Literature for examination topics §11 Introductory Works



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Literature for examination topics

§11 Introductory Works
The purpose of the present section is to make some recommendations for further reading which students can follow up for themselves. Particularly in the area of introductions to language there are a large number of works available and new books on the subject come out at least on a yearly basis. For this reason it is not possible to mention all. In order to facilitate the choice of a book for a given level or area some sections are preceded by a brief paragraph in which the main concerns and questions are listed in summary form and occasional recommendations are made.
§21.0 Introductions
Introductory books on linguistics generally start with a chapter intended to heighten the reader’s awareness of language. The issues discussed are usually the nature of language and the task of delimiting it from other communication systems, homing in on the essential features of human language and examining definitions which have been offered in previous literature. Furthermore, many authors begin by clearing up with erroneous notions and misconceptions which lay people all too often have about language and by introducing basic terminology needed for linguistic discussions. Some introductions choose this opportunity to deal with the origins of language, though this might be touched on in a later chapter, if at all. A special study of this question in very readable form is to be found in Aitchison (1996).

An explanation of how the linguist views the structure of language — the various linguistic levels — can be expected here; in addition one may often find a discussion of linguistic theory, especially if the introduction is intended to demonstrate linguistic principles within the framework of a certain model such as that of generative grammar.

Introductions to linguistics make a basic distinction between levels, which concern the structure of language, and branches (fields or areas), which address themes in the use of language. The levels discussed should include phonetics/phonology, morphology/lexicology, syntax, semantics/pragmatics The fields of linguistics which one can expect to be touched on are sociolinguistics, psycholinguistics (with language acquisition as the central concern) and language change. Varieties of language may also be dealt with and pidgins and creoles may be mentioned here as well. Elementary books may also sketch the various schools of linguistics which have arisen over the past two centuries. At least three are normally recognised: 1) neogrammarianism (historical linguistics — Indo-European studies); 2) structuralism (Saussure; Sapir, Bloomfield); 3) generativism (Chomsky and his followers; this direction might be contrasted with recent other proposals, particularly with functional-typological approaches).
Aronoff, Mark and Janie Rees-Miller (eds) 2002. The handbook of linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell.

Cowan, William and J. Rakusan 1999. Source book for linguistics. 3rd edition. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Finch, Geoff 1997. How to study linguistics. London: Macmillan.

Finnegan, Edward and N. Besnier 1994. Language. Its structure and use. 2nd edition. Fort Worth/New York: Harcourt Brace College Publishers.

Fromkin, Victoria and Robert Rodman 1998. An introduction to language. 6th edition. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Fromkin, Victoria (ed.) 2000. Linguistics. An introduction to linguistic theory. Oxford: Blackwell.

Graddol, David, Jenny Cheshire and Joan Swan 1994. Describing language. 2nd edition. Buckingham: Open University Press.

Hudson, Grover 1999. Essential introductory linguistics. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Newmeyer, Frederick J. (ed.) 1988. Linguistics: The Cambridge survey. Vol. 1 - Linguistic theory: Foundations. Vol. 2 - Linguistic theory: Extensions and implications. Vol. 3 - Vol. 4 - The socio-cultural context. Cambridge: University Press.

Poole, Stuart C. 1999. An introduction to linguistics. London: Macmillan.

Radford, Andrew, Martin Atkinson, David Britain, Harald Clahsen, Andrew Spencer 1999. Linguistics. An introduction. Cambridge: University Press.

Trask, Robert Lawrence 1995. Language. The basics. London: Routledge.

Widdowson, Henry G. 1998. Linguistics. Oxford Introductions to Language Study. Oxford: University Press.

Matthews, P. H. 2003. Linguistics. A very short introduction. Oxford: University Press.


§21.1 Dictionaries of Linguistics
For the student of English linguistics the best reference works are definitely by Crystal and McArthur as these contain much specific information on English (both on the history and on present-day varieties).
Bright, William (ed.) 1992. International encyclopedia of linguistics. 4 vols. New York: Oxford University Press.

Bußmann, Hadumod, Gregory P. Trauth and Kerstin Kazzazi 1995. Dictionary of language and linguistics. London: Routledge.

Crystal, David 2002. A dictionary of linguistics and phonetics. 5th edition. Oxford: Blackwell.

Crystal, David 1995. The Cambridge encyclopedia of the English language. Cambridge: University Press.

Crystal, David 1992. An encyclopaedic dictionary of language and languages. Oxford: Blackwell.

Finch, Geoff 1999. Linguistic terms and criticism. London: Macmillan.

Matthews, Peter H. 1997. The concise Oxford dictionary of linguistics. Oxford: University Press.

McArthur, Tom 1992. The Oxford companion to the English language. Oxford: University Press.

Trask, R. L. 2000. Dictionary of historical and comparative linguistics. Edinburgh: University Press.

Trask, Robert Lawrence 1998. Key concepts in language and linguistics. London: Routledge.

Trask, Robert Lawrence 1997. A student’s dictionary of language and linguistics. London: Arnold.
§21.2 History of Linguistics
Embleton, Sheila, John E. Joseph and Hans-Josef Niederehe (eds) 2000. The emergence of the modern language sciences. 2 vols. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Koerner, K. F. K. 2000. Linguistic historiography. Projects and prospects. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Matthews, Peter 2001. A short history of structural linguistics. Cambridge: University Press.

Robins, Robert 1997. A short history of linguistics. 4th edition. London: Longman.


§21.3 Biographical Studies
Armstrong, Daniel and C. H. van Schooneveld (eds) 1977. Roman Jakobson. Echoes of his scholarship. Lisse: Peter de Ridder Press.

Brown, Keith and Vivien Law (eds) 2002. Linguistics. Personal histories. Oxford: Blackwell.

Culler, Jonathan 1986. Saussure. Fontana Modern Masters London: Fontana.

Haley, Michael C. 1993. Noam Chomsky. New York: Twayne.

Harris, Roy 2003. Saussure and his interpreters. 2nd edition. Edinburgh: University Press.

Lyons, John 1972. Chomsky. Fontana Modern Masters London: Fontana.

Smith, Neil 1999. Chomsky. Ideas and ideals. Cambridge: University Press.
§21.4 The Basis for Language
This section contains book which are about the origins of language in the human species. The development of language with the individual is a concern of psycholinguistics (see relevant section below). Here you will also finds books about the basic organisational principles of human language.
Aitchison, Jean 1996. The seeds of speech. Language origin and evolution. Cambridge: University Press.

Baker, Mark 2002. The atoms of language. The mind’s hidden rules of grammar. Oxford: University Press.

Carstairs-McCarthy, Andrew 1999. The origins of complex language. An inquiry into the evolutionary beginnings of sentences, syllables and truth. Oxford: University Press.

Fox, Chris 2000. The ontology of language. Properties, individuals and discourse. Cambridge: University Press.

Gopnik, Myrna 1998. The inheritance and innateness of grammars. Oxford: University Press.

Grossenbacher, Peter G. (ed.) 2000. Finding consciousness in the brain. A neurocognitive approach. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Jackendoff, Ray 2003. Foundations of language. Brain, meaning, grammar, evolution. Oxford: University Press.

Jenkins, Lyle 2000. Biolinguistics. Exploring the biology of language. Cambridge: University Press.

Jones, Steve, Robert Martin and David Pilbeam (eds) 1992. The Cambridge encyclopedia of human evolution. Cambridge: University Press.

Knight, Chris, Michael Suddert-Kennedy and James Hurford (eds) 2000. The evolutionary emergence of language. Social function and the origins of linguistic form. Cambridge: University Press.

Pinker, Steven 1999. Words and rules: The ingredients of language. London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson.

Trabant, Jürgen and Sean Ward 2001. New essays on the origins of language. Berlin: Mouton-de Gruyter.


§21.5 Anthologies and collections
Apart from reading a complete textbook on linguistics students may choose to consult a collection of essays on linguistics or a selection of representative texts on the subject from authorities in the field (an anthology). There are not very many of these — compared with literature for example, but those which exist are worth looking at for useful and appropriate material. Many anthologies are restricted to a linguistic level or a field of investigation which in fact heightens their usefulness because of the depth of coverage possible with such specialisation. Below a small selection is offered.
Aarts, Bas, David Denison, Evelien Keizer and Gergana Popova (eds) 2004. Fuzzy grammar. A reader. Oxford: University Press.

Bright, William (ed.) 1992. International encyclopedia of linguistics. 4 Vols. New York: Oxford University Press.

Cameron, Deborah (ed.) 1990. The feminist critique of language. A reader. London: Routledge.

Cheshire, Jenny and Peter Trudgill (eds) 1998. The sociolinguistics reader. Vol. 1: Multilingualism and variation. Vol. 2: Gender and discourse. London: Arnold.

Clark, Virginia P., Paul A.Eschholz and Alfred E. Rosa 1994. Language. Introductory readings. 5th edition. London: Macmillan.

Coates, Jennifer 1997. Language and gender. A reader. Oxford: Blackwell.

Collinge, N. E. (ed.) 1990. An encyclopedia of language. London: Routledge.

Duranti, Alessandro 2000. Linguistic anthropology. A reader. Oxford: Blackwell.

Fishman, Joshua (ed.) 1968. Readings in the sociology of language. The Hague: Mouton.

Frawley, William 2003. International encyclopedia of linguistics. Oxford: University Press.

Godel, Robert 1969. A Geneva school reader in linguistics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Hamp, Eric P., Fred W. Householder and Robert Austerlitz (eds) 1966. Readings in linguistics II. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Hatch, Evelyn M. (ed.) 1978. Second language acquisition. A book of readings. Rowley, Mass.: Newbury House.

Hoffmann, Ludger (ed.) 1996. Sprachwissenschaft. Ein Reader. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Innis, Robert E. (ed.) 1985. Semiotics. An introductory anthology. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Jaworski, Adam and Nikolas Coupland (eds) 1999. The discourse reader. London: Routledge.

Jones, W. E. and John Laver (eds) 1973. Phonetics in linguistics. A book of readings. London: Longmans.

Joos, Martin (ed.) 1966 [1957]. Readings in linguistics I. The development of descriptive linguistics in America 1925-56. 4th edition. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Keiler, Alan R. (ed.) 1972. A reader in historical and comparative linguistics. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Lehmann, Winfred P. 1967. A reader in nineteenth-century historical Indo-European linguistics. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Malmkjær, Kirsten (ed.) 1991. The linguistics encyclopedia. London: Routledge.

Newmeyer, Frederick J. (ed.) 1988. Linguistics: The Cambridge survey. Vol. I - Linguistic theory: Foundations. Vol. II - Linguistic theory: Extensions and implications. Vol.III - Vol. IV - The socio-cultural context. Cambridge: University Press.

Saporta, Sol (ed.) 1961. Psycholinguistics. A book of readings. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.

Sebeok, Thomas A. 1963-1976. Current trends in linguistics. 14 vols. The Hague: Mouton.

Weber, Jean Jacques 1996. The stylistics reader. From Roman Jakobson to the present. London: Arnold.

Wei, Li (ed.) 2000. The bilingualism reader. London: Routledge.


§21.4 Languages of the world
Abondolo, Daniel (ed.) 1996. The Uralic languages. London: Routledge.

Asher, R. E. and Christopher Moseley (eds) 1994. Atlas of the world’s languages. 10 vols. London: Routledge.

Ball, Martin J. and James Fife (ed.) 1993. The Celtic languages. London: Routledge.

Blust, R. The Austronesian languages. Cambridge: University Press.

Buck, C.D 1933. A comparative grammar of Greek and Latin. Chicago: Chicago University Press.

Campbell, George L. 1995. Concise compendium of the world’s languages. London: Routledge.

Campbell, Lyle 1998. American Indian languages. The historical linguistics of native America. Oxford: University Press.

Comrie, Bernard 1981. Languages of the Soviet Union. Cambridge: University Press.

Comrie, Bernard (ed.) 1995. The world’s major languages. London: Routledge.Comrie, Bernard and Greville G. Corbett (eds) 1993. The Slavonic languages. London: Routledge.

Comrie, Bernard, Stephen Matthews and Maria Polinsky (eds) 1996. The atlas of languages. The origin and development of languages throughout the world. London: Quarto Publishing.

Dixon, Richard M. W. 1980. The languages of Australia. Cambridge: University Press.

Foley, William A. 1986. The Papuan languages of New Guinea. Cambridge: University Press.

Fox, Anthony 2003. The structure of German. 2nd edition. Oxford: University Press.

Greenberg, Joseph 1963. The languages of Africa. Bloomington: Indiana.

Greenberg, Robert D. 2004. Language and identity in the Balkans. Oxford: University Press.

Harris, Martin and Nigel Vincent (eds) 1988. Romance languages. London: Routledge.

Heine, Bernd and Derek Nurse 2000. African languages. An introduction. Cambridge: University Press.

Hetzron, Robert (ed.) 1997. The Semitic languages. London: Routledge.

Iwasaki, Shoichi 2002. Japanese. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Johanson, Lars and Eva Csato 1998. The Turkic languages. London: Routledge.

Klimov, G.A. 1969. Die kaukasischen Sprachen. Hamburg: Buske.

König, Ekkehard and Johan van der Auwera 1994. The Germanic languages. London: Routledge.Ladefoged, Peter and Ian Maddieson 1995. The sounds of the world’s languages. Oxford: Blackwell.

MacAulay, Donald et al. 1992. The Celtic languages. Cambridge: University Press.

Mithun, Marianne 1999. The languages of native North America. Cambridge: University Press.

Norman, Jerry 1988. Chinese. Cambridge: University Press.

Price, Glanville 1984. The languages of Britain. London: Edward Arnold.

Price, Glanville (ed.) 1998. An encyclopedia of the languages of Europe. Oxford: Blackwell.

Ramat, Anna Giacolone and Paolo Ramat 1996. The Indo-European languages. London: Routledge.

Russ, Charles 1994. The German language today. A linguistic introduction. London: Routledge.

Russell, Paul 1996. The Celtic languages. An introduction. London: Longman.

Shibatani, Masayoshi 1990. The languages of Japan. Cambridge: University Press.

Steever, Sanford B. 1997. Dravidian languages. London: Routledge.

Sulkala, Helena and Merja Karalainen 1992. Finnish. London: Routledge.

Sussex, Roland The Slavonic languages. Cambridge: University Press.

Trask, Robert L. 1997. The history of Basque. London: Routledge.

Voegelin, Charles and Florence Voegelin 1977. Classification and index of the world’s languages. New York: Elsevier.

Webb, Vic and Kembo-Sure 2000. African voices. Oxford: University Press.

Woodard, Roger D. (ed.) 2002. The Cambridge encyclopedia of the world’s ancient languages. Cambridge: University Press.



§12 Levels of language
§22.1 Phonetics
Issues Human sounds; phonetic representation; the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), different branches of phonetics.
Catford, J. C. 2001. A practical introduction to phonetics. 2nd edition. Oxford: University Press.

Cruttenden, Alan 1994. Gimson’s Pronunciation of English. 5th edition. London: Edward Arnold.

Davenport, Mike and S. J. Hannahs 1998. Introducing phonetics and phonology. London: Arnold.

Fry, Dennis B. 1979. The physics of speech. Cambridge: University Press.

International Phonetic Assoc., 1999. Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge: University Press.

Laver, John and William J. Hardcastle (eds) 1995. Handbook of phonetic sciences. Oxford: Blackwell.

Ladefoged, Peter 2000. A course in phonetics. 4rd edition. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Ladefoged, Peter 2000. Vowels and consonants. An introduction to the sounds of languages. Oxford: Basel Blackwell.


§22.2 Phonology
Issues The field of phonology; different units (phoneme versus allophone); phonotactics; distinctive features; generative phonology; recent non-linear views on phonology; syllable structure and its role in phonology analysis.
Carr, Philip 1999. English phonetics and phonology. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Carr, Philip 2004. Phonology, nature, and mind. Oxford: University Press.

Goldsmith, John 1996. The handbook of phonological theory. Oxford: Blackwell.

Goldsmith, John (ed.) 1999. Phonological theory: The essential readings. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Gussmann, Edmund 2002. Phonology. Analysis and theory. Cambridge: University Press.

McMahon, April 2001. An introduction to English phonology. Edinburgh: University Press.

Poulisse, Nanda 2000. Slips of the tongue. Speech errors in first and second language production. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Smith, Norval 2003. Phonology. The basics. Oxford: Blackwell.


§22.3 Morphology
Issues Defining the word; inflectional and derivational morphology; parts of speech; internal structure of words; affixation processes; grammatical categories, form and content; morphological theory (American structuralism, morphology in generative grammar, natural morphology).
Carstairs-McCarthy, Andrew 2001. An introduction to English morphology. Edinburgh: University Press.

Corbett, Greville G. 1990. Gender. Cambridge: University Press.

Matthews, Peter H. 1991. Morphology. 2nd edition. Cambridge: University Press.

Spencer, Andrew 1991. Morphological theory. Oxford: Blackwell.

Spencer, Andrew and Arnold Zwicky (eds) 1997. The handbook of morphology. Oxford: Blackwell.

Unterbeck, Barbara and Matti Rissanen (eds) 1999. Gender in grammar and cognition. I. Approaches to gender II. Manifestations of gender. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.


§22.4 Lexicology and Word Formation
Issues Word formation; historical development, language type; productive processes, kinds of formation in English; semantic and morphological aspects; relationship to linguistic theory.
Adams, Valerie 1973. An introduction to modern English word-formation. London: Longman.

Bauer, Laurie 1983. English word-formation. Cambridge: University Press.

Bauer, Laurie 1998. Vocabulary. Language Workbooks London: Routledge.

Béjoint, Henri 2000. Modern lexicography. An introduction. Oxford: University Press.

Cowie, A. P. 2001. Phraseology. Theory, analysis and applications. Oxford: University Press.

Geeraerts, Dirk 2004. Theories of lexical semantics. Oxford: University Press.

Harley, Heidi 2003. English words. A linguistic introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.

Ilson, Robert (ed.) 1986. Lexicography. An emerging international profession. Manchester: University Press.

Katamba, Francis 1994. English words. London: Routledge.

Landau, Sidney 1984. The art and craft of lexicography. New York.

McArthur, Tom 1986. Worlds of reference. Lexicography, learning and language from the clay tablet to the computer. Cambridge: University Press.

Singleton, David 2000. Language and the lexicon: an introduction. London: Edward Arnold.

Stockwell, Robert and Donka Minkova 2001. English words, history and structure. Cambridge: University Press.
§22.5 Syntax, Grammar
Issues Delimitation of the field; structural view of syntax; phrase structure grammar; early generative grammar (Chomsky 1957); the standard theory (Chomsky 1965): deep and surface structure; derivations and transformations; recent developments: government and binding, (Chomsky 1981 and later); principles and parameters; the acquisition of syntax; universals of syntactic structure; cross-linguistic generalisations; psychological reality of rules; syntax and other linguistic theories. (See also section on Linguistic theory).
Adger, David 2003. Core syntax. A minimalist approach. Oxford: University Press.

Baltin, Mark and Chris Collins 2001. The handbook of contemporary syntactic theory. Oxford: Blackwell.

Blake, Barry J. 1994. Case. Cambridge: University Press.

Brinton, Laurel J. 2000. The structure of modern English. A linguistic introduction. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Carnie, Andrew and Eithne Guilfoyle (eds) 2000. The syntax of verb initial languages. Oxford: University Press.

Carnie, Andrew 2002. Syntax. A generative introduction. Oxford: Blackwell.

Chametzky, Robert 2000. Phrase structure. From GB to minimalism. Oxford: Blackwell.

Chomsky, Noam 1957. Syntactic structures. The Hague: Mouton.

Chomsky, Noam 1965. Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Comrie, Bernard 1976. Aspect. Cambridge: University Press.

Comrie, Bernard 1987. Tense. Cambridge: University Press.

Dahl, Östen 1985. Tense and aspect systems. Oxford: Blackwell.

Dahl, Östen (ed.) 2000. Tense and aspect in the languages of Europe. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Giorgi, Alessandra, James Higginbotham and Fabio Pianesi 2004. Tense and aspect. Oxford: University Press.

Haegeman, Liliane and Jacqueline Gueron 1998. English grammar. A generative perspective. Oxford: Blackwell.

Hendrick, Randall (eds) 2003. Minimalist syntax. Oxford: Blackwell.

Hurford, James R. 1994. Grammar. A student’s guide. Cambridge: University Press.

Lasnik, Howard 1999. Minimalist analysisOxford: Blackwell.

Miller, Jim 2001. An introduction to English syntax. Edinburgh: University Press.

Siewierska, Anna 1997. Constituent order in the languages of Europe. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Verspoor, Marjolijn H. and Kim Sauter 2000. English sentence analysis. An introductory course. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.




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