Library movement in india : with special reference to contribution of The Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad



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LIBRARY MOVEMENT IN INDIA : with special reference to contribution of The Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad

  • Meghna J Vyas
  • Research Scholar,
  • SCSVMV, Kanchipuram
  • & Librarian of C.U.Shah
  • College of Pharmacy &
  • Research Wadhwan City (Gujarat)
  • Jaydeep D.Mehta
  • Librarian,
  • C.U.Shah Technical
  • Institute of Diploma
  • Wadhwan City. (Gujarat)
  • Dr. Mayank J Trivedi University Librarian The Maharaja Shiyajirao University Vadodara. (Gujarat)

Major Points undertaken as……….

  • ۞ FIRST PHASE
  • Ancient Period of library movement up to 12th Century
  • ۞ SECOND PHASE
  • Medieval Period of library movement up to 19th Century
  • ۞ THIRD PHASE
  • Modern Period of library movement up to 20th Century
  • ۞ AN INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTION –
  • THE MAHARAJA SAYAJIRAO GAIKWAD
  • The Father of Library Movement in India & Proud of
  • Gujarat

INTRODUCTION

  • Library movement in India has remarkable achievement as especially in these 100 years.
  • “After Independence, India has experienced growing population of literate and educated citizens due to various efforts in universalisation of elementary education through programs like, Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA), District Primary Education Program (DPEP), and National Literacy Mission and so on.” For the same, facilitating educated people with the sufficient documentary and knowledge resources, government and other agencies have established public libraries.
  • The society information centers and village knowledge centers are the current additions to this effort that would transform India into an information society, where information and knowledge resources are considered as prime and significant ingredient for development.
  • http://openmed.nic.in/1278/01/Information_Literacy_Public_Libraries_India.pdf

FIRST PHASE Ancient Period of library movement up to 12th Century

  • ۞ In India, since the ancient times libraries have been functioning as light houses for those who wanted to read and to extend the boundaries of various disciplines.
  • In the ancient times, libraries were essentially places for scholarship, archives of government and business transactions, and places for intellectual discourse, in addition to being social and cultural institutions

Nalanda Library (4th Century India)

  • The library of Nalanda, known as Dharma Gunj (Mountain of Truth) or Dharmagañja (Treasury of Truth), was the most renowned repository of Buddhist knowledge in the world at the time. Its collection was said to comprise hundreds of thousands of volumes, so extensive that it burned for months when set aflame by Muslim invaders. The other important academic library of that period was Taxsila, Vikramsila, Odantapuri, Somapuri, Jaggadal, Mithila, Vallabhi, Kanheri.
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nalanda

SECOND PHASE Medieval Period of library movement up to 19th Century

  • Personnel Libraries From the initial times the kings and nobles of India patronized education and encouraged writing of manuscripts and their preservation of the Mughal emperors were famous for there great love for books Even the princes of small states maintained their manuscripts libraries. The period of Mughal is considered as the golden period of Indian history for its educational, literary, and library activities.
  • http://images.search.conduit.com/search/?q=anicient+manuscript&ctid=CT3106777&SearchSource=13&PageSource=HomePage&SSPV=

SECOND PHASE Medieval Period of library movement up to 19th Century

  • The libraries also made remarkable progress during their times.
  • Humayun converted a pleasure house in purana quila in Delhi into a library.
  • Akbar maintained an “imperial library”.
  • Jahangir is said to have maintained a personnel library which moved with him wherever he went.
  • The head librarian was known as “Nizam” and the assistant librarian as “Muhatin” or “Darogha”.
  • Other staff of libraries during Mughal period is Scribes, Book Illustrators, Calligraphers, Copyists, Translators, Bookbinders and Gilders”.
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purana_Qila,_Delhi
  • Purana Quila

SECOND PHASE Medieval Period of library movement up to 19th Century

  • Public / State Libraries
  •  In the seventeenth and the eighteenth century, the development of libraries received an impetus due to rise of European settlement in India.
  • A number of Academic institutions were established during the British period by the East India Company and by the Christian missionaries.
  • Some of the scattered manuscripts of the early periods have been collected and preserved in many modern manuscripts libraries. These are found in many states in India. Those of Baroda, Banaras, Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Mysore, Poona, Tanjavur and Trivandrum are well known.
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saraswathi_Mahal_Library
  • Saraswathi Mahal Library, Tanjavur

Manuscripts

  • A manuscript is a handwritten
  • composition on paper, bark,
  • cloth, metal, palm leaf or any
  • other material dating back at
  • least seventy-five years that has
  • significant scientific, historical
  • or aesthetic value. Lithographs
  • and printed volumes are not
  • manuscripts. Manuscripts are
  • found in hundreds of different
  • languages and scripts. Often,
  • one language is written in a
  • number of different scripts. For
  • example, Sanskrit is written in
  • Oriya script, Grantha script,
  • Devanagari script and many
  • other scripts.
  • Manuscripts are distinct from
  • historical records such as
  • epigraphs on rocks, firmans,
  • revenue records which provide
  • direct information on events or
  • processes in history. Manuscript
  • have knowledge content.
  •  
  • http://www.namami.org/history.htm

SECOND PHASE Medieval Period of library movement up to 19th Century

  • Public / State Libraries conti……..
  • The first significant period in the development of libraries in India for the public is 1808. It was in this year that the Bombay Presidency initiated a proposal to register libraries, which were to be given copies of books published from the “Funds for the Encouragement of Literature”
  • Some of the important libraries set up in 19th. Century in India
  • Year
  • Library
  • 1835
  • The Calcutta public library was established. >
  • (National Library)
  • 1848
  • Gujarat Vernacular Society along with a library, in Ahmedabad
  • 1850
  • Andrews Library, Surat
  • 1852
  • Indore established General Library in Indore
  • 1855
  • Gaya Public Library, Gaya
  • 1856
  • Lang Library, Rajkot >

SECOND PHASE Medieval Period of library movement up to 19th Century

  • Year
  • Library
  • 1856
  • Victoria General Library in Dhar
  • 1860
  • Connemara Public Library, Madras >
  • 1867
  • Government Library, Janagarh
  • 1873
  • Cochin established Public Library and Reading Room in Trichur
  • 1876
  • Khuda Baksh Oriental public library (Patna) >
  • Public / State Libraries conti……..

SECOND PHASE Medieval Period of library movement up to 19th Century

  • Year
  • Library
  • 1877
  • Baroda established Baroda State Library in Baroda
  • 1879
  • Jammu and Kashmir state library
  • 1882
  • Barton Library, Bhavnagar
  • 1886
  • Adyar Library in Adyar
  • 1892
  • Dahi Laxmi Library, Nadiad
  • 1899
  • Jaipur established Maharajah’s Public Library
  • http://www. netugc.com/library-movement-in.-india
  • www.webpages.uidaho.edu/~mbolin/wani.pdf
  • Public / State Libraries conti……..

SECOND PHASE Medieval Period of library movement up to 19th Century

  • Academic Libraries
  • The first college to be started in this country is the Fort William College in 1800.
  • The first modern university was started at Calcutta in 1857 based on the patterns of London University
  • 1869 Mr. Joy Kissen Mookherjee donated Rs. 5,000.00 to the University for Purchasing Books for the library The senate in the year 1872 succeeded in constructing a beautiful building at a cost of Rs. 4, 34,697.00
  • This is the first and oldest university library that was established in British India.
  • In 1937, the Calcutta University Library selected the professionally qualified librarian, Dr. Nihar Ranjan Roy. He for the first time in India introduced the DDC and AACR rule for providing effective library services to the user.
  • http://images.search.conduit.com/ImagePreview/?q=Fort%20William%20College%20in%201800
  • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Calcutta
  • http://www.banglapedia.org/HT/R_0149.HTM

THIRD PHASE Modern Period of library movement up to 20th Century

  • Academic libraries initiatives
  • Madras University Library
  • was opened in 1907. The government of India gave a special grant
  • of Rs.1,00,000.00. In 1924, Dr. S. R. Ranganathan joined the
  • Madras University Library as librarian. He was the first
  • professionally qualified librarian in Indian history.
  • The Bombay University library was established very lately due to
  • the lack of donation. It was the university authorities of
  • Bombay that offered a donation of Rs. 20,000.00 for construction
  • of library building. In 1939, the Central government provides a
  • special grant of Rs. 50,000.00 to the University of Bombay library
  • to strengthen its collection.
  • Punjab University Library: Punjab University was established in
  • 1882 and in the year 1908 Punjab University Library was opened.
  • Banaras Hindu University Library: 
  • Banaras Hindu University was established in 1916. In 1926-27
  • the construction of the library was made by the huge donation of
  • Rs. 2,00,000.00 by the Sir Siyaji Rao, the Maharaja of Baroda
  • http://crl.du.ac.in/ical09/papers/index_files/ical-101804942RV.pdf
  • http://www.mu.ac.in/Library/index.html
  • http://www.unom.ac.in/uploads/library/mul/mul.html
  • http://www.bhu.ac.in/bhulibrary/index.html

THIRD PHASE Modern Period of library movement up to 20th Century

  • Library Legislation in India
  • The Indian Union consists of 28 States and 7 Union Territories
  • In India, presently nineteen states have so far enacted library legislation.
  • The list of the nineteen Acts is given below.
  • 1. Tamil Nadu (Madras) Public Libraries Act, 1948
  • 2. Andhra Pradesh (Hyderabad) Public Libraries Act, 1960
  • 3. Karnataka (Mysore) Public Libraries Act, 1965
  • 4. Maharashtra Public Libraries Act, 1967
  • 5. West Bengal Public Libraries Act, 1979
  • 6. Manipur Public Libraries Act, 1988
  • 7. Haryana Public Libraries Act, 1989
  • 8. Kerala Public Libraries Act, 1989
  • 9. Goa Public Libraries Act, 1993
  • 10. Mizoram Public Libraries Act, 1993

THIRD PHASE Modern Period of library movement up to 20th Century

  • Library Legislation in India
  • 11. Gujarat Public Libraries Act, 2001
  • 12. Orissa Public Libraries Act, 2001
  • 13. Uttar Pradesh Public Libraries Act, 2005
  • 14. Uttarakhand (Uttaranchal) Public Libraries Act, 2005
  • 15. Rajasthan Public Libraries Act, 2006
  • 16. Bihar Public Libraries Act, 2007
  • 17. Chattisgarh Public Libraries Act, 2007
  • 18. Pondichery Public Libraries Act, 2007
  • 19. Arunachal Pradesh Public Libraries Act, 2009
  • http://www.egyankosh.ac.in/handle/123456789/22285
  • http://lislinks.com/forum/topics/public-libraries-act-and-library-legislation-in- india

THIRD PHASE Modern Period of library movement up to 20th Century

  • LIS Education in India : historical movement
  • Formal library education in India has a history of 100 years behind it. Chronological developments as reported in the literature reveal the following as important milestones in the history of LIS education in India.
  • ► John Macfarlane, the first Librarian of the Imperial Library (now the National Library) Kolkata started the first in- service training program for the staff in 1901.
  • ► W.A. Borden initiated training for librarians at the invitation of Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda in 1911.
  • ► Asa Don Dickinson started a systematic training programme at the Punjab University in Lahore in 1915.This was first university course in the undivided India. He also prepared a manual namely, “The Punjab Library Primer.
  • http://www.nationallibrary.gov.in/nat_lib_stat/history.html
  • http://library.brooklyn.cuny.edu/pages/archives/findaid/Dickinson/index.html

THIRD PHASE Modern Period of library movement up to 20th Century

  • ► Andhra Desa Library Association, founded in 1914, started conducting training
  • classes for library personnel in 1920 at Vijaywada. This is known as the
  • “Peoples’ Movement.”
  • ► M. Vishveshwaraiah, the Diwan of Mysore state in 1920, started training course
  • for librarians at Bangalore as, “Programme of Library Development.”
  • ► University of Madras in collaboration with the Madras Library Association
  • started offering a certificate course in librarianship form 1929, which was taken
  • over by the University in 1931. In 1937, it converted the certificate course in
  • librarianship to Postgraduate diploma course of one year duration.
  • ► Andhra University, the Imperial Library, and the Bengal Library Association
  • imparted training through Certificate/Diploma courses for shorter duration of
  • varying period.
  • ► Banaras Hindu University in 1941, University of Bombay in 1944, Calcutta
  • University in 1946, and Delhi University in 1947 too started diploma courses.
  • ► Aligarh Muslim University is the first university to start the degree course as
  • Bachelor of Library Science. At present, there are about 100 universities in India
  • which are imparting different levels of courses in LIS training from certificate
  • course to PhD. DRTC and INSDOC (now NISCAIR) offer two-years Associate
  • ship program.
  • LIS Education in India : historical movement

AN INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTION – THE MAHARAJA SAYAJIRAO GAIKWAD The Father of Library Movement in India & Proud of Gujarat

  • The pride of this period was the library movement in the princely state of Baroda, it was remarkable contribution of Library movement in India.
  • From 1906 to 1911, Sir Sayaji Rao In the ruler of the state, set up an elaborate system of public libraries, composed of Central Library, Village Libraries and Traveling Libraries.
  • In this movement the Sir Gaikwad took great interest and under his energetic rule it not only spread over the State but acted as an intellectual stimulus to the rest of India.
  • The system served as a model for the rest of the country

AN INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTION – THE MAHARAJA SAYAJIRAO GAIKWAD The Father of Library Movement in India & Proud of Gujarat

  • A Short Introduction of The Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad
  • The Maharaja Sayajirao, Gaikwad of Baroda, is undoubtedly the father of the Library Movement in India. He was a great patron of learning.
  • “He received an extensive as well as intensive education and training under the fostering care of Dewan Raja Sir. T. Madhav Rao
  • Maharaja’s life was fully influenced by his guru and all credit achieved during his life in every sphere of human activity must be given to his great guru, F. A. H. Elliot.
  • It is acknowledged that the Maharaja Sayajirao was a prince among the educators and an educator among the princes”.

AN INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTION – THE MAHARAJA SAYAJIRAO GAIKWAD The Father of Library Movement in India & Proud of Gujarat

  • The Maharaja Sayajirao as devoted Traveler - this promotes education and libraries—1906
  • He believed that journey is one of the most effective means of education. He had already visited England and Europe quite a few times.
  • On May 5, 1906, He went to America as an observer, a student, desirous of acquiring all the knowledge and experience that could enable him to make his own State a model one in India

AN INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTION – THE MAHARAJA SAYAJIRAO GAIKWAD The Father of Library Movement in India & Proud of Gujarat

  • Origin of the Baroda Library Movement
  • The Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad of Baroda is the pioneer of the public library movement in India.
  • It was the State of Baroda which established for the first time on the soil of India a state-supported network of free public libraries available to all irrespective of caste, class, color, creed, social status or any other differentiating characteristic.
  • Maharaja Promotes learning and culture in his State.
  • Introduced free and compulsory education in his princely states.

AN INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTION – THE MAHARAJA SAYAJIRAO GAIKWAD The Father of Library Movement in India & Proud of Gujarat

  • Origin of the Baroda Library Movement contin….
  • The Maharaja decided to establish library as an experiment in one of the towns of a taluka and in order to implement his idea in 1906.
  • He brought to Baroda an American library expert Mr. Borden who started a system of public libraries in the state.
  • Borden reached Baroda on November 6, 1910, and became the Director of State Libraries. Borden makes a survey of libraries in Baroda and concludes that there were over 241 libraries, holding a little over 100000 volumes.

AN INDIVIDUAL CONTRIBUTION – THE MAHARAJA SAYAJIRAO GAIKWAD The Father of Library Movement in India & Proud of Gujarat

  • Origin of the Baroda Library Movement contin….....
  • As the Director of state libraries, Borden planned a network of free public libraries consisting a state central library, four district or divisional libraries, forty-five town libraries, and more than a thousand village libraries-all integrated into one chain system.
  • Borden played a leading role for the establishment, management and organization of public libraries in India.
  • Borden conducted the first formal library-training program in India at Baroda in 1911.

The Maharaja’s great belief and words for Libraries

  • Libraries to Preserve Education –Having provided education on a universal scale, the Maharaja decided to “preserve it by means of libraries, which were the only agencies, he believed, for perpetual universal self-education.
  • He did not give away libraries as gifts. He wanted the people to contribute their share. "Nothing can be got without trouble. Knowledge cannot be attained without self-sacrifice”.
  • An inspiring meeting of the Baroda Library Club Maharaja addressing the librarians, he said: "Your duties and responsibilities are great, greater even than those of Magistrates and Subas”
  • https://wiki.phalkefactory.net/images/3/39/Syjrao.pdf

The Maharaja’s great belief and words for Libraries Conti…..

  • At the Diamond Jubilee Celebrations of the Shree Jayasinhrao Library, Baroda, 16th December 1937, Sayajirao spoke.- “Partly successful in my efforts to promote the welfare of my people. We do not all get equal opportunities in life, nor do we get sufficient scope or encouragement for what we wish to do. I have done the best I could within my limitations and I am happy to say that I have been able to provide a network of libraries for my people, bringing about a healthy change in their outlook, culture and general knowledge.
  • In the Concluding session, His Highness said that “The libraries played an important part in various ways and they could not speed up their development too much. The aim of our work is the same to serve humanity and promote a higher culture. With this object I have devoted my time, and I feel that it is a work well worth doing. But much remains to be done, and I hope that succeeding generation will carry out what is lacking today”.
  • https://wiki.phalkefactory.net/images/3/39/Syjrao.pdf

The Maharaja’s great belief and words for Libraries Conti…..

  • * Indian Library Association honors Sayajirao :Maharaja Sayajirao received appreciation for his work both in India and abroad.
  • * The All-India Library Association of Bezwada (A.P) conferred upon him the title of “Sarasvat Samrajya-Rama-Ramaea” like the Lord Vishnu of the Universe of the Goddess of Learning.
  • * In appreciative recognition of the pioneering service provided by him to the cause of libraries, the service which influenced other parts of India, especially the Andhras, and served as the guiding light in library development in their region.
  • https://wiki.phalkefactory.net/images/3/39/Syjrao.pdf

The Maharaja’s creed for Library

  • * “The people must rise superior to their circumstances and realize that more knowledge is their greatest need, their greatest want. They must be brought up to love books, not simply attractive bindings or pretty pictures, but their contents. They must be taught to regard books as part of their lives. Libraries will not then appear a luxury, but a inevitability of existence”.
  • * “A library must be built up as a man is built, slowly and carefully and with consideration of the work to be done. This is an institution that should never die, an Institution the work of which may make or mar the men by whose hands the future will be formed, and we must look well to our handiwork that the generations to come may be benefited, that we may be honored in the thoughts of our children.”
  • http://archive.org/stream/libraryhandbooka035410mbp/librayhandbooka035410mbp_djvu.txt

The Maharaja’s creed for Library

  • * “A library is Instituted to preserve the record of the deeds and the thoughts of men, for the instruction and the enlightenment of future generations, so that those who are about to take up their share of the work of the world, their own part In the advance of the human race In Intelligence, in civilization, In power, may start from the basis of achievement gained by the countless generations before them.”
  • http://archive.org/stream/libraryhandbooka035410mbp/librayhandbooka035410mbp_djvu.txt
  • Conclusion
  • India has a long tradition of libraries.
  • Importance of library is very much as can be see
  • that from ancient time to 20th century but growth
  • is different and individual contribution mainly
  • influence the library movement in India like the
  • great pioneer of library movement in India- The
  • Maharaja Sayajirao Gaikwad. This efforts and contribution can improve thinking about library.
  • In earliest times there was no distinction between a record room (or archive) and a library, and in this sense libraries can be said to have existed for almost as long as records have been kept.
  • Now people believe that library is not a building stacked with books – it is a repository and source of information and ideas, a place for learning and enquiry, and for the generation of thought and the creation of new knowledge.
  • Thank you

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