Lab Chem Chapter 3 Multiple Choice



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Lab Chem Chapter 3
Multiple Choice

Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____ 1. Dalton incorporated the law of conservation of mass into his atomic theory by asserting that

a.

atoms are indivisible.

b.

atoms of different elements have different properties.

c.

matter is composed of atoms.

d.

atoms can be destroyed in chemical reactions.

____ 2. If each atom of element D has 3 mass units and each atom of element E has 5 mass units, a molecule composed of one atom each of D and E has



a.

2 mass units.

c.

15 mass units.

b.

8 mass units.

d.

35 mass units.

____ 3. If 4.0 g of element A combine with 10. g of element B, then 12 g of element A combine with ____ g of element B.



a.

10.

c.

24

b.

12

d.

30.

____ 4. If 6.0 g of element K combine with 17 g of element L, how many grams of element K combine with 85 g of element L?



a.

17 g

c.

30. g

b.

23 g

d.

91 g

____ 5. In oxides of nitrogen, such as N2O, NO, NO2, and N2O3, atoms combine in small whole-number ratios. This evidence supports the law of



a.

conservation of mass.

c.

definite composition.

b.

multiple proportions.

d.

mass action.

____ 6. If two or more compounds are composed of the same two elements, the ratio of the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other element is a simple whole number. This is a statement of the law of



a.

conservation of mass.

c.

multiple proportions.

b.

mass action.

d.

definite composition.

____ 7. Oxygen can combine with carbon to form two compounds, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The ratio of the masses of oxygen that combine with a given mass of carbon is 1:2. This is an example of



a.

the law of conservation of mass.

c.

the law of conservation of energy.

b.

Dalton's atomic theory.

d.

the law of multiple proportions.

____ 8. If 63.5 g of copper (Cu) combine with 16 g of oxygen (O) to form the compound CuO, how many grams of oxygen will be needed to combine with the same amount of copper to form the compound CuO2?



a.

16 g

c.

64 g

b.

32 g

d.

127 g

____ 9. According to the law of definite proportions, any two samples of KCl have



a.

the same mass.

c.

the same melting point.

b.

slightly different molecular structures.

d.

the same ratio of elements.

____ 10. According to the law of conservation of mass, when sodium, hydrogen, and oxygen react to form a compound, the mass of the compound is ____ the sum of the masses of the individual elements.



a.

equal to

c.

less than

b.

greater than

d.

either greater than or less than

____ 11. What is the ratio of oxygen to carbon when 32 g of oxygen combine with 12 g of carbon?



a.

1:1

c.

1:2

b.

2:1

d.

8:3

____ 12. The principles of atomic theory recognized today were conceived by



a.

Avogadro.

c.

Dalton.

b.

Bohr.

d.

Rutherford.

____ 13. The law of definite proportions



a.

contradicted Dalton's atomic theory.

b.

agrees with Dalton's atomic theory.

c.

replaced the law of conservation of mass.

d.

assumes that atoms of all elements are identical.

____ 14. According to Dalton's atomic theory, atoms



a.

are destroyed in chemical reactions.

b.

can be divided.

c.

of each element are identical in size, mass, and other properties.

d.

of different elements cannot combine.

____ 15. Which of the following is not part of Dalton's atomic theory?



a.

Atoms cannot be divided, created, or destroyed.

b.

The number of protons in an atom is its atomic number.

c.

In chemical reactions, atoms are combined, separated, or rearranged.

d.

All matter is composed of extremely small particles called atoms.

____ 16. Dalton's atomic theory agrees with modern atomic theory except for the statement that



a.

all matter is made up of small particles.

b.

atoms are not divided in chemical reactions.

c.

atoms of the same element are chemically alike.

d.

all atoms of the same element have the same mass.

____ 17. Which of the following statements is true according to modern atomic theory?



a.

Atoms of the same element may have different masses.

b.

Atoms may be divided in ordinary chemical reactions.

c.

Atoms can never combine with any other atoms.

d.

Cathode rays are composed of protons..

____ 18. Which concept in Dalton's atomic theory has been modified?



a.

All matter is composed of atoms.

b.

Atoms of different elements have different properties and masses.

c.

Atoms can combine in chemical reactions.

d.

Atoms cannot be divided.

____ 19. The atomic theory proposed by Dalton has been



a.

totally discarded.

c.

accepted unchanged to the present day.

b.

expanded and modified.

d.

found to be plagiarized.

____ 20. In early experiments on electricity and matter, an electrical current was passed through a glass tube containing



a.

water.

c.

liquid oxygen.

b.

gas under high pressure.

d.

gas under low pressure.

____ 21. In a glass tube attached to a voltage source, electrical current passes from the negative electrode, called the ____, to the other electrode.



a.

cathode

c.

electron

b.

anode

d.

millikan

____ 22. When an electrical current passed through a glass tube, it caused the surface of the tube directly across from the cathode to glow. Scientists concluded that



a.

a magnetic field was produced.

b.

the particles of the beam were negatively charged.

c.

there was gas in the tube.

d.

atoms were indivisible.

____ 23. The rays produced in a cathode tube are



a.

unaffected by a magnetic field.

c.

found to carry a positive charge.

b.

deflected away from a negative plate.

d.

striking the cathode.

____ 24. Experiments with cathode rays led to the discovery of the



a.

proton.

c.

neutron.

b.

nucleus.

d.

electron.

____ 25. After measuring the ratio of the charge of a cathode-ray particle to its mass, Thomson concluded that the particles



a.

had no mass.

c.

had a very large mass.

b.

had a very small mass.

d.

carried a positive charge.

____ 26. Because any element used in the cathode produced electrons, scientists concluded that



a.

all atoms contained electrons.

c.

atoms were indivisible.

b.

only metals contained electrons.

d.

atoms carried a negative charge.

____ 27. The deflection of cathode rays in Thomson's experiments was evidence of the ____ nature of electrons.



a.

wave

c.

particle

b.

charged

d.

spinning

____ 28. Whose series of experiments identified the nucleus of the atom?



a.

Rutherford

c.

Chadwick

b.

Dalton

d.

Bohr

____ 29. In Rutherford's experiments, alpha particles



a.

passed through a tube containing gas.

c.

collided with electrons.

b.

were used to bombard a cathode plate.

d.

were used to bombard thin metal foil.

____ 30. In Rutherford's experiments, most of the particles



a.

bounced back.

c.

were absorbed by the foil.

b.

passed through the foil.

d.

combined with the foil.

____ 31. Because most particles fired at metal foil passed straight through, Rutherford concluded that



a.

atoms were mostly empty space.

c.

electrons formed the nucleus.

b.

atoms contained no charged particles.

d.

atoms were indivisible.

____ 32. Because a few alpha particles bounced back from the foil, Rutherford concluded that they were



a.

striking electrons.

b.

indivisible.

c.

repelled by densely packed regions of positive charge.

d.

magnetic.

____ 33. Rutherford's experiments led him to conclude that atoms contain massive central regions that have



a.

a positive charge.

c.

no charge.

b.

a negative charge.

d.

both protons and electrons.

____ 34. A positively charged particle with mass 1.673 ´ 10–24 g is a(n)



a.

proton.

c.

electron.

b.

neutron.

d.

positron.

____ 35. A nuclear particle that has about the same mass as a proton, but with no electrical charge, is called a(n)



a.

nuclide.

c.

electron.

b.

neutron.

d.

isotope.

____ 36. The nucleus of an atom has all of the following characteristics except that it



a.

is positively charged.

b.

is very dense.

c.

contains nearly all of the atom's mass.

d.

contains nearly all of the atom's volume.

____ 37. Which part of an atom has a mass approximately equal to 1/2000 of the mass of a common hydrogen atom?



a.

nucleus

c.

proton

b.

electron

d.

neutron

____ 38. Protons within a nucleus are attracted to each other by



a.

the nuclear force.

c.

their energy levels.

b.

opposite charges.

d.

electron repulsion.

____ 39. An atom is electrically neutral because



a.

neutrons balance the protons and electrons.

b.

nuclear forces stabilize the charges.

c.

the numbers of protons and electrons are equal.

d.

the numbers of protons and neutrons are equal.

____ 40. Nuclear forces exists because the particles in the nucleus are



a.

oppositely charged.

c.

highly energized.

b.

close together.

d.

moving very fast.

____ 41. Most of the volume of an atom is occupied by the



a.

nucleus.

c.

electrons.

b.

nuclides.

d.

protons.

____ 42. The charge due to the electrons of a neutral atom



a.

prevents compounds from forming.

c.

attracts electrons in other atoms.

b.

balances the charge on the nucleus.

d.

does not exist.

____ 43. The smallest unit of an element that can exist either alone or in combination with other such particles of the same or different elements is the



a.

electron.

c.

neutron.

b.

proton.

d.

atom.

____ 44. The radius of an atom extends to the outer edge of the



a.

nucleus.

c.

region occupied by the neutrons.

b.

region occupied by the electrons.

d.

positive charges.

____ 45. Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different



a.

principal chemical properties.

c.

numbers of protons.

b.

masses.

d.

numbers of electrons.

____ 46. The most common form of hydrogen has



a.

no neutrons.

c.

two neutrons.

b.

one neutron.

d.

three neutrons.

____ 47. The tritium atom consists of



a.

one proton, two neutrons, and two electrons.

b.

one proton, one neutron, and one electron.

c.

one proton, two neutrons, and one electron.

d.

two protons, one neutron, and one electron.

____ 48. What is the mass number of deuterium?



a.

1

c.

3

b.

2

d.

4

____ 49. How many isotopes of hydrogen are known?



a.

1

c.

3

b.

2

d.

4

____ 50. The hydrogen isotope with the least mass is named



a.

tritium.

c.

deuterium.

b.

helium.

d.

protium.

____ 51. The nucleus of deuterium contains one proton and



a.

two neutrons.

c.

no neutrons.

b.

one neutron.

d.

two electrons.

____ 52. All isotopes of hydrogen contain



a.

one neutron.

c.

one proton.

b.

two electrons.

d.

two nuclei.

____ 53. The atomic number of oxygen, 8, indicates that there are eight



a.

protons in the nucleus of an oxygen atom.

b.

oxygen nuclides.

c.

neutrons outside the oxygen atom's nucleus.

d.

energy levels in the oxygen atom's nucleus.

____ 54. The total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom is its



a.

atomic number.

c.

mass number.

b.

Avogadro number.

d.

average atomic mass.

____ 55. As the mass number of an element’s isotopes of an element increases, the number of protons



a.

decreases.

b.

increases.

c.

remains the same.

d.

doubles each time the mass number increases.

____ 56. As the atomic number increases, the number of electrons in a neutral atom



a.

decreases.

c.

remains the same.

b.

increases.

d.

is undetermined.

____ 57. All atoms of the same element have the same



a.

atomic mass.

c.

mass number.

b.

number of neutrons.

d.

atomic number.

____ 58. Atoms of the same element can differ in



a.

chemical properties.

c.

atomic number.

b.

mass number.

d.

number of protons and electrons.

____ 59. In determining the atomic mass of elements, the standard is the



a.

C-12 atom.

c.

H-1 atom.

b.

C-14 atom.

d.

O-16 atom.

____ 60. The relative atomic mass of an atom can be found by comparing the mass of the atom to the mass of



a.

one atom of carbon-12.

c.

a proton.

b.

one atom of hydrogen-1.

d.

uranium-235.

____ 61. The carbon-12 atom is assigned a relative mass of exactly



a.

1 amu.

c.

12 amu.

b.

6 amu.

d.

100 amu.

____ 62. The average atomic mass of an element is the average of the atomic masses of its



a.

naturally occurring isotopes.

c.

radioactive isotopes.

b.

two most abundant isotopes.

d.

artificial isotopes.

____ 63. The average atomic mass of an element



a.

is the mass of the most abundant isotope.

b.

may not equal the mass of any of its isotopes.

c.

cannot be calculated.

d.

always adds up to 100.

____ 64. The atomic mass of an element listed in the periodic table is the



a.

average atomic mass.

b.

relative atomic mass of the most abundant isotope.

c.

relative atomic mass of the most abundant radioactive isotope.

d.

mass number of the least abundant isotope.

____ 65. An aluminum isotope consists of 13 protons, 13 electrons, and 14 neutrons. Its mass number is



a.

13.

c.

27.

b.

14.

d.

40.

____ 66. Chlorine has atomic number 17 and mass number 35. It has



a.

17 protons, 17 electrons, and 18 neutrons.

b.

35 protons, 35 electrons, and 17 neutrons.

c.

17 protons, 17 electrons, and 52 neutrons.

d.

18 protons, 18 electrons, and 17 neutrons.

____ 67. Carbon-14 (atomic number 6), the radioactive nuclide used in dating fossils, has



a.

6 neutrons.

c.

10 neutrons.

b.

8 neutrons.

d.

14 neutrons.

____ 68. Phosphorus-33 (atomic number 15) contains



a.

33 protons.

c.

33 neutrons.

b.

18 neutrons.

d.

18 protons.

____ 69. Neon-22 contains 12 neutrons. It also contains



a.

12 protons.

c.

22 electrons.

b.

22 protons.

d.

10 protons.

____ 70. The number of atoms in 1 mol of carbon is



a.

6.022 ´ 1022.

c.

5.022 ´ 1022.

b.

6.022 ´ 1023.

d.

5.022 ´ 1023.

____ 71. The number of atoms in a mole of any pure substance is called



a.

its atomic number.

c.

its mass number.

b.

Avogadro's constant.

d.

its gram-atomic number.

____ 72. The atomic number of neon is 10. The atomic number of calcium is 20. Compared with a mole of neon, a mole of calcium contains



a.

twice as many atoms.

c.

an equal number of atoms.

b.

half as many atoms.

d.

20 times as many atoms.

____ 73. To determine the molar mass of an element, one must know the element's



a.

Avogadro constant.

c.

number of isotopes.

b.

atomic number.

d.

average atomic mass.

____ 74. Avogadro's number is



a.

the maximum number of electrons that all the energy levels can accommodate.

b.

the number of protons and neutrons that can fit in the shells of the nucleus.

c.

the number of particles in 1 mole of a pure substance.

d.

the number of particles in exactly 1 gram of a pure substance.

____ 75. Molar mass



a.

is the mass in grams of one mole of a substance.

b.

is numerically equal to the average atomic mass of the element.

c.

Both (a) and (b)

d.

Neither (a) nor (b)

____ 76. The mass of 1 mol of chromium (atomic mass 51.996 amu) is



a.

12 g.

c.

51.996 g.

b.

198 g.

d.

6.02 ´ 1023 g.

____ 77. The mass of 2.0 mol of oxygen atoms (atomic mass 16.00 amu) is



a.

16 g.

c.

48 g.

b.

32 g.

d.

64 g.

____ 78. The mass of a sample containing 3.5 mol of silicon atoms (atomic mass 28.0855 amu) is approximately



a.

28 g.

c.

72 g.

b.

35 g.

d.

98 g.

____ 79. How many moles of atoms are in 50.15 g of mercury (atomic mass 200.59 amu)?



a.

0.1001 mol

c.

0.2500 mol

b.

0.1504 mol

d.

0.4000 mol

____ 80. A prospector finds 39.39 g of pure gold (atomic mass 196.9665 amu). She has



a.

1.204 ´ 1023 atoms of Au.

c.

4.306 ´ 1023 atoms of Au.

b.

2.308 ´ 1023 atoms of Au.

d.

6.022 ´ 1023 atoms of Au.

____ 81. A sample of tin (atomic mass 118.71 amu) contains 3.01 ´ 1023 atoms. The mass of the sample is



a.

3.01 g.

c.

72.6 g.

b.

59.3 g.

d.

11 g.

____ 82. The mass of 5.000 mol of cesium (atomic mass 132.9 amu) is



a.

664.5 g.

c.

6.022 ´ 1023 g.

b.

132.9 g.

d.

5.000 g.



Short Answer
83. Describe the law of definite proportions.
84. What is the law of conservation of mass?
85. What is the law of multiple proportions?
86. Describe the nucleus of an atom.
87. Give the location and relative charge of a proton.
88. What is the atomic number of an atom?
89. What is the mass number of an atom?
90. What is an isotope?
91. What is the relationship between isotopes, mass number, and neutrons?
92. Why do chemists work with moles instead of individual atoms?
Problem
93. How many atoms are present in 8.00 mol of chlorine atoms?
94. How many atoms are present in 80.0 mol of zirconium?
95. How many moles of platinum are equivalent to 1.20 ´ 1024 atoms?
96. How many moles of iron are equivalent to 1.11 ´ 1025 atoms?
97. Determine the mass in grams of 5.00 mol of oxygen. The molar mass of oxygen is 16.00 g/mol.
98. Determine the mass in grams of 10.0 mol of bromine. The molar mass of bromine is 79.90 g/mol.
99. Determine the number of moles of helium in 10.0 g of helium. The molar mass of helium is 4.00 g/mol.
100. Determine the number of moles in 100. g of potassium. The molar mass of potassium is 39.10 g/mol.
101. The mass of 1 mol of gold atoms is 196.97 g. Find the mass of 1 atom of gold.
102. Calculate the mass in grams of 9.00 mol of potassium (molar mass 39.10 g/mol).
103. Calculate the number of atoms in 10.0 g of sulfur (molar mass 32.07 g/mol).
Essay
104. Explain what is meant by the law of definite proportions, the law of conservation of mass, and the law of multiple proportions.
105. Why do scientists use Dalton's theory, even though parts of it have been proven wrong? How much of Dalton's theory do scientists still accept?
106. What can you determine about the atomic structure of an element if you know the atomic number of the element and mass numbers of its isotopes? What additional information is needed to determine the average atomic mass of the element? How do you determine the average atomic mass of the element?
107. Explain the significance of Avogadro's constant, 6.022 ´ 1023. What is the relationship between it and the molar mass of oxygen, 16.00 g/mol?

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