Literary Terminology Story Map: a graphic representation of the events of a story.
Exposition: The beginning of a story or novel. This is where the characters, setting, and the first conflict are usually introduced.
Climax: The highest point of action in a story or novel.
Rising Action: The plot of the story advances.
Falling Action: The story begins to wind down.
Resolution: The conflict of the story is resolved.
Setting: The time and place of a story or novel.
Example: Where the Red Fern Grows setting is during the Depression (1930’s) in the Ozark Mountains.
Chronological Order:presents ideas according to the time in which they occurred. This type of organization is especially effective if you are describing a process, relaying a series of actions, or telling a story. For instance, to convey the plot of a novel or the procedures of an experiment, you would tell readers what happened first, second, etc. Protagonist: The hero or heroine of a story or novel. This is the main character to who the action and plot of the story or novel revolve around. The protagonist does not have to be a good character. The protagonist can be an animal.
Antagonist: The force or forces working against the protagonist of a story. There can be more than one antagonist in a story. The antagonist isn’t necessarily a character. It can be a force of nature, society, etc.
What is a chronological list of events in a story?
A list that shows the events of a story in the order of their location.
A list that shows the events of a story in the order that they occur in time.
A list that shows the events of the story in the order of least importance to the greatest importance
A list that shows the events of the story in the order of greatest importance to the least importance
In what part of the story map are the characters, setting and the first conflict introduced?
In what part of the story map is the conflict resolved?
In what part of the story map does the action wind down?
In what part of the story map does the highest point of action occur?
In what part of the story map does the plot advance?
What are the two parts of setting in a story?
What is the difference between the protagonist and the antagonist of a story?
What is a story map?
Point of View
Point of View: The perspective that a piece of writing is written in.
First Person: Written in the I voice. Example: I couldn’t believe that my parents were actually going to make me marry a troll.
Second Person: Written in the You voice. Example: You couldn’t believe that your parents were actually going to make you marry a troll.
Third Person: Written in the He/She/It voice. Example: She couldn’t believe that her parents were actually going to make her marry a troll.
Third Person Limited:In this point of view, a narrator zooms in on the thoughts and feelings of just one character in the story. This point of view helps us share that character’s reactions to the story’s events.
Example: The princess tried desperately to get out of her promise. “It was all my parents’ fault,” she thought. They were so unfair.
Omniscient: Omnis in Latin means “all” and sciens means “knowing”. The all knowing point of view. The omniscient narrator looks down on the action like a god. This narrator can tell you everything about all the characters, even their most private thoughts.
Example: Once upon a time there lived a princess who would have been perfectly happy except for one thing. In a moment of weakness, she had promised to marry a frog. Her father felt sorry for her, but he insisted that she keep her word. (In fact, he was a little nervous-he’d never met a talking frog before.)
Foreshadowing and Flashback Foreshadowing: is the author’s use of clues to hint at what might happen later in a story. For example, the description of a dark cloud in a story might foreshadow something bad that is about to happen. Foreshadowing helps build suspense, the quality that keeps you wondering what will happen next.
Flashback is a scene that interrupts a story to describe an earlier event. Writers use flashback to show something about a character’s past. For example, a flashback about a happy childhood journey might explain why an adult character loves to travel.
Conflict:A problem, either internal or external that a character has to work through.
Types of Conflict 1. Internal Conflict Person vs. Self: Conflict inside of the character’s mind. For example, the character might doubt his/her/its ability to accomplish something.
2. External Conflict Person vs. Person: A conflict between the main character and another character. Example: Red Riding Hood vs. The Big Bad Wolf
Person vs. Society: A conflict between the main character and two or more other characters. Example: Billy vs. the Town Children in Where the Red Fern Grows.
Person vs. Nature: A conflict between the main character and nature. Example: Dorothy is swept away by a tornado in The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.
Person vs. Technology: A conflict between the main character and some type of technology. Example: Humans vs. robots.
Person vs. Fate/God: A conflict between the main character and a supernatural event, circumstance, or God. Example: Job is tested by God in the bible.
Fiction vs. Non Fiction
Characteristics of fiction *They include made-up people or animals called characters and a made-up series of events called the plot.
Fiction is told from a certain perspective, or point of view. First=person point of view is the perspective of a character in the story. Third-person point of view is the perspective of a narrator outside the story.
Fiction often includes a theme, or message about life.
Types of Fiction Novels: are long works of fiction. A novel has a plot in which characters face a problem in a specific time and place. In addition to its main plot, a novel may introduce subplots, or minor stories within the larger story.
Novellas: are works of fiction that are longer than short stories but shorter than novels.
Short stories: are brief works of fiction. Like a novel, a short story has characters, a setting, and a plot. Unlike a novel, it has a single conflict and is meant to be read in one sitting.
Characteristics of Nonfiction Nonfiction works differ from fiction in a few important ways.
*Nonfiction writings deal only with real people, events, or ideas.
*They are narrated, or told, from the author’s perspective, or point of view. Nonfiction works have a specific tone that reflects the writer’s attitude toward a subject.
* Nonfiction reflects an author’s purpose, or reason for writing. This might be to explain, persuade, inform, or entertain.
Types of Nonfiction Biographies tell the story of someone’s life. A biography is usually told from the third-person point of view.
Autobiographies tell the story of the author’s life. An autobiography is told from the first-person point of view.
Letters are written forms of communication from one person to another. A letter might share information, thoughts, or feelings.
Journals and diaries are records of daily events and the writer’s thoughts and feelings about them.
Essays are brief written works based on a particular subject.
Informational texts are the documents we come across in everyday life, including instructions and newspaper articles.
Speeches are works that are delivered orally to an audience.
Genre:is a category of literary composition. Genres may be determined byliterary technique,tone,content, or even (as in the case of fiction) length.
Narrative literary works whose content is produced by the imagination and is not necessarily based on fact.