§35.2.3 African American Vernacular English Alleyne, Mervyn C. 1980. Comparative Afro-American. An historical-comparative study of English-based Afro-American dialects of the new world. Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma.
Bailey, Guy, Natalie Maynor and Patricia Cukor-Avila (eds) 1996. The emergence of Black English:Textsandcommentary. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Baugh, John 2000. Beyond ebonics. Linguistic pride and racial prejudice. Oxford: University Press.
Butters, Ronald R. 1989. The death of Black English. Frankfurt: Lang.
Dillard, Joey Lee 1972. Black English. Its history and usage in the United States. New York: Random House.
Dorrill, George Townsend 1986. BlackandwhitespeechintheSouthernUnitedStates:EvidencefromtheMiddleandSouthAtlanticStates. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.
Ewers, Traute 1996. The origin of American Black English. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Fasold, Ralph 1991. Tense marking in Black English. A linguistic and social analysis. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.
Green, Lisa J. 2002. African American English. A linguistic introduction. Cambridge: University Press.
Holloway, Joseph E. and Winifred K. Vass 1993. The African heritage of American English. Bloomington, IN: University of Indiana Press.
Kautzsch, Alexander 2002. The historical evolution of earlier African American English. An empirical comparison of early sources. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
Lanehart, Sonja L. (ed) 2001. Socio-cultural and historical contexts of African American English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Morgan, Marcyliena 2002. Language, discourse and power in African American culture. Cambridge: University Press.
Mufwene, Salikoko (ed.) 1993. Africanisms in Afro-American language varieties. Athens/London: University of Georgia Press.
Mufwene, Salikoko, Guy Bailey, John R.Rickford and John Baugh (eds) 1998. African American Vernacular English. An overview. London: Routledge.
Poplack, Shana (ed.) 2000. The English history of African American Vernacular English. Oxford: Blackwell.
Poplack, Shana and Sali Tagliamonte 2001. African American English in the diaspora. Oxford: Blackwell.
Rickford, John and Lisa Green 1998. African American Vernacular English. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rickford, John 1999. African American Vernacular English. Features, evolution, educational implications. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
Schneider, Edgar W. 1989. American earlier Black English. Morphological and syntactic variables. Tuscaloosa, AL: University of Alabama Press.
Smitherman, Geneva 2000. Black Talk. Words and phrases from the Hood to the Amern Corner. Revised edition. Bonston/New York: Houghton Mifflin.
Turner, Lorenzo 1969. Africanisms in the Gullah dialect. New York: Arno Press.
Wolfram, Walt and Erik R. Thomas 2002. The development of African American English. Oxford: Blackwell.
§35.2.4 Caribbean Allsopp, Richard. 1996. ADictionaryofCaribbeanEnglishusage. Oxford: University Press.
Bailey, Beryl Loftman 1966. Jamaican creole syntax. Cambridge: University Press.
Carrington, Lawrence D. 1981. St.Lucian creole. A descriptive analysis of its phonology and morpho-syntax. Hamburg: Buske.
Carrington, Lawrence D. et al. (eds) 1983. Studies in Caribbean language. St.Augustine, Trinidad: Society for Caribbean Linguistics.
Cassidy, Frederic G. 1971. JamaicanTalk.ThreehundredyearsoftheEnglishlanguageinJamaica. London: Macmillan.
Cassidy, Frederick G. and Robert B. Le Page 1967. Dictionary of Jamaican English. Cambridge: University Press.
Dalphinis, M. 1985. Caribbean and African languages. Social history, language, literature and education. London: Karia Press.
Day, Richard (ed.) 1980. Issues in English creoles. Heidelberg: Julius Groos.
Görlach, Manfred and John Holm (eds) 1986. Focus on the Caribbean. Varieties of English around the World, General Series, Vol. 8. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Hancock, Ian (ed.) 1986. Diversity and development in English-related creoles. Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma.
Holm, John (ed.) 1983. Central American English. Varieties of English around the World, Text Series, Vol. 2. Heidelberg: Groos.
Le Page, Robert B. and David DeCamp (eds) 1960. Jamaican Creole. London: Macmillan.
Niles, Norma 1980. Provincial dialects and Barbadian English. PhD thesis. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan.
Patrick, Peter 1999. Urban Jamaican creole. Variation in the mesolect. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Spears, A. K. and Donald Winford (eds) 1997. Pidgins and creoles. Structure and status. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Taylor, D. 1977. LanguagesoftheWestIndies. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
Winer, Lise 1993. Trinidad and Tobago. Varieties of English Around the World, Text Series, 6. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Winford, Donald 1993. Predication in Caribbean English creoles. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
§25.3 Africa §35.3.1 West Africa Bamgbose, A. 1973. Language and society in Nigeria. Stanford, CA: University Press.
Bamgbose, Ayo, Ayo Banjo and Thomas Andrew (eds) 1995. New Englishes. A West-African perspective. Ibadan: Mosuro/The British Council.
Berry, J. and Joseph Greenberg (eds) 1977. Linguistics in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Hague: Mouton.
Dihoff, Ivan 1984. Current approaches to African linguistics. Dordrecht: Foris.
Huber, Magnus 1999. Ghanaian Pidgin English in its West African context. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Schmied, Josef 1991. English in Africa. An introduction. London: Longman.
Schneider, Gilbert Donald 1996. West African Pidgin English. A descriptive and linguistic analysis with texts and glossary from the Cameroon area. Athens, OH: Hartford Seminary Foundation.
Spencer, John (ed.) 1971. The English language in West Africa. London: Longman.
Todd, Loreto 1981. Cameroon. Heidelberg: Groos.
Westermann, D. and M. A. Bryan 1952. The languages of West Africa. Oxford: University Press.
§35.3.2 South Africa Beeton, D. R. and Helen Dorner 1975. A dictionary of usage in Southern Africa. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.
Klerk, Vivian de 1996. Focus on South Africa. Varieties of English Around the World, General Series, Vol. 15. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Lanham, Len W. 1967. The pronunciation of South African English: A phonetic-phonemic introduction. Capetown/Amsterdam: Balkema.
Lanham, Len W. and C. A. MacDonald 1979. The standard in South African English and its social history. Varieties of English around the World, General Series, Vol.1. Heidelberg: Groos.
Maylam, P. 1986. A history of the African peoples of South Africa. London/Cape Town: Croom Helm/David Philip.
Mesthrie, Rajend (ed.) 2002. Language in South Africa. Cambridge: University Press.
Silva, Penny (ed.) 1996. AdictionaryofSouthAfricanEnglish. Oxford: University Press.
§220.127.116.11 Tristan da Cunha and the Falkland Islands Schreier, Daniel 2003. Isolation and language change: Contemporary and sociohistorical evidence from Tristan da Cunha English. Houndsworth: Palgrave Macmillan.
Schreier, Daniel, and Karen Lavarello-Schreier 2003. Tristan da Cunha: Its history, way of life and language. London: Battlebridge.
Sudbury, Andrea 2000. Dialect contact and koineisation in the Falkland Islands: Development of a Southern Hemisphere English? University of Sussex, PhD thesis.
§35.3.3 East Africa Whiteley, W. H. (ed.) 1974. Language in Kenya. Oxford: University Press.
Schmied, Josef 1985. Englisch in Tanzania. Sozio- und interlinguistische Probleme. [English in Tanzania. Sociolinguistic and contact problems] Heidelberg: Groos.
Whiteley, W. H. 1969. Swahili. The rise of a national language. London: Methuen.
§25.4 Asia Cain, P. J. and A. G. Hopkins 1993. British imperialism: Innovation and expansion 1688-1914. London: Longman.
Kachru, Braj B. (ed.) 1982. The other tongue. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
(ed.) 1994. World Englishes in contact and convergence. Special Issue of World Englishes.
Khoo, Rosemary, Ursula Kreher and Ruth Wong (eds) 1993. Towards global multilingualism: European models and asian realities. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Pennycook, Alastair 1998. English and the discourses of colonialism. London: Routledge.
Marshall, P. J. (ed.) 1996. The Cambridge Illustrated History of the British Empire. Cambridge: University Press.
Moore, B. (ed.) 2001. Who’s centric now? The state of postcolonial Englishes. Oxford: University Press.
Robinson, Francis (ed.) 1989. The Cambridge Encyclopedia of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, and the Maldives. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Thumboo, Edwin (ed.) 2001. The three circles of English. Singapore: UniPress, The Center for the Arts, National University of Singapore.
§35.4.1 South Asia Agnihotri, R. K. and A. L. Khanna (eds) 1994. Second language acquisition. Socio-cultural and linguistic aspects of English in India. New Delhi: Sage.
Baumgardner, Robert J. (ed.) 1993. The English language in Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press.
Baumgardner, Robert J. (ed.) 1996. South Asian English. Structure, use, and users. Urbana / Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Bright, William 1990 Language variation in South Asia. New York: Oxford University Press.
Dasgupta, Probal 1993. The otherness of English. India’s auntie tongue syndrome. London: Sage.
Kachru, Braj 1983. The Indianization of English. The English language in India. Delhi/Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Kachru, Braj 1990. The alchemy of English. The spread, functions, and models of non-native Englishes. English in a global context Chicago: University of Illinois Press.
Krishnaswamy, N. and Archana S. Burde 1998. The politics of Indians´ English. Linguistic colonialism and the expanding English empire. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Mehrotra, Raja Ram 1998. Indian English. Text and interpretation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Nihalani, Paroo, R. K. Tongue, Priya Hosali 1979. Indian and British English. A handbook of usage and pronunciation. Delhi: Oxford University Press.
Pattanayak, D. P. (ed.) 1990. Multilingualism in India. Philadelphia: Multilingual Matters.
Spitzbardt, H. 1976. English in India. Halle: Niemeyer.
§35.4.2 South-East Asia Afendras, Evangelos A. and Eddie C. Y. Kuo (eds) 1980. Language and society in Singapore. Singapore: University Press.
Bautista, Lourdes S. 2000. Defining standard Philippine English. Its status and grammatical features. Manila: De La Salle University Press.
Bolton, Kingsley 2003. Chinese Englishes: From Canton Jargon to Hong Kong English. Cambridge: University Press.
Bolton, Kingsley (ed.) 2002. Hong Kong English: Autonomy and creativity. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
Brown, Adam 1992. Making sense of Singapore English. Singapore: Federal Publications.
Brown, Adam 1999. Singapore English in a nutshell. Singapore: Federal Publications.
Brown, Adam, David Deterding and Low Ee Ling (eds) 2000. The English language in Singapore: Research on pronunciation. Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics.
Ferguson, Charles and John J. Gumperz (eds) 1960. Linguistic diversities in South Asia. Studies in regional, social and functional variation. Bloomington, IL: Indiana University Press.
Foley, Joseph (ed.) 1988. New Englishes. The case of Singapore. Singapore: University of Singapore Press.
Gopinathan, S. et al. (eds) 1994. Language, society and education in Singapore: Issues and trends. Singapore: Times Academic Press.
Gupta, Anthea Fraser 1994. The step-tongue. Children’s English in Singapore. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Halimah Mohd Said and Ng Keat Siew (eds) 2000. English is an Asian language: The Malaysian context. Kuala Lumpur: Persatuan Bahasa Moden Malaysia and Sydney: Macquarie Library.
Ho, Mian Lian and John Platt 1993. Dynamics of a contact continuum: Singapore English. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Kandiah, Thiru and John Kwan-Terry (eds) 1994. English and language planning. A Southeast Asian contribution. Signapore: Times Academic Press.
Llamzon, Teodoro A. 1969. Standard Filipino English. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila Press.
Mühlhäusler, Peter 1979. Growth and structure of the lexicon in of New Guinea pidgin. Canberra: Australian University Press.
Noss, Richard B. (ed.) 1983. Varieties of English in Southeast Asia. Singapore: University Press, for SEAMEO Regional Language Centre.
Ooi, Vincent B. Y. (ed.) 2001. Evolving identities: The English language in Singapore and Malaysia. Singapore: Times Academic Press.
Pakir, Anne (ed.) 1993. The English language in Singapore: Standards and norms. Singapore: University Press.
Platt, John, Heidi Weber and Mian Lian Ho 1983. Singapore and Malaysia. Varieties of English Around the World, Text Series, Vol. 4. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Tay, Mary W.J. 1993. The English language in Singapore: Issues and development. Singapore: University Press.
Whinnom, K. 1956. Spanish contact vernaculars in the Philippine Islands. Oxford: University Press.
Wurm, Stefan (ed.) 1979. New Guinea and neighboring areas: A sociolinguistic laboratory. The Hague: Mouton.
Wurm, Stefan and Peter Mühlhäusler (eds) 1985. Handbook of Tok Pisin (New Guinea Pidgin). Canberra: Australian National University.
§25.5 Australia and New Zealand §35.5.1 Australia Arthur, Jay M. 1996. Aborginal English. A cultural study. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Baker, S. J. 1966. The Australian language. 2nd edition. Sydney: Currawong Press.
Bell, Allan and Koenraad Kuiper (eds) 2000. New Zealand English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Blair, David and Peter Collins (eds) 2001. English in Australia. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Burridge, Kate and Jean Mulder 1998. English in Australia and New Zealand. An introduction to its history, structure and use. Oxford: University Press.
Clyne, Michael (ed.) 1976. Australia talks: Essays on the sociology of Australian immigrant and aboriginal languages. Canberra: National University Press.
Collins, Peter and David Blair (eds) 1989. Australian English. The language of a new society. Brisbane: University of Queensland Press.
Dixon, Richard M. W., William S. Ramson and Mandy Thomas 1990. Australian aboriginal words in English. Their origin and meaning. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Hammarström, Göran 1980. Australian English. Its origin and status. Hamburg: Buske.
Horvath, Barbara M. 1985. Variation in Australian English. The sociolects of Sydney. Cambridge: University Press.
Hughes, J. M. 1989. Australian words and their origins. Melbourne: Oxford University Press.
Mitchell, A. G. and A. Delbridge 1965. The pronunciation of English in Australia. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.
Mitchell, A. G. 1965. The speech of Australian adolescents. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.
Ramson, William S. 1966. AustralianEnglish:Anhistoricalstudyofthevocabulary,1788-1898. Canberra: National University Press.
Robinson, Julia (ed.) 2001. Voices of Queensland. Oxford: University Press.
Romaine, Suzanne (ed.) 1991. Language in Australia. Cambridge: University Press.
Turner, George W. 1972. The English language in Australia and New Zealand. 2nd edition. London: Longman.
§35.5.2 New Zealand Bell, Allan and Janet Holmes (eds) 1990. New Zealand ways of speaking English. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Bell, Allan and Koenraad Kuiper (eds) 2000. New Zealand English. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Gordon, Elizabeth and Tony Deverson 1998. New Zealand English and English in New Zealand. Auckland: New House Publishers.
Gordon, Elizabeth, Lyle Campbell, Jennifer Hay, Margaret MacLagan, Andrea Sudbury and Peter Trudgill. in press. The origins and development of New Zealand English. Cambridge: University Press.
Hundt, Marianne 1998. NewZealandEnglishgrammar.Factorfiction. Varieties of English Around the World, G23. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
§35.5.3 The Pacific region Long, Daniel (ed.) 1998. The linguistic culture of the Ogasawara Islands. Japanese Language Centre Research Reports 6. Osaka: Shoin Women’s College.
Mühlhäusler, Peter 1996. Linguistic ecology. Language change and linguistic imperialism in the Pacific region. London: Routledge.
Reinecke, John E. 1969. Language and dialect in Hawaii. A sociolinguistic history to 1935. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.
Ross, A. S. C. and A.W. Moverley 1964. The Pitcairnese language. New York: Oxford University Press.
Siegel, Jeffrey 1987. Language contact in a plantation environment. A sociolinguistic history of Fiji. Cambridge: University Press.
§16 Dictionaries, grammars and corpora There is at present a large range of dictionaries on the market. The major publishers, such as Oxford University Press, produce new dictionaries on an almost yearly basis. The material contained in these is, however, not necessarily different in each case. Most of the various dictionaries are targeted at the ever increasing market of foreign learners of English.
The remarks below are intended to convey some impression of what dictionaries can be recommended for use if readers wish to consult basically different compilations. There are a number of criteria along which one can divide dictionaries depending on what material they contain and how this is presented. Apart from the actual size of the dictionary (this is nearly always specified on the jacket in numbers of words) the most fundamental criteria are the following.
Range of information Is the coverage of the dictionary encyclopedic or merely linguistic? Are there are etymologies given? Is there any historical information provided? Are foreign words included generously? Is pictorial information also included? How much grammatical information is provided?
Stylistic information Are tags concerning language usage offered? Do the compilers distinguish registers, e.g. written, formal, colloquial, vulgar?
Source of data Are quotations offered as sources of definitions? If so, are these largely literary, journalistic, conversational? Is the dictionary based on an actual corpus?
Varieties of English Most English dictionaries tend to be based on British or American English usage. Sometimes those which cover the former will specify when a word or phrase is confined to American English.
Oxford University Press publishes a wide range of dictionaries all of which are derivates of a few basic types. The largest and original one is simply termed the OxfordEnglishDictionary and itself goes back to the AnewEnglishdictionaryonhistoricalprinciples which was started by the Scottish lexicographer Sir James Murray (1837-1915) and finally published in 1928 and 1933. A supplement to this was produced between 1972 and 1986 in four volumes under the guidance of Robert W. Burchfield. A second edition of this dictionary (1989) is available in three formats: in 13 volumes, in 2 volumes in condensed print and on a CD-ROM (version 3 was made available in 2002). The two other main dictionaries produced by Oxford University Press and 1) TheShorterOxfordDictionary and 2) TheConciseDictionary (10th edition, 2000, also available on CD-ROM), both monolingual dictionaries with historical information.
Oxford University Press also publishes some specialised dictionaries, such as the OxfordDictionaryofEnglishEtymology, the OxfordStudyThesaurus or the OxfordDictionaryofQuotations, and related works, such as guide to English usage, as well as the AdvancedLearner'sDictionary (compiled by A. S. Hornby) and a bilingual dictionary (1990, by Werner Scholze-Stubenrecht and John Sykesin) co-operation with the Duden Verlag, all of which are of value to the student of English.
Longman This is the oldest commercial publisher in England which was found in 1724 by Thomas Longman from Bristol. Over the past three centuries Longman has been responsible for publishing a number of outstanding dictionaries and related works such as Bailey's EtymologicalDictionary (1728) as well Dr. Johnson's Dictionary (1755). Longman has also published Roget's Thesaurus. Nowadays Longman publish TheDictionaryofContemporaryEnglish which is intended for advanced learners of English. The latest version 4 has been available on CD-ROM since 2003. There is also a recent dictionary specifically intended for language learners, the Longman Interactive English Dictionary. The publishers also produce a Longman Dictionary of American English and a Longman Advanced American Dictionary.
Collins An originally Scottish publishing house, Collins has become important in recent years through their production of the COBUILD (CollinsBirminghamUniversityInternationalLanguageDatabase) Dictionary (1987) compiled under the editorship of John Sinclair. This is derived from a corpus of real English compiled at the University of Birmingham (the dictionary is also available on CD-ROM). All definitions are backed up by quotations from the database with additional grammatical comments where appropriate. The dictionary is entirely synchronic in its approach. A by-product of the COBUILD project has been the CollinsCOBUILDEnglishGrammar (1990) which like the dictionary is based on actually English usage as documented in the Birmingham database.
Chambers This is another Scottish publishing house which has been associated with both an etymological and a general dictionary of the English language. The former has gone through many expansions and revisions, see Etymological dictionaries below. The general dicitionary is available as Chambers 21st century dictionary (1996, editors: Mairi Robinson and George Davidson). There is also a dictionary of synonyms, again see relevant section below.
Cambridge University Press has not traditionally been associated with the publishing of dictionaries but it has produced in the last few years a substantial one volume dictionary intended for international use, the CambridgeInternationalDictionaryofEnglish (1995, also available on CD-ROM).
American English The main lexicographer of American English is Noah Webster (1758-1843) and his name stands for quality in American lexicography even though the dictionaries which appear with his name have nothing to do with the historical figure Webster.
1976 Webster’sThirdNewInternationalDictionaryofthe EnglishLanguage Springfield, Mass.: Merriam.
Ehrlich, Eugene et al. (eds) 1980. TheOxfordAmericandictionary. Oxford: University Press.
Stein, Jess and Laurence Urdang 1969. TheRandomHouseDictionary. 3rd edition. New York: Random House.
Thesauri A thesaurus is basically a dictionary of synonyms and antonyms. The most famous on in English is that by Peter Roget which was first published in the mid 19th century and which has been revised many times since. The history of this work is treated in Werner Hüllen 2004. A history of Roget’s Thesaurus. Origins, developments, and design. Oxford: University Press.
Hayakawa, S. I. and Paul Fletcher 1987 . ThePenguinmodernguidetosynonymsandrelated words. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Manser, Martin H. 1997. Chambers dictionary of synonyms and antonyms. Edinburgh: Chambers.
Roget, Peter Mark 1987 . Roget'sThesaurusofsynonymsandantonyms. Revised edition by B. Kirkpatrick Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Spooner, Alan 1991. The Oxford study thesaurus. Oxford: University Press.
Specialist dictionaries Apart from straightforward dictionaries arranged in alphabetical order and covering the entire language there are many works with selective contents or a particular approach.
Ayto, John and John Simpson 1992. Dictionary of modern slang. Oxford: University Press.
Bliss, Alan J. 1966. Adictionaryofforeignwordsandphrases. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Ekwall, Eilert 1960 . TheconciseOxforddictionaryofEnglishplace-names. 4th edition. Oxford: University Press.
Lehnert, Martin 1971. Reversedictionaryofpresent-dayEnglish. Leipzig: Verlag Enzyklopädie.
Pointon, G. E. 1983. BBCPronouncingDictionaryofBritishNames. 2nd edition. Oxford: University Press.
Pointon, G. E. 1993. Longman Language Activator. The world's first production dictionary. London: Longman.
Pronouncing dictionaries The most widespread dictionary for the pronunciation of English is that by Jones, revised by Gimson. The more recent one by Wells is a valuable alternative. The reference variety is in each case Received Pronunciation; with Kenyon and Knott it is General American.
Jones, Daniel and Alexander C. Gimson 1977. Englishpronouncingdictionary. 14th edition. London: Dent.
Kenyon, John S. and Thomas A. Knott 1982. ApronouncingdictionaryofAmericanEnglish. 4th edition. London: Longman.
Wells, John 1989. Longmanpronouncingdictionary. London: Longman.
Etymological dictionaries These dictionaries deal specifically with the origins of words. They are restricted in the number of items they encompass but give very detailed information about the historical derivation of words and their cognates in other languages. In addition to etymological dictionaries there are ones which deal with specific periods of English, notably the dictionaries for Old and English mentioned below. A relevant study of early dictionary of English is Werner Hüllen 1999. English dictionaries 800-1700. The topical tradition. Oxford: University Press.
Macdonald, A. M. 1971. ChambersetymologicalEnglishdictionary. Edinburgh: Chambers.
Onions, C. T. (ed.) 1966. TheOxforddictionaryofEnglishetymology. Oxford: University Press.
Partridge, Eric and Jacqueline Simpson 1980. ThePenguindictionaryofhistoricalslang. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
Skeat, Walter W. 1882. AnetymologydictionaryoftheEnglishlanguage. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
Bosworth, Joseph and T. N. Toller 1898. AnAnglo-Saxondictionary (many revisions well into this century).
Rothwell, William et al. 1992. Anglo-Normandictionary. London: The Modern Humanities Research Association.
MiddleEnglishDictionary (1952- ) Ten volumes up to the letter S in 1989. University of Michigan Press.
Old English Dictionary (1969- ) Bases on the entire computerised corpus of Old English texts. University of Toronto.
Recent developments There are a number of books which are dedicated to new words which have arisen in English or have been borrowed into the language in recent decades.
Algeo, John (ed.) 1993. Fifty years among the new words. Cambridge: University Press.
Ayto, John. 1999. Twentieth century words. The story of the new words in English over the last hundred years. Oxford: University Press.
Knowles, Elizabeth and Julia Elliott 1998. The Oxford dictionary of new words. Oxford: University Press.
Phythian, B. A. 1996. A concise dictionary of new words. Completed by Richard Cox. London, Hodder and Stoughton.
Thompson, Della (ed.) 1992. The Oxford dictionary of current English. 2nd edition. Oxford: University Press.
Two relevant linguistic studies of English vocabulary are the following:
Hughes, Geoffrey. 2000. A history of English words. Oxford: Blackwell.
Stockwell, Robert and Donka Minkova 2001. English words. History and structure. Oxford: University Press.
Lexicography The following books are about the problems and peculiarities of writing dictionaries and about the science of etymology from the perspective of the linguists.
Bailey, Richard W. 1987. DictionariesofEnglish. Prospectsfortherecordofour language. Cambridge: University Press.
Bammesberger, Alfred 1984. Englishetymology. Heidelberg: Carl Winter.
Burchfield, Robert 1987. Studiesinlexicography. Oxford: University Press.
Holthausen, Friedrich 1974. AltenglischesetymologischesWörterbuch. 2nd edition. Heidelberg: Winter.
Ross, Alan S. C. 1958. EtymologywithspecialreferencetoEnglish. London: André Deutsch.
Schäfer, Jürgen 1989. EarlymodernEnglishlexicography. 2Vols. Oxford: University Press.
Guides to English usage The works mentioned here are a kind of half-way house between a dictionary and a grammar. The consist of brief paragraphs on trick questions of use and style and are intended to be consulted randomly like a dictionary rather than being read like a book.
Dear, I. C. B. 1986. OxfordEnglish. Aguidetothelanguage. Oxford: University Press.
Greenbaum, Sidney and Janet Whitcut 1988. LongmanguidetoEnglishusage. London: Longman.
Hill Long, Thomas 1979. LongmandictionaryofEnglishidioms. London: Longman.
Speake, Jennifer 1999. Dictionary of idioms. Oxford: University Press.
Weiner, Edmund 1984. TheOxfordguidetotheEnglishlanguage. Oxford: University Press.
Grammars These come in all shapes and sizes. They range from the highly theoretical to the very practical. The former have the disadvantage of assuming a model of linguistics with which the reader may not be au fait to begin with. The latter are no doubt useful but often miss out on generalisations concerning the language being described. The works listed below are on the whole of the second type with a certain amount of linguistic theory to provide a solid foundation. They are suited for advanced learners of English with some knowledge of linguistics.
Alexander, L. G. 1988. LongmanEnglishgrammar. London: Longman.
Alexander, L. G. 1988. Longmanadvancedgrammar. London: Longman.
Bache, Carl 2000. Essentials of mastering English. A concise grammar. Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter.
Biber, Douglas, Stig Johansson, Geoffrey Leech, Susan Conrad and Edward Finegan 1999. Longman grammar of spoken and written English. London: Longman Publications Group.
Börjars, Kersti and Kate Burridge 2001. Introducing English grammar. London: Arnold.