Él "star", elen being the ordinary word) or a poetic or archaic meaning of an ordinary word



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HABIT haimë -KHIM

HABITATION imbar (Imbar was an Elvish name of the Earth as the prinicipal part of Arda; the form Ambar may be more usual and is found in LotR.) -MR:337, WJ:419, 402, LotR:1003

HAIL (greeting) aiya (so in LotR; LT1:248 has áyë); variant spelling aia. -LotR:747, 950 cf. Letters:385, VT43:28

HAIR loxë; A SINGLE HAIR finë (*fini-) (larch).TANGLED HAIR fassë; LOCK OF HAIR findë (defined as "a tress or plait of hair" in PM:345; LT2:341 has findl, an impossible form in LotR-style Quenya), HEAD OF HAIR, A PERSON'S HAIR AS A WHOLE findessë -LOKH, PM:362, PHAS, SPIN, PM:345

HALF-ELVEN (noun, pl) Pereldar (Sindarin Peredhil, LotR:1071). Singular #Perelda. -Letters:386

HALL #mardë (isolated from oromardi "lofty halls, high-halls"; the singular may also be reconstructed as #mar with stem mard-, which would make this the same word as the word for "home" or "dwelling", q.v.); ROCKHEWN HALL hróta (artificial cave, rockhewn hall), VAULTED HALL rondo -Nam/RGEO:66, PM:365, VT39:9

HALLOW (verb) #airita- (only pa.t. airitánë is attested) -VT32:7

HALVE perya- (devide in middle) (After perya, a word perina is mentioned - it is undefined but seems to be a corresponding adjective or past participle *"halved, divided in middle".) -PER

HAMMER (vb) namba-; HAMMER (noun) namba -NDAM

HAMS hacca (buttocks) -GL:47

HAND (pl. allative mannar "into...hands" is attested in FS; the long á evidently becomes short a before a consonant cluster).The plural of is máli, the dual is mát (VT47:6). For maqua as a colloquial term for "hand", and its secondary meanings, see separate entry HAND-FULL. The term palta is used of "the flat of the hand, the hand held upwards or forwards, flat and tensed (with fingers and thumb closed or spread" (VT47:9). Individual hand-names: forma "right hand", hyarma "left hand". Other terms for "hand": nonda (said to mean "hand, especially in [?clutching]"; Tolkien's gloss was not certainly legible, VT47:23), quárë (this is properly "fist", but was often used for "hand" - see FIST); HOLLOW OF HAND cambë. A variant of this, camba, is in VT47:7 defined as "the whole hand, but as flexed, with fingers more or less closed, cupped, in the attitude of receiving or holding". HAVING HANDS mavoitë; HANDY, HANDED maitë (stem *maiti-) (skilled) (pl. maisi. When maitë is the final element of names, it is translated "handed" instead of "handy", e.g. Angamaitë "Iron-handed", morimaitë "blackhanded") For other "handed"-related terms, see HEAVYHAND(ED). Compound LANGUAGE OF THE HANDS mátengwië -MA3/LT2:339/VT39:10, FS, VT47:6, 9, 23, KWAR/Silm:429, KAB, LotR:1085 cf. Letters:425, LotR:1015/SD:68, 72, UT:460, VT47:9

HAND-FULL maqua (dual maquat is attested). Colloquially, the word maqua is also used for the "hand" itself (called in formal language); maqua may refer to the "complete hand with all five fingers", and the word is therefore also used for a group of 5 similar things (just like the dual maquat may refer to a group of 10 similar things; see FIVE, TEN). -VT47:7

HANDLE (vb) mahta- (deal with, fight, manage, wield, wield a weapon) -MAK/MA3, VT39:11, MA3, VT47:6, 18, 19

HANDLE (noun) tolma (defined as "protuberance contrieved to serve a purpose, knob, short rounded handle", etc.) -VT47:28

HANG linga- (dangle) -LING

HAPPEN - LT2:348 gives mart- "it happens" (impersonal). Perhaps read *marta- in LotR-style Quenya; compare marta- "[to] chance" in QL:63

HAPPY valin (LT1:272 also gives valimo, but adjectives ending in -o do not occur in LotR-style Quenya), HAPPINESS vald- (so in LT1:272; nom. sg. must be either *val or *valdë) (blessedness) It is highly questionable whether these words from early material quoted in LT1:272 are conceptually "valid" in LotR-style Quenya: Originally, they were meant to be related to the noun Valar, the Gods being termed the "Happy Ones", but Tolkien later re-interpreted Valar as meaning the "Powers". For "happiness" it may be better to use the noun alassë "joy", and for "happy" or "joyful, joyous" many writers have used the neologism *alassëa.

HARBOUR hópa (haven, bay - obsoleting cópa, cópas in LT1:257); HARBOURAGE hopassë -KHOP

HARD sarda, nauca (the latter also meaning ill-shapen, twisted, *small - see SMALL.) -VT39:17, WJ:413

HARE lapattë -GL:52

HARP (vb) nanda-; HARP (noun) nandë; LITTLE HARP nandellë; HARPING (noun, not adjectival participle) nandelë; HARPER nandaro, HARP-PLAYER tyalangan. (In Etym, all but the last of these words are spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But if these words are written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) HARP-PLAYING salmë. HARPING ON ONE TUNE vorongandelë ("vorogandele" in the published Etymologies is a misreading; see VT45:7) (continuous repetition) -NGAN, TYAL; cf. LotR:1157, LT1:265, LIN1

HARSH naraca (rending, violent) (possibly "of sounds", but Tolkien's extra comment is partially illegible) -NÁRAK, VT45:37

HARVEST yávië (autumn) - evidently obsoleting yávan in LT1:273. In the Calendar of Imladris, yávië was a precisely defined period of 52 days, but the word was also used without any exact definition. Note: yávië probably refers to harvest time only, not "harvest" in the sense "harvested products", though it is derived from a stem meaning "fruit". -LotR:1142, 1145

HASP tangwa (clasp) -TAK

HASTE ormë (wrath, violence, rushing); HASTY orna, tyelca (agile) -GOR, KHOR, PM:353

HAT táta -GL:71

HATE (vb) #tev- (aorist tevë); LT1:258 has mokir "I hate", read *mocin in LotR-style Quenya? HATEFUL sancë; HATRED tevië -LT1:268, LT2:341

HAVE - see POSSESS. Cf also NO LONGER TO BE HAD vanwa (gone, dead, departed, lost, past, vanished) HAVE AN IMPULSE horya- (be compelled to do something, set vigorously out to do) -WJ:366, VT45:22

HAVEN hópa (harbour, bay) londë (as in Alqualondë "Haven of the Swans", UT:417 - but elsewhere londë is glossed "entrance to harbour, road in sea") -KHOP

?HAWK fion (pl fioni, fiondi) (Tolkien's gloss was "not certainly legible; the likeliest interpretation would be 'haste', but 'hawk' is a possibility." The translation "haste" is out of the question, as this word would have no plural form. Besides, a quite different word for "haste" [ormë] is known.) -PHI

HE – in some early sources there appear a pronominal ending -ro, as in antaváro he will give (so in LR:63, perhaps *antuváro in LotR-style Quenya). There is also the ending -s, that covers the entire 3rd person sg: "he, she, it". It is uncertain what the independent word for "he, even he" might be; some would guess that it could be *eryë. By the same theory, Tolkien may have abandoned -ro in favour of the ending *-ryë, connecting with the ending -rya "his, her"; if so, *-ryë (and *eryë) would also cover both "he" and "she" (whereas -ro as a distinct ending for "he" might have corresponded to *- "she"; compare the references to ancient inflections in -so and -se found in the Etymologies, entry S-). As an independent word for "he" LR:63 apparently has e, a word that appears in Sindarin as well (SD:129). Does it also cover "she, it"? Cf. HIM, HIS.

HEAD cár (cas-), nóla (round head, knoll); HEAD OF HAIR findessë (see HAIR). SPEAR-HEAD nasta (spear-point, gore, triangle) -KAS, NDOL, PM:345, SNAS/VT46:14

HEAL #envinyata- (isolated from the past participle envinyanta "healed". The literal meanings are *"renew" and "renewed", cf. Aragorn's title Envinyatar "Renewer" [q.v.]) -MR:405

HEAP cumbë (mound) -KUB

HEAR #hlar- (only fut hlaruva is attested) -MC:222

HEARING (adj) lasta (listening) -LAS2

HEART hón (physical heart), órë (inner mind - concerning this word, see SPIRIT) (Note: a homophone means "rising"), indo (mind, mood), enda (lit. "centre", not referring to the physical organ, but the fëa [soul] or sáma [mind] itself), elwen; -HEARTED #honda (isolated from sincahonda "flinthearted"). EYES OF HEARTSEASE (a name of the pansy) Helinyetillë HEART OF FLAME Naira (a name of the Sun), -KHÔ-N-, LotR:1157, ID, VT39:32, LT1:255, LotR:1015 cf. SD:68, 72, LT1:262, MR:198

HEAT úrë (The stem from which this word must be derived was struck out in Etym, but the word occurs in LotR itself, indicating that Tolkien restored the stem in question.) SMOULDERING HEAT, RED [?HEAT] (Tolkies handwriting was illegible) yulmë (Note:

a homophone means "drinking, carousal") -LotR:1157 cf. UR; YUL

HEAVE #amorta- (only part. amortala is attested), HEAVE (of large and heavy things:) rúma- (shift, move) (part. rúmala is attested) -MC:222 cf. 215, MC:223, 222

HEAVENS, THE menel (a sg word, "heaven", as opposed to its English translation), ilwë (sky). The form #Eruman that turns up in one version of the Quenya Lord's Prayer (in the locative: Erumandë) appears to include the divine name Eru and must refer to "heaven" as God's abode (but Tolkien simply used menel for "heaven" in earlier versions of the Lord's Prayer). IN HEAVEN (adj., more or less = *HEAVENLY) meneldëa. HEAVEN AND EARTH Menel Cemenyë -Silm:434/MC:222 cf. 215, LT1:255, VT43:12, 16 vs. 10, VT43:10, VT44:16, VT47:11

HEAVY lunga; HEAVY-HANDED lungumaitë; HEAVY-HAND (as masc. name) Lungumá, Lungumaqua. -LUG, VT47:19

HEDGE (jagged hedge of spikes) caraxë -KARAK

HEED cim-, in the sense of "watch" also tir- (tirin "I watch", *"I heed", 1st pers. aorist), pa.t. tirnë; fut. tiruva "shall heed" is attested. -GL:39, MC:222 cf. 214, TIR

HEIGHT #tárië (only allative tárienna "to the height" is attested) -LotR:989 cf. Letters:308

HEIR aryon (also haryon is glossed as "heir", but this gloss is paranthetic and "prince" is given as the primary meaning. Hildinyar is translated "my heirs" in Aragorn's oath; it appears that this is actually a form of hildo "follower".) -GAR (see 3AR), LotR:1003, 1004

HELL Angamando ("Iron-prison", Morgoth's dungeon-fortress in the First Age. This is the form given in MR; Etym has Angamanda, LT1:249/252 has Angamandu/Angamandi or Eremandu "Hells of Iron". In LT1:259, Mandos is glossed "hell", but Mandos was simply the halls of the dead and not a place of torture. GL:51 also has fatanyu.) -MR:350, MBAD

HELMET cassa, harna, harpa -KAS, VT45:21

HELPER: A word for "helper" is apparently embedded in the compound "East-helper", Rómestámo, Róme(n)star (so in PM:384, 391; probably ?Rómenstar must always become Rómestar, but Tolkien cited the form as Róme(n)star to indicate the connection with rómen "east"). It may be that as an independent word, the -stámo "helper" element would manifest as ?sámo (Þ).

HELPFUL asëa (Þ) (beneficial, kindly) (so according to a late note where the word is derived from *ATHAYA)

HEM ríma (edge, border), HEM OF ROBE lappa -RÎ, GL:52

HER 1. (object form of she) - the ending -s (also covering "it, *him". Utúvienyes [LotR:1008] is translated "I have found it", but it could probably mean "I have found her/him" as well.) Case endings may be attached to se, e.g. dative *sen "for her". Probably there is no distinction of gender here either; see HIM. 2. HER (genitive, = of her) -rya (possessive suffix, e.g. aratarya "her sublimity" [WJ:369], máryat "her hands" [Nam].) This ending apparently covers the entire 3rd pers sg and may also translate as "his" or - it may be assumed - *"its".) -WJ:369

HERSELF (reflexive pronoun) immo (a general sg. reflexive pronoun, covering English "myself, him/herself, yourself"). A specific 3rd person reflexive pronoun "him/herself" is insë (for older imse; it is unclear whether the latter form was in use in later Quenya). -VT47:37

HERO callo (noble man). LT1:268 also has mordo "warrior, hero", but in Tolkien's later Quenya mordo means "obscurity, shadow, stain, smear, dimness". -KAL

HEW *pelehta- (emended from the actual reading pelekta-, since Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya) -LT2:346

HIDE #nurta- (verbal stem isolated from the verbal noun nurtalë "hiding" in Silm:120), #lom- (LT1:255 gives lomir "I hide"; this would become *lomin in LotR-style Quenya); moru- -LT1:261

HIDING nurtalë -Silm:120

HIDDEN muina (secret), halda (veiled, shadowed, shady), foina, furin/hurin (concealed); DARK OR HIDDEN tumna (low-lying, low, profound, deep) -MUY, SKAL, LT2:340, LT1:271

HIDEOUS CREATURE ulundo (deformed creature, monster) -ÚLUG

HIGH tára (lofty, tall), oro- (in compounds: oromardi "high-halls"). The element #Ar- in Arfanyarassë (a name of Taniquetil) is said to mean "high (i.e., noble, revered)". VERY HIGH antara (with Antaro as a corresponding proper name, denoting a mountain in Valinor, VT46:17) (lofty). HIGH HEAVEN tarmenel (locative tarmeneldë also attested), HIGH PLACE #tarmen (pl. locative tarmenissen attested) -WJ:417, Nam/RGEO:66, WJ:416, VT45:5/VT46:17, VT44:34

HIGH ELVES Tarquendi; HIGH-ELVES Tareldar -TA, MC:349

HIGH ONES Aratar (sg #Arata, cf. PM:363). The Aratar are the mightiest of the Valar: Manwë, Varda, Ulmo, Yavanna, Aulë, Mandos, Nienna, and Oromë. Aratar is also rendered "The Supreme, Exalted Ones". -Silm 32/381, WJ:402

HIGH SPEECH (= Quenya) Tarquesta -TÂ

HILL ambo (allative pl. ambonnar is attested); tundo (stem *tundu-) (mound), oro; ISOLATED ROUND HILL tolmen (boss of shield) HILL-SIDE amban (upward slope) (probably obsoleting amun(d) in LT2:335) -VT45:5, MC:222, LT1:269, TUN, LT1:256, AM

HIM - probably the ending -s (also covering "it, *her". Utúvienyes [LotR:1008] is translated "I have found it", but it could probably mean "I have found him/her" as well.) Some theorize that so may function as a short independent pronoun "he, him" and that case endings may be attached to this word, e.g. dative *son "for him". However, material recently published may suggest that in later variants of Quenya, se covers both "he/she" and "him/her" (as object), and that this is the form to which case endings are attached (e.g. dative *sen "for him/her").

HIMSELF (reflexive pronoun) immo (a general sg. reflexive pronoun, covering English "myself, him/herself, yourself"). A specific 3rd person reflexive pronoun "him/herself" is insë (for older imse; it is unclear whether the latter form was in use in later Quenya). -VT47:37

HINDMOST tella (last); THE HINDMOST Teleri (the Last-comers) -TELES, Silm:421

HINT (verb) hiuta- -VT46:6 s.v. ÑIW

HIP oswë -QL:71

HIS -rya (possessive suffix, e.g. coarya his house. This ending covers the entire 3rd pers sg and also means "her" and *"its".) -WJ:369

HISTORY nyárë (tale, saga), quenta (narrative, story), quentalë (account, narration), lúmequentalë, lúmequenta (chronological account), HISTORICAL lúmequentalëa. (In VT39:16, quentalë is defined as "narration" or "History", used as an abstract referring to universal History, but also used with particular reference; hence "the history of the Noldor" can be quentalë Noldoron or quentalë Noldorinwa, but this refers to the real events rather than an account of them: that part of universal History which concerned the Noldor.) HISTORICAL ACCOUNT quentasta (any particular arrangement, by some author, of a series of reconds or evidences into a given historical account - not History as such, which is quentalë) -NAR2, KWET/VT39:16, LU

HIVE nierwes -LT1:262

HOARD foa (treasure) -LT2:340

HOBBIT: The genitive plural periandion is attested in the Elaine inscription, suggesting that the Quenya word for "hobbit" is #perian (as in Sindarin) with stem #periand-.

HOLE latta (pit - Note: a homophone means "strap"), assa (perforation, opening, mouth), terra (fine pierced hole), unquë (hollow). -DAT, GAS, VT46:18, VT46:20

HOLIDAY meryalë -MBER

HOLLOW (noun) unquë (hole), HOLLOW (adj) unqua, ronta, rotwa; HOLLOW OUT unca- -UNUK, LotR:1157, LT2:347

HOLLOWBOLD Návarot (Nogrod, Novrod) -WJ:389

HOLLY ercassë (probably obsoleting piosenna in LT2:347) -ERÉK

HOLY airë. The word aina also occurs in a number of sources (e.g. VT44:7, 17-18); according to VT43:32 this word is "obsolete except in Ainur", but it may occur in sources post-dating this statement. Yet another word for "holy", aista, is seemingly only attested in a translation of "holy spirit" which Tolkien later replaced with a form including airë instead (see below). HOLY ONE ainu (m.), aini (f.) (angelic spirit, god); HOLY PLACE yána (fane, sanctuary); HOLY SPIRIT airefëa (other version: fairë aista; both versions are attested with the dative ending -n attached) -Nam, AYAN/WJ:399,, YAN, VT43:36, 37

HOME már (also used of the "home" or native land of peoples). VT45:33 and VT46:13 give mar "home, dwelling" with stem mard-. Short form mar as the final element of compounds: Eldamar "Elvenhome"; the vowel is also short in Mar-nu-falmar, "the Land [lit. Home] under the Waves". The word ambar, usually translated "world", is also associated with "home, dwelling" in one source. -Silm:408, 428, VT46:13

HOMESTEAD osta -LT2:336

HONEY lis (liss-). In a far earlier source, reproduced in LT1:262, the word for "honey" was nektë. This would however become nehtë in LotR-style Quenya, since Tolkien later decided that kt becomes ht in Quenya, and in its new form nehtë the word turns up in the Etymologies with the slightly modified meaning "honeycomb". (Note: a homophone means "spear-head, gore, wedge, narrow promontory".) HONEY-BEE nier, nion -LIS, LT1:262, VT45:38, GL:60

HOOD telmë (covering) -TEL

HOOK ampa, atsa (claw, catch); HOOKED rempa (crooked) -LotR:1157/VT47:20, GAT, REP

HOPE (noun) estel -WJ:318 (where it is stated that this word was used in Quenya as well as in Sindarin. Here the word is defined as "'hope', sc. a temper of mind, steady, fixed in purpose, and difficult to dissuade and unlikely to fall into despair or abandon its purpose". In MR:320, estel is translated "trust".)

HORDE horma (host) -LT2:341

HORN rassë, rasco ("especially on living animal, but also applied to mountains". Cf. Rasmund "horned bull" in Letters:423 [this may not be pure Quenya] and Arfanyaras, Arfanyarassë "high white-shining peak [*horn]", alternative name of Taniquetil), romba (so in Etym and one place in WJ [p. 400: romba = "horn, trumpet"] but on p. 368 róma is used for "horn", though this is glossed "trumpet-sound" in Etym), HORN OF ULMO hyalma (shell, conch), tildë (point), (horn of animal:) tarca (probably obsoleting taru in LT2); HORNED tarucca (perhaps obsoleted together with taru), THE HORNED Tilion (a name of the Moon) -RAS/VT46:10, WJ:403/416, ROM/WJ:401 contrast 368, SYAL, TIL, TARÁK, LT2:337,347, Silm:438

HORRIBLE norta -VT46:4

HORROR norto (glossed "a horror").The verb rucin is glossed "I feel fear or horror" (1st pers. aorist), constructed with "from" of the object feared (e.g. *rucin Orcollon "I fear Orcs") -VT46:4, WJ:415

HORSE rocco (defined as "swift horse for riding" in Letters:382, "swift horse" in VT46:12), olombo (but since Tolkien subsequently changed the relevant stem from LOB to LOP, we should perhaps read *olompo), mairo; HORSEMAN roquen (rider, knight) -ROK/Letters:282, 382, VT45:28, GL:56, WJ:372/UT:282

HOST rimbë (crowd), horma (horde) -RIM/Letters:178, 382, LT2:341

HOSTILE cotya -KOT

HOT saiwa; BLAZING HOT úrin (Úrin is also a name of the Sun) -LT1:248/265, LT1:271

HOUND huan (hún-); HOUND OF CHASE ronyo -KHUG (see KHUGAN), ROY

HOUR lúmë (so translated in LotR and in VT43:34; in Etym the gloss is simply "time". Allative lúmenna is attested. Note: lúmë also means "darkness".) THIS HOUR #sillumë (ablative sillumello attested) -LU, LotR:94, WJ:367, VT44:35

HOUSE coa (prob. the most neutral word), opelë (walled house), car (card-) (building), nossë (clan, family, kin, people) (LT2:336 gives indo "house" and os(t) "house and cottage"; these words are probably obsolete - in Tolkien's later Quenya indo means "heart", while osto means "city". Also indor "master of house" must be obsolete.) LIGHT OF THE HOUSE coacalina (a metaphor for the soul [fëa] dwelling inside the body [hroa]) -WJ:369/MR:250/VT47:35, PEL(ES), KAR, NÔ/LT1:250, 343, MR:250

HOW manen -PM:395

HUMAN firya (lit. *"mortal"; nominal pl. Firyar is attested) -PHIR, WJ:219

HUMBLED nucumna -SD:246

HUMP tumpo (stem *tumpu-), HUMPBACK cauco, HUMPED cauca (bent, crooked) -TUMPU, LT1:257

HUNGRY maita -VT39:11

HUNT (noun), HUNTING roimë (the misreading "raime" occurs in the Etymologies as printed in LR; see VT46:12 for this correction). No verb "to hunt" is given in Etym, but roita- "pursue" is derived from the same stem and can probably be translated *"hunt" as well. LT1:260 has rauta- "hunt". -ROY1

HURT (vb) mala- (pain) -QL:63

HUSBAND venno (the published Etymologies gives "verno", but according to VT45:7, this is a misreading of Tolkien's original manuscript); HUSBAND AND WIFE veru (married pair) -BES

HUSH quildë (rest, quiet) -GL:23






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