Literature for examination topics §11 Introductory Works

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§17 Corpora of English
A corpus is a body of textual material (sometimes of spoken data) which has been collected on the basis of some pre-defined criteria and which is available in electronic form (typically on CD-ROM or via the internet). Corpora from academic circles are usually available from the university whose staff compiled them and are intended to assist scholars in backing up their statements about language with statistics drawn from real data.

The criteria used when assembling a corpus can vary. The main division is between synchronic and diachronic corpora. The next factor to consider is the text type: spoken or written medium. If the latter, what kind or kinds of literary genre are to be included? What chronological range is the corpus to cover (in the case of a diachronic corpus)? The final issue is the size of the corpus. With recent developments in computing it is possible to process large quantities of data with ease even on personal computers. There is an adage in electronic data processing: the more data one has, the more reliable one's statistics turn out to be, all other factors being equal. For this reason corpora are getting larger and larger and the results achieved are becoming increasingly accurate.

Synchronic corpora The first electronic corpora were synchronic, i.e. they covered some range of contemporary English. The original corpus in this field is the Brown Corpus, compiled by W. Nelson Francis and Henry Kucera at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island in 1961 and which included about 1,000,000 words from various sources including newspaper texts. Two other majors corpora are the London-Lund Corpus of spoken English, connected with the much larger Survey of English Usage project, started in 1959, at the University of London under the directorship of Randolph Quirk, and the Lancaster-Oslo-Bergen Corpus (connected with the University of Lancaster and Geoffrey Leech). The University of Birmingham also compiled a major corpus (under the directorship of John Sinclair) which was used for the COBUILD dictionary and grammar published by Collins in London. Corpora on a larger scale have recently been started. Two major examples of these are the International Corpus of English (until recently under the directorship of the late Sidney Greenbaum) and the British National Corpus, started in 1991 with various publishers and universities and targeting 100,000,000 words with some of this stemming from transcriptions of spoken speech. These corpora are different in scope, the former aiming at covering all the national varieties of English. Both are considerably larger than their predecessors and are projected to contain scores of millions of words.
Diachronic corpora In the sense of collected texts of diachronic English in printed form, diachronic corpora have existed for at least a century, cf. the editions of key historical works published by the Early English Text Society. In the last two decades plans have been made for electronic corpora covering historical English. The most well-known of these is the Helsinki Corpus of English Texts. The Penn-Helsinki Parsed Corpus of Middle English is based on a part of the Helsinki Corpus and has grammatical information included in the form of the corpus distributed to researchers. There are also various other, more specialised corpora available from the University of Helsinki, such as a corpus of medical texts and one of early English correspondence.

The information contained in a diachronic corpus might be lexicographical as with the Dictionary of Old English Corpus, the Early Modern English Dictionaries Corpus (both Toronto) and the Historical Thesaurus of English (London). It might be specific to a certain genre as with the Corpus of Early English Correspondence (Helsinki) and the Zurich English Newspaper Corpus or indeed be confined to a single author as with the Oxford Shakespeare Corpus. In yet other cases the limits may be defined by a certain period as with the ICAMET (International Computer Archive of Middle English Texts, Innsbruck) and the Lampeter Corpus of Early Modern English Texts (Chemnitz) or by a given region as with the Helsinki Corpus of Older Scots. Many of these corpora are in the process of completion at the universities of the cities indicated in their titles or in parentheses after the name.

§18 Journals of linguistics
American Speech A Quarterly of Linguistic Usage, Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 1925/26-

Anglia Journal for English philology, Tübingen, 1878-

Anglo-Saxon England Cambridge, 1972-

Annual Review of Applied Linguistics Cambridge, 1980-

Anthropological Linguistics Indiana University, Anthropology Department, Bloomington, Indiana, 1959-

Applied Linguistics Oxford, 1979-

Applied Psycholinguistics Cambridge, 1979-

Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik Tübingen, 1976-

Archiv für das Studium der neueren Sprachen und Literaturen Berlin, 1846-

Beiträge zur Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaft Münster, 1991-

Beiträge zur Namensforschung Heidelberg, 1949/50-

Bilingualism. Language and Cognition Cambridge, 1998-

Brain and Language New York, 1974-

Canadian Journal of Linguistics / La Revue Canadienne de Linguistique Toronto, 1954/5-

Clinical Linguistics and Phonetics London, 1987-

Cognitive Linguistics Berlin, 1990-

Computers and the Humanities Dordrecht

Diachronica International Journal for Historical Linguistics, 1984-

Die Neueren Sprachen, Frankfurt on Main, 1952: New Series, 1-

Die Sprache Journal for Linguistics, Wien, 1949-

ELT Journal An International Journal for Teachers of English to Speakers of other Languages, Oxford, 1946-

English for Specific Purposes Amsterdam

English Language and Linguistics Cambridge, 1997-

English Studies A Journal of English Language and Literature, Lisse, 1919-

English Today The International Review of the English Language, Cambridge, 1985-

English World-Wide A Journal of Varieties of English, Heidelberg, later Amsterdam, 1980-

Evolution of Communication Amsterdam, 1997-

Folia Linguistica Acta Societatis Linguisticae Europaeae. Den Haag, later Berlin, 1967-

Folia Linguistica Historica Acta Societatis Linguisticae Europaeae, Berlin, 1981-

Foundations of Language International Journal of Language and Philosophy. Dordrecht, 1965-1976: 1-14.

General Linguistics University Park, Pennsylvania, 1955-

Germanistische Linguistik Hildesheim, 1969/1979-

Glossa An International Journal of Linguistics, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C., Canada, 1967-

Historiographia Linguistica International Journal for the History of Linguistics, Amsterdam, 1974-

Historische Sprachforschung, Historical Linguistics Former title: Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung auf dem Gebiete der indogermanischen Sprachen (often abbreviated as KZ, Kuhns Zeitschrift), Göttingen, 1852-

International Journal of Corpus Linguistics Amsterdam, 1996-

International Journal of Psycholinguistics Den Haag, 1972-

International Journal of the Sociology of Language Berlin, 1974-

International Journal of Speech Technology Dordrecht, 1995

Interpreting International journal of research and practice in interpreting, Amsterdam, 1996-

IRAL International Review of Applied Linguistics in language Teaching, Heidelberg, 1963-

Journal of Child Language Cambridge, 1973-

Journal of Corpus Linguistics Amsterdam, 1997-

Journal of English and Germanic Philology Champaign, Illinois, 1887-

Journal of English Linguistics Athens, Georgia: University of Georgia, 1967-

Journal of Historical Pragmatics Amsterdam

Journal of Linguistics Cambridge, 1965-

Journal of Literary Semantics Heidelberg, 1972

Journal of Neurolinguistics An International Journal fo the Study of Language and the Brain, Amsterdam

Journal of Phonetics London, 1973-

Journal of Pidgin and Creole Languages Amsterdam

Journal of Pragmatics Amsterdam, 1977-

Journal of Psycholinguistic Research New York, 1971/72-

Journal of Semantics An International Journal for the Interdisciplinary Study of the Semantics of Natural Language, Oxford, 1982-

Journal of Sociolinguistics Oxford, 1997-

Journal of the International Phonetic Association London, 1971-

Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior New York, 1962-

Language Journal of the Linguistic Society of America, Baltimore, Maryland, 1925-

Language and Communication Amsterdam

Language and Literature Journal of the Poetics and Linguistics Association, Harlow, Essex, 1992-

Language in Society Cambridge, 1972-

Language International The magazine for the language professions, Amsterdam, 1988-

Language Learning A Journal of Applied Linguistics, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1948-

Language Problems and Language Planning Amsterdam, 1976-

Language Sciences Oxford/Amsterdam

Language Teaching The International Abstracting Journal for Language Teachers and Applied Linguistics, Cambridge, 1968-

Language Variation and Change Cambridge, 1989-

Languages in Contrast Amsterdam, 1998-

Le Maître Phonétique London, 1886-1970: 1-85 (see Journal of the IPA)

Lexicology Berlin, 1995-

Lingua International Review of General Linguistics, Amsterdam, 1947-

Linguistic Analysis New York, 1975-

Linguistic Inquiry Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1970-

Linguistic Typology Berlin, 1997-

Linguistics An International Review, Den Haag, 1963-

Linguistics and Education Amsterdam

Linguistics and Philosophy Dordrecht, 1977-

Linguistische Berichte Wiesbaden, 1969-

Literary and Linguistic Computing Oxford

Names Journal of the American Name Society, South Dakota, 1953-

Natural Language and Linguistic Theory Dordrecht, 1983-

Natural Language Semantics An International Journal of Semantics and its Interfaces in Grammar, Dordrecht, 1993-

Neophilologus Groningen and Dordrecht, 1916-

Neuphilologische Mitteilungen Bulletin of the Modern Language Society Helsinki, 1899-

Nordic Journal of Linguistics Oslo, 1978-

Orbis Bulletin International de Documentation Linguistique. Louvain, 1952-

Phonetica Basel, 1957-

Phonology Cambridge, 1984-

Poetica Journal for Linguistics and Literary Studies, München, 1967-

Poetics International Review for the Theory of Literature, Amsterdam, 1971-

Pragmatics and Cognition Amsterdam

Review of English Studies, The Quarterly Journal of English Literature and the English Language, Oxford, 1949-

Second Language Research London, 1985-

Sign Language Amsterdam

Sociolinguistica International Yearbook of European Sociolinguistics, Tübingen, 1987-

Sprachwissenschaft Heidelberg, 1976-

Studia Anglia Posnaniensia An International Review of English Studies, Poznan, 1968-

Studia Linguistica A Journal of General Linguistics, Lund, 1947- / Oxford, 1996-

Studies in Language International Journal Sponsored by the Foundation ‘Foundations of Language’, Amsterdam, 1976-

Studies in Second Language Acquisition Cambridge, 1978-

Syntax A Journal of Theoretical, Experimental, and Interdisciplinary Research, Oxford, 1998-

Target International Journal of Translation Studies, Amsterdam, 1989-

Terminology International Journal of Theoretical and Applied Issues in Specialized Communication, Amsterdam, 1989-

Text An Interdisciplinary Journal of the Study of Discourse, Berlin, 1981-

The American Journal of Semiotics Bloomington, Indiana, 1981-

The Journal of the English Place-Name Society London, 1968/69-

Theoretical Linguistics Berlin, 1974-

Transactions of the Philological Society Oxford, 1869-

Word Journal of the Linguistic Circle of New York, Worcester, Massachusetts, 1945-

Written Language and Literacy Amsterdam

Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik Berlin, 1953-

Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik Up to vol. 25 under the title Zeitschrift für Mundartforschung. Wiesbaden, 1925-

Zeitschrift für Fremdsprachenforschung Bochum, 1990-

Zeitschrift für germanistische Linguistik Berlin, 1973-

Zeitschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Linguistik Göttingen, 1971-

Zeitschrift für Phonetik, Sprachwissenschaft und Kommunikationsforschung Berlin, 1948-

Zeitschrift für Semiotik Tübingen, 1979-

Zeitschrift für Sprachwissenschaft, Göttingen, 1982-

§19 Series, collections and proceedings
Many publishing houses accommodate their books within series which they publish. The idea of a series is that it unites books which are thematically related and so facilitates the identification by potential readers and, given the fact that a series has an independent editor or editors, the responsibility for soliciting and reviewing manuscripts does not rest primarily with the publishers. If anything the number of linguistic series has been increasing in recent years, particularly with English publishing houses. The titles presented below are intended to give a representative selection rather than to be an exhaustive list; note also that some of the series are now defunct, but known for many seminal publications, e.g. Janua Linguarum (Mouton).

Articles or papers from conferences are frequently published as collections. This can be a regular feature or a single instance. In many cases the proceedings of a recurring conference are brought out by a single publisher. For example, the proceedings from the International Conference on Historical Linguistics (abbreviated as ICHL) and the equivalent conference for English historical studies, the International Conference on English Historical Linguistics (abbreviated as ICEHL) are usually published by Benjamins (Amsterdam). Another case in point is the historical series published by Mouton de Gruyter (Berlin), the titles include Historical Phonology, Historical Morphology, Historical Syntax, Historical Semantics and Word Formation, Historical Dialectology, Historical Philology. In general one can say that the organizations which concern themselves with levels of linguistics hold conferences and publish their proceedings regularly as conference volumes (for instance on phonetics, phonology, generative syntax in Europe [GLOW, Generative Linguists of the Old World], etc.).

A further form in which groups of articles are published is as a festschrift (from the German term ‘celebratory publication’) which is usually produced on the occasion of a particular birthday, often the 60th or 65th. Such a collection consists of contributions which are written by scholars associated with the individual who is to be honoured.

Mention should also be made of so-called working papers or occasional papers. These are as a rule issued by the department of a university and are intended to represent a pre-publication form of work by colleagues which is near completion. The material is usually photocopied rather than being typeset although recent improvements in technology have meant that there is little difference between the two procedures. The standard of the contents is frequently quite high and for some working papers peer review is demanded which is intended to guarantee consistent quality.

Anglistische Arbeitshefte ‘Anglistic notebooks’ (Tübingen: Niemeyer; Editors: Herbert Brekle and Wolfgang Kühlwein)

Applied Linguistics and Language Study Series (London: Longman; Editor: Christopher N.Candlin)

Blackwell Reference Library (Oxford: Blackwell)

Blackwell Textbooks in Linguistics (Oxford: Blackwell)

Cambridge Language Surveys (Cambridge: University Press; Editors: W.Sidney Allen et al.)

Cambridge Studies in Linguistics (Cambridge: University Press; Editors: W.Sidney Allen et al.)

Cambridge Textbooks in Linguistics (Cambridge: University Press; Editors: Bernard Comrie et al.)

Contributions to the Sociology of Language (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter; Editor: Joshua Fishman)

Current Issues in Linguistic Theory (Amsterdam: Benjamins; Editor: Konrad Koerner)

Current Studies in Linguistics Series (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press; Editor: Samuel Jay Keyser)

English Language Series (London: Longman; Editor: Randolph Quirk)

Fontana Modern Masters (London: Fontana; Editor: Frank Kermode)

Foundations of Language, Supplementary Series (Dordrecht: Reidel; Editors: Morris Halle et al.)

Geschichte der Sprachtheorie ‘History of linguistic theory’ (Tübingen: Narr; Editor: Peter Schmitter)

Blackwell Handbooks in Linguistics (Oxford: Blackwell Publishers)

Interface Series (London: Routledge; Editor: Ronald Carter)

Janua Linguarum (The Hague: Mouton; Editor: C.H. van Schooneveld)

Language. Culture and Cognition (Cambridge: University Press)

Language in Performance (Tübingen: Gunter Narr; Editor: Werner Hüllen)

Language in Social Life Series (London: Longman; Editor: Christopher N. Candlin)

Language in Society (Oxford: Blackwell; Editor: Peter Trudgill)

Language Workbooks (London: Routledge; Editor: Richard Hudson)

Learning about Language Series (London: Longman; Editors: Geoffrey and Mick Short)

Leeds Studies in English (Leeds: University Press)

Linguistic Theory Guides (London: Routledge)

Longman Linguistics Library (London: Longman; Editors: R. H. Robins and Geoffrey N. Leech/Martin Harris)

Lund Studies in English (Lund: University Press)

Macmillan Modern Linguistics (London: Macmillan; Editors: Noel Burton-Roberts and Andrew Spencer)

North Holland Linguistic Series (Amsterdam: North Holland; Editors: Simon C. Dik and J. G. Kooij)

Outstanding Dissertations in Linguistics (New York: Garland; Editor: Jorge Hankamer)

Oxford Readings in Philosophy (Oxford: University Press; Editor: G. J. Warnock)

Oxford Studies in Language Contact (Oxford: University Press)

Oxford Studies in Language and Gender (Oxford: University Press)

Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax (Oxford: University Press; Editor: Richard Kayne)

Oxford Studies in Sociolinguistics (Oxford: University Press)

Oxford Textbooks in Linguistics (Oxford: University Press; Editors: Keith Brown, Jim Miller and Peter Roach)

Papers from the Regional Meetings of the Chicago Linguistics Society (University of Chicago)

Pragmatics and beyond (Amsterdam: Benjamins; Editor: Hubert Cuyckens, Herman Parret and Jef Verschueren)

Publications in Language Sciences (Dordrecht: Foris; Editors: Ger Haan, Leo Wetzels and Wim Zonneveld)

Real Language Series (London: Longman; Editors: Jennifer Coates, Jenny Cheshire, Euan Reid)

Studies in Anthropological Linguistics (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter; Editors: Florian Coulmas and Jacob L. Mey)

Studies in English Language (Cambridge: University; Editor: Merja Kytö et al.)

Studies in the History of the Language Sciences (Amsterdam: Benjamins; Editor: Konrad Koerner)

Studies in Interactional Sociolinguistics (Cambridge: University Press; Editor: John J.Gumperz)

Studies in Language and Linguistics Series (London: Longman; Editors: Geoffrey and Mick Short)

Studies in Language Disability and Remediation (London: Edward Arnold; Editor: David Crystal)

Syntax and Semantics (New York: Academic Press; Various editors)

Synthese Language Library (Dordrecht: Reidel; Editors: Jaakko Hintikka et al.)

The Great Languages (London: Faber and Faber)

The Language Library (London: Edward Arnold; Editor: David Crystal)

The Language of Literature (London: Macmillan; Editor: Norman Blake)

Topics in English Linguistics (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter; Editors: Bernd Kortmann and Elizabeth Traugott)

Topics in Sociolinguistics (Dordrecht: Foris)

Transatlantic Series in Linguistics (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston; Editor: Samuel R.Levin)

Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs (Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter; Editor: Werner Winter)

Typological Studies in Language (Amsterdam: Benjamins; Editor: Thalmy Givón)

Penguin English Linguistics (Harmondsworth: Penguin; Editor: David Crystal)

Cambridge Studies in Oral and Literate Culture (Cambridge: University Press; Editors: Peter Burke and Ruth Finnegan)

Advances in Semiotics (Bloomington: Indiana University Press; Editor: Thomas A. Sebeok)

Linguistische Arbeiten ‘Linguistic studies’ (Tübingen: Niemeyer; Editors: Herbert Brekle et al.)

Varieties of English around the World, General Series and Text Series (Amsterdam: Benjamins; Editor: Manfred Görlach, Cologne; as of 1997: Edgar Schneider, Regensburg)

Language and Computers. Studies in Practical Linguistics (Amsterdam: Rodopi; Editors: Jan Aarts and Willem Meijs)

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