the one mentioned above: It is similar to the previous measure and besides, it is complementary of the male part that the female employment does not cover.

There exist specific services for women, to which immigrant women can have access, whatever their administrative situation is. In these resources, they offer: legal assistance, psychological support, accommodation in emergency situation and temporary accommodation flats.



http://portal.aragob.es/pls/portal30/docs/FOLDER/INMIGRACION/GUIA/ZARAGOZA/MUJER.PDF




One of the projects to provided to meet migrants needs is:

10 years ago 35 % of the female population was working, nowadays it is 56 %. Also the feminine migrant population increased from 0,54% to 6,66%

--- 60% immigrant women received and admitted in Spain come over to work in domestic service, according to Marisela Padrón, director of the division of Latin America and Caribbean of the Fondo de Población de Naciones Unidas (UINFPA)




  • They usually receive lower wages than men.

  • A lot of them work in Spain in domestic service.

  • Very often they have more obstacles than men to have access to other jobs, which make them fall into labour and sex exploitation networks.

After weapon traffic and drug-dealing, the third most lucrative business is sexual trade

About the origins of migrants (women as well as men). The people who migrate are not the poorest or the less educationally trained ones. One of the problems in developing countries in the loss of human labour force, which means that there are many trained people in their original countries who later migrate to developed countries , where they are better paid. Domestic servants have a special regime that results cheaper for their bosses, but offers fewer benefits. To carry out their activities, these women must enrol the Special Regime of Domestic Servants, cheaper for the employer for the payment of contributions, although with fewer benefits for the employee.

Furthermore, they do not get unemployment benefits, they only receive an extraordinary payment per year and the minimum wage is 513 euros per month for a whole day. According to regulation, the weekly rest is a day and a half. As for advantages, they can give up their job with a seven-day notice.

In case of working without contract, the affected woman could make a claim.




What are the priority needs not met by these services/actions?

It is very important to provide services like day-care centres and full time primary schools.


It is also very important the implementation of the measures put forward in the section of single-parent families regarding continuous school day or nurseries.
Several women emigrated associations are working on this themes:
Asociación de Mujeres Africanas de Zaragoza (AMAZ) 01-Z-3367-1994 Zaragoza

Asociación de Mujeres Árabes "Salam" (AMA SALAM) 05-Z-0286-2001 Zaragoza

Asociación de Mujeres Gambiana "Yagarú" 05-Z-0391-2004 Zaragoza

Asociación de Mujeres Inmigrantes de la Provincia de Huesca 05-H-0049-2003 Huesca
On the other side, in Zaragoza the municipal activities includes sepecifically inmigrant women:

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