Él "star", elen being the ordinary word) or a poetic or archaic meaning of an ordinary word



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FACE anta; SWEET-FACED raina (smiling, gracious). NOTE: A homophone means "nettled, enlaced". -ANA, VT44:35

FADE sinta- (Þ) (pa.t. sintanë is given, though it seems perfectly regular), fir- (die), fifíru- ("slowly fade away", frequentative form of fir-; the participal form fifírula is attested); FADING quellë (In the Calendar of Imladris, quellë was a precisely defined period of 54 days in late autumn. Also called lasselanta; see AUTUMN.) -THIN, MC:222/223, LotR:1141

FAËRY Inwilis, Inwinórë (another gloss, "England", was struck out) -LT1:256

FAINT néca (vague, dim to see) -MC:222/223

FAIR vanima (beautiful, proper, right), vanë, melima, linda (the latter = fair/beautiful of sound, VT45:27); FAIR FOLK Vanimo (pl. Vanimor is given but seems perfectly regular; the word is said to apply to the "children of the Valar"). FAIR-MINDED faila (generous, just), NOT FAIR úvanima (ugly) FAIRWAY londë (road in sea). -BAN/VT39:14, LT1:272, MEL, SLIN, PM:352, VT39:14, VT45:28

FAITHFUL voronda, vórima (steadfast) -UT:317, LT1:250

FALL (vb) lanta- (pres. pl. lantar, pl. past lantaner and part. #lantala are attested); FALL (noun) lanta or #lantë. (The first of these words occurs in the compound lasselanta "leaf-fall, Autumn", while #lantë is isolated from Noldolantë "the Fall of the Noldor". From these examples it appears that a lanta is a physical fall, while a lantë is a moral fall. Perhaps the latter word can also be applied to a military defeat, as in "the fall of Gondolin".) THE FALLEN (= Númenor) Atalantë -DAT/DANT/MC:222, Nam, SD:246, LT1:254, Silm:102/414, TALÁT

FALLOW marya (fawn, pale), malwa (pale) -MAD, SMAL

FAMILIAR moina (dear) -MOY

FAMILY nossë (clan, "house"), nórë, -nor (land, country, dwelling-place, nation, native land) -NÔ, LT1:272

FANE yána (holy place, sanctuary) -YAN

FANG carca (tooth, tusk) -Silm:429, LT2:344

FAR haira, eccaira, avahaira; FAR AWAY (adj) vahaia (or (a)vaháya, VT45:21), FAR AWAY, FAR OFF (adv.) háya; FAR AND WIDE palan (or "wide, over a wide space, to a distance", VT45:21), FAR-SEER palantir, "FAR-WANDERER" (the name of a ship) Palarran -KHAYA, SD:247, Silm:435, TIR, UT:460

FAREWELL namárië -Nam

FARMER nandor (perhaps obsolete in LotR-style Quenya, clashing with the name of the Nandor, a tribe of Elves) -LT1:261

FASTEN #tac- (listed as tacë, 3rd pers. sg. aorist), pa.t. tancë. -TAK

FAT (adj.) tiuca (thick), lárëa (rich); GROW FAT tiuya- (swell). FAT (noun) lar (also used = riches), larma (the latter possibly "pig-fat"; the first part of the gloss is not certainly legible in Tolkien's manuscript. Another gloss of larma is "flesh".) -TIW, VT45:26

FATE umbar (umbart-) (doom; the form amarto in LT2:348 is no doubt obsolete, but ambar from the same source may be a valid word also in LotR-style Quenya - see DOOM), marto (fortune, lot); manar, mandë (doom, final end, fortune [usually = final bliss]); FATED marta (which adjective also seems to be the noun "fate" in later sources; see VT45:33, VT46:13). -MBARAT/LotR:1157, MANAD, VT45:33/VT46:12

FATHER atar (pl. atari in Etym, though the pl. form #atári occurs as part of the compound Atanatári). Dative ataren is attested (VT43:36-37). Forms like atar, atarinya ("my father") as well as atya "daddy" are said to be forms a child would use in addressing his or her father (VT47:26; see DADDY). The final version of the Lord's Prayer (VT43:12, 13) has #Átar with a long initial vowel (Átaremma "our father"); this #Átar may incorporate the vocative particle a (*a Atar "o Father" > #Átar). FATHER OF ALL Ilúvatar (God). -Silm:428, 229/ATA/LT1:255, VT44:16, Silm:404/UT:446, VT43:37

FATHOM (noun) rangwë -RAK

FAWN marya (fallow, pale) -MAD

FAY OF THE COUNTRY nandin (dryad), FAY OF THE MEADS Nermi (pl. Nermir is attested) (field-spirit) -LT1:261, 262

FËANOR Fëanáro (Spirit of Fire) -Silm:397/435, MR:217

FEAR (noun) caurë; FEAR (vb) #ruc- (the 1st person aorist rucin is glossed "I feel fear or horror", constructed with "from" of the object feared, e.g. *rucin Orcollon "I fear Orcs") -LT1:257, WJ:415

FEAST meren (merend-), merendë (festival); FESTIVE merya -MBER

FEATHER quessë -KWES, LotR:1157

FEBRUARY Nénimë (Amillion in LT1:249 is hardly a valid word in LotR-style Quenya.) -LotR:1144

FEEL FEAR OR HORROR #ruc- (cited in source as rucin, 1st pers. aorist), constructed with "from" of the object feared. -WJ:415

FEEL WITH FINGERTIPS lepta- ([to] finger; to pick up/out with the fingers) -VT44:16, VT47:10, 25

FEEL WITH THE HAND, see STROKE

FEELING, see EMOTION

FELL (adj) aica (sharp, terrible, dire). -PM:347

FELL (noun) helma (skin) -SKEL

FEMALE (noun) , FEMALE (adj.) inya, inimeitë (pl. probably *inimeisi; cf. HANDED, LEAPING, WINDY) -INI

FENCED FIELD peler, FENCING OR DEFENSIVE HEIGHTS Pelóri -PEL(ES), WJ:403

FESTIVAL asar (Vanyarin athar) (fixed time), meren (merend-), merendë (feast); FESTIVE merya -WJ:399, MBER

FETCH tulta- (send for, summon) -TUL

FEY marta (fated) -MBARAT

FIELD (sown field) resta (acre). FIELD-SPIRIT Nermi (pl. Nermir is attested) (fay of the meads) - VT46:11 cf. RED, LT1:262

FIERY uruitë, úruva (The stem from which these words are derived was struck out in Etym. However, several words that must be derived from this stem occur in LotR, indicating that Tolkien restored it. LT1:248 also gives sára "fiery", but this word is probably obsoleted by sára "bitter" in Etym.) -UR

FIGHT (WITH SWORD) mahta- (wield a weapon, manage, deal with, handle) -MAK/MA3, VT39:11, VT45:30-32, VT47:6, 18, 19

FILL quat- (fut #quantuva is attested in enquantuva, "will refill") -WJ:392, Nam; cf. KWAT

FINAL tyelima, métima (ultimate, last); FINAL END mande, manar (fortune, bliss, fate), telda (last) -MC:222 cf. 215, MANAD, WJ:411

FINARFIN Arafinwë -MR:230

FIND #hir- (only fut hiruva is attested), #tuv- (only perf #utúvië is attested [with pronominal endings: utúvienyes "I have found it"]). It is difficult to say what distintion in meaning there may be between these words (if any at all); the verb #tuv- is evidently the same as tuvu- in GL:71, there glossed "receive". -Nam/RGEO:67, LotR:1008

FINE tereva (acute, piercing); FINE PIERCED HOLE terra -TER, VT46:18

FINE RAIN rossë (dew, spray) -ROS cf. Letters:282

FINGER (noun) leper (pl. leperi given). In an earlier source, the Etymologies, Tolkien gave the Quenya word for "finger" as lepsë (possibly with stem lepsi-, as indicated by the deleted ancestral form lepti, see VT45:27). The term ortil (ortill-, pl. ortilli given), "up-point", is also used for "finger". Special words for the various fingers, see THUMB, INDEX FINGER/FIRST FINGER, MIDDLE FINGER, FOURTH FINGER, LITTLE FINGER. Adj. FINGERED #lepta (isolated from raccalepta "clawfingered") PICK (UP, OUT) WITH THE FINGERS or FEEL WITH FINGERTIPS lepta- -VT44:16/VT45:27/VT47:10 14, 24, LEP, SD:68, 72

FINGER (vb) lepta- (feel with fingertips; to pick up/out with the fingers) -VT44:16, VT47:10, 25

FINGOLFIN Nolofinwë -PM:344 (In the source,, Nolofinwë is spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the spelling of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But if this word is written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.)

FINGON Findecáno -PM:345

FINISH (vb) tele- (intransitive) (end) (so in WJ:411 - LT1:267 gives telu-) telya- (transitive) (wind up, conclude). Cf. also telma "conclusion, anything used to finish off a work or affair", "often applied to the last item in a structure, such as a coping-stone, or a topmost pinnacle." FINISH (noun) telu -WJ:411, LT1:267

FINROD Findaráto -Silm:428/PM:346

FIRE úr (the stem from which this word is derived was struck out in Etym. However, several words that must be derived from this stem occur in LotR, indicating that Tolkien restored it. But a more usual word for "fire" is apparently nár, nárë, which appear [with the masculine ending -o] in the following names:) SPIRIT OF FIRE Fëanáro (Fëanor), FELL FIRE Aicanáro (Sharp Flame, Aegnor) (so in Silm:435; MR:323 has Aicanár). LT1:265 has "fire", poetic form sai, also sairin "fiery"; cf. also Sáya "the fire-fay" in GL:66. LT:271 has the following "fire"-words: FIRE uru, FIERY uruvoitë, ON FIRE urwa, LIKE FIRE urúva. Cf. also FIREWOOD turu (but the word was also used of wood in general). BOWL OF FIRE tanyasalpë (evindently #tanya "fire" + #salpë "bowl") -UR/VT46:20, Silm:397, MR:217, LT1:265, 270, 271, 292

FIRM tulca (strong, immovable, steadfast; Note: there is a homophone verb meaning "fix, set up, establish"), tulunca (steady), sanda (true, abiding), tanca (fixed, sure) -TULUK, LT1:270, STAN, TAK

FIRST minya (cf. Minyar "Firsts", the first clan among the Elves), inga (this is also a noun "top"), *yesta; FIRSTBORN (= the Elves) Minnónar, sg. #Minnóna. (*Yesta is emended from the actual reading esta; see BEGINNING. For FIRSTBORN, Etym has Estanessi, which would similarly become *Yestanessi, but this word is propably obsoleted by the later [TLT] form Minnónar. Writers should use the latter word.) FIRST-BEGOTTEN Minyon (a personal name. The element yon, translated "begotten", may be a reduced form of yondo "son". Alternatively, and perhaps more likely, Minyon may be the adjective minya "first" turned into a masculine name by adding the masculine ending -on. In that case, the literal meaning is simply *"First One". But it is possible that on is actually derived from the stem ONO "beget", and that "First-begotten" really is the literal meaning.) FIRST FINGER lepetas (evidently lepetass-) (index finger) -MIN/Silm:434/WJ:420, ING, ESE, WJ:403, VT47:10

FISH lingwë (stem *lingwi-) (perhaps the general word, as opposed to hala), SMALL FISH hala, "FISH-WATCHER" (i.e., kingsfisher, a bird) halatir (halatirn-) or halatirno -LIW, SKAL2, TIR

FIST quár, quárë (often used to mean "hand"). "Its chief use was in reference to the tightly closed hand as in using an implement or a craft-tool rather than the 'fist' as used in punching" (VT47:8). In compounds -quar: Telperinquar = Sindarin Celebrimbor, "Silver-Fist, Hand of Silver". The first version of the stem KWAR yielded quár pl. quari. -KWAR, Silm:429/387

FIT (adj.) mára (useful, good); TO (MAKE) FIT camta- (sic; the cluster mt seems unusual for Quenya, and while the source does not explicitly say that this word is Quenya, it is difficult to understand what other language could be intended) (suit, accomosate, adapt) -MAG, VT44:14

FIVE lempë; GROUP OF FIVE (5 similar things) maqua (basically "hand", with 5 fingers), PAIR OF FIVES maquat (see GROUP OF TEN). -LEP/GL:53, VT47:7, 10, 24

FIFTEEN lepenquë -VT48:21

FIFTH lempëa, replacing older (MET) lemenya -VT42:25

FIX panya- (set), tulca- (establish, set up. Note: there is a homophone adjective meaning "firm, steadfast, strong, immoveable"); FIXED tanca (sure, firm); BE FIXED mar- (abide, be settled). FIXED TIME asar (-th-, Vanyarin athar) (festival), FIXED IDEA see IDEA -PAN, LT1:270 cf. TULUK, TAK, UT:317, WJ:399

FLAG ambal (shaped stone) -MBAL

FLAME nár, nárë, velca; SHARP-FLAME Aicanáro (so in Silm:435; MR:323 has Aicanár), (Aegnor, Fell Fire), RED FLAME rúnya; HEART OF FLAME Naira (a name of the Sun), FLAME-COLOURED culina, culda (golden-red) -NAR1, LT1:260, Silm:437, MR:198, KUL

FLAT lára; FLAT OF THE HAND, see PALM. -DAL

FLEECE -LT1:249

FLASHING OR [?STARRY] LIGHT élë -VT45:12

FLESH hrávë, larma (the latter also = "[?pig-]fat"; the first part of the gloss is not certainly legible), sarco; FLESHY sarqua -MR:349, VT45:26, LT2:347

FLINTHEARTED sincahonda -LotR:1015 cf. SD:68, 72

?FLINTSTONE #sinca (isolated from sincahonda "flinthearted") -LotR:1015 cf. SD:68, 72

FLOAT lutu- (LT1:273 has wili- "sail, float, fly", but see FLY.) -LT1:249

FLOOD (tide), celumë (stream, flow, flowing), ulundë, lúto; FLOODING (adj) úlëa (flowing, pouring) -ULU, KEL/MC:223, LT1:249

FLOOR talan (#talam-, as in pl. talami) (ground); PAVED FLOOR paca (court) -TAL, GL:63

FLOUR porë (stem *pori-) (meal) -POR

FLOURISH (noun) rincë (stem *rinci-) (quick stroke) -RIK, VT46:11 (the latter source indicating that the proper reading is "quick stroke", not "quick shake" as in the Etymologies as printed in LR)

FLOW (vb) sir-, lutta-, lutu-; FLOW, FLOWING (noun) celumë (stream, flood); FLOWING (adj) úlëa (flooding, pouring), sírima (liquid). -SIR, LT1:249, KEL/MC:223, LT1:265

FLOWER (large and single) lótë (often -lot in compounds). (The word lótë is usually applied to a large, single flower. From *ambalotsë "uprising-flower" [q.v.] #lotsë can be isolated; this may be the more general word for "flower".) FLOWER OF THE WEST (a floral design) Númellóte. Cf. also indil, "lily, or other large single flower". PUT FORTH LEAVES OR FLOWERS *lohta- (emended from the actual reading lokta because Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya) (sprout) -LOT(H), LT1:259, WJ:318, UT:227, 458, WJ:399, LT:258

FLUTE simpa, simpina (pipe); FLUTER timpinen -LT1:266, 268

FLUTTERING TO AND FRO wilwa -MC:223

FLY (verb) #wil- (cited in source as wilin "I fly", 1st pers. aorist), pa.t. willë (cf. wili- "sail, float, fly" in LT1:273). In exilic Quenya, read v- for w- in these words. FLY TO (i.e. "escape to") #ruc- (+ allative, e.g. *rucin i orontinnar "I fly to the mountains"; the verb ruc- otherwise means "fear", constructed with "from" of the object feared); FLY OR STREAM IN THE WIND hlapu- (part. hlápula is attested), FLYING rimpa (rushing); SEND FLYING horta- -WIL, VT44:7, MC:223, RIP, KHOR

FLY (noun) (small insect) -VT47:35

FOAM (vb) falasta- (part. falastala is attested); FOAM (noun) fallë, winga (spray), wingë (wingi-) (crest [of wave], spindrift). -MC:222/223, PHAL, WIG, LT1:273

FOG hísë (Þ) (hísi-) (mist. Note: a homophone means "dusk"), hiswë, hui (murk, dark, night) -KHIS, LT1:253

FOIL (plant) asëa -LotR:899

FOLIAGE olassië (collection of leaves), farnë (archaic faznë). Note that farnë is also the pa.t. of farya- as well as a word for "dwelling", so olassië is the less ambiguous term. -Letters:282, VT46:9

FOLK hos -LT2:340

FOLLOW hilya- FOLLOWER neuro; FOLLOWERS (an Elvish name of Men) Hildor, Hildi (unattested sg #Hildo; dative pl hildin is attested; cf also Hildinyar "my heirs" in Elendil's Oath). -KHIL/Silm:116/122/403, FS/WJ:387, LotR:1003, 1004

FOOD matl (read *matil since Tolkien decided that final syllabic -l became -il in Quenya); COOKED FOOD apsa -QL:59, AP

FOOT tál (tal-) (These forms probably obsolete tala pl talwi in LT2:347.) FOOTPRINT runya (slot) -TAL, RUN

FOR an (Nam: an sí...Varda...máryat...ortanë, "for now...Varda...has uplifted her hands". Note: an is also glossed "to, till".) English "for" meaning "for the benefit of" will often be rendered by the dative ending -n (pl -in); e.g. nin "for me". As for "for" meaning "on behalf of", see BEHALF. -Nam

FORBID #váquet- (refuse, say no) (1st pers. sg aorist and past váquetin, váquenten are given in source), avaquet- (refuse) (pa.t. is no doubt *avaquentë; cf. quet- under SAY) -WJ:370, KWET

FORCE (= pressure to do something against one's will or conscience) sahtië (Þ) (pressure) -VT43:22

#FORD tarna (This gloss is isolated from Taruktarna "Oxford", q.v. Tolkien glossed tarna as "crossing, passage") -LT1:347

FOREIGN ettelëa ("ettelen" in the printed Etymologies is probably a misreading; see VT45:12); this word may also be a noun "stranger", q.v. FOREIGN PARTS ettelë (outer lands) (but the Quenya word is singular) -ET, VT45:12

FORESIGHT *apacen (lit. *"after-sight", a vision of something that will come after the present. In MR:216, apacenyë is translated "foresight"; yet the context and the form of the word itself clearly indicates that it is actually the pl. form of an adjective #apacenya "of foresight". The noun "foresight" is almost certainly *apacen; cf. tercen "insight".) -MR:216

FOREST taurë ([great] wood) (pl. tauri is attested), tauno, málos (the two latter may not be valid words in Tolkien's later Quenya) -TAWAR/Silm:438/MC:222 cf 215/VT39:7, LT2:342, LT1:267

FORGE - LT1:250 gives tamin, but this verb is probably obsoleted by tamin "I tap" in Etym.

FORGIVE #avatyar- (imperative avatyara and the pl. aorist avatyarir are attested). The matter that is forgiven is the direct object, whereas the person that is forgiven appears in the ablative case: avatyara mello lucassemmar, "forgive us [lit. from us] our debts". This verb #avatyar- occurs in certain versions of Tolkien's Quenya rendering of the Lord's Prayer; in the latest version he introduced the verb apsene- "remit, release, forgive" instead, with a slightly different syntax: the matter forgiven is still the direct object, but the person forgiven now appears in the dative case. The exact etymology of apsene- is somewhat obscure; the prefix ap- is apparently derived from a root AB- in a meaning which Tolkien according to other sources abandoned (see VT43:18-19); also, it is unclear whether the final -e of apsene- is just the connecting vowel of the aorist (before endings we would rather expect *apseni-) or an integral part of the verbal stem, which would make this an "E-stem" verb otherwise hardly attested. The verb apsene- is once attested with the object ending -t "them" attached: apsenet "[as we] forgive them". The alternative verb #avatyar- is for many reasons less problematic and may be preferred by writers. -VT43:8, 9, 18-20

FORLORN úna (deprived of, destitute) -VT39:14

FORM car- (make, q.v.) -WJ:391

FORMER, THE yara (that); FORMER DAYS yárë; FORMER TIMES yalúmë; FORMERLY (ago), BELONGING TO OR DESCENDING FROM FORMER TIMES yára (ancient, old) -YA

FORSAKE hehta- (pa.t. hehtanë is given but seems perfectly regular) (put aside, leave out, exclude, abandon); FORSAKEN ELVES see EGLATH. ONE LOST OR FORSAKEN BY FRIENDS hecil (gender-spesific forms are hecilo m. and hecilë f.) (waif, outcast, outlaw) -WJ:365

FORT arta (fortress) (Note: arta also means "across, athwart") -GARAT (see 3AR)

FORTH et- (prefix) (out) -ET

FORTRESS arta (fort) (Note: arta also means "across, athwart") -GARAT (see 3AR)

FORTUNE (good) alma (weal, wealth); mandë, manar (final end, doom, fate); heren (governance, what is in store for one or what one has in store); marto (fate, lot); FORTUNATE herenya (wealthy, blessed, rich) -GALA, MAN/MANAD, KHER, LT2:348

FOUL saura (Þ) (evil-smelling, putrid); in compounds sauri- as in FOULBELLIED sauricumba. The latter form may indicate that this adjective also appears in an alternative form *saurë, sauri-. -THUS, SD:68, 72

FOUNDATION talma (base, root) -TAL

FOUNTAIN ehtelë (issue of water, spring).The actual reading in LT1 and LT2 is ektelë, but Tolkien later decided that kt became ht in Quenya. The new form of the word is attested in Silm. LT also gives the form kektelë, that would likewise become *cehtelë.) -LT1:257, LT2:338

FOUR canta, (prefix:) can- -KANÁT, VT45:18

FOURTEEN canaquë -VT48:21

FOURTH cantëa; FOURTH FINGER lepecan, in children's play also called nettë (prob. netti-), "sister", a word also used for the fourth toe, or in two-hand play for the ninth digit. The word selyë "daughter" was also introduced as a name for the fourth finger/toe in childrens play (VT47:10), but Tolkien apparendly abandoned it (VT47:15). -VT42:25, VT47:10-12, 15

FOX rusco (stem ruscu-, pl. rusqui) -PM:353, VT41:10

FREE (adj.) léra, aranya (not to be confused with aranya *"my king"; the shorter form ranya also cited must not be confused with the verb "stray, wander"), mirima (of a person, as opposed to:) latin, latina (open, cleared [of land]), lerina ("free" of things in the sense of "not guarded, reserved, made fast, or 'owned'", VT41:5), Cf. also lehta "free, released". FREE ELEMENT (a term for "vowel") #lehta tengwë (only pl. lehta tengwi is attested; we would rather expect *lehtë tengwi). (A word fairë "free" is mentioned in LT1:250, but may be obsolete: several other meanings are attributed to this word in later writings [see DEATH, PHANTOM, RADIANCE]. However, fairië "freedom" does not clash with later words.) FREE FROM EVIL aman (see BLESSED) -VT41:5, VT46:10, MIS, LAT, VT39:17, WJ:399

FREE (verb) rúna- (see DELIVER); SET FREE lerya- (release, let go), sen- (let go, let loose) -VT43:23, VT41:5, 6, VT43:18

FREEZE niquë- ("it is cold, it freezes"). LT1:254 gives hilcin "it freezes", but in LotR-style Quenya this will have to mean, if anything, "I freeze" (1st pers. aorist). -WJ:417, LT1:254

FREQUENT rimba -RIM

FRESH venya, archaic wenya (yellow-green, green), virya; FRESHNESS vén, wén (youth, greenness) -GWEN, VT46:22

FRESHLET celussë (water falling out swiftly from a rocky spring) -UT:426

FRIEND málo, meldo (pl meldor is attested). Apparently meldo is a masculine form, corresponding to feminine #meldë (cf. meldenya *"my friend" in the Elaine inscription, Tolkien here referring to Elaine Griffiths). Other words for "friend": nildo (m.), nildë (f.), sermo, seron (m.), sermë (f.), -ser (final element in compounds), -(n)dil (final element in compounds, e.g. Elendil, Anardil, Valandil - sometimes translated "lover" rather than "friend". When the first part of the compound ends in l, n, or r, the n of -ndil is left out).The final element -ndil also appears in the variant form -nil and with the longer forms -nildo, -dildo (VT46:4). FRIENDLY nilda (lovely), FRIENDSHIP nilmë -MEL, WJ:412 cf. VT45:34, NIL, SER, Letters:386

FROG quácë -VT47:36

FROM: Independent Quenya prepositons for "from" include ho and va, var; however, English "from" will often be rendered using the ablative case, endings -llo, pl -llon or -llor, dual -lto, e.g. Eärello *"from the Sea". The preposition et "forth, out" may also express "out" and is combined with the ablative case to express "out from", "out of". -3O, VT43:20, 24, LotR:1003, VT44:35

FROST nixë, ringwë (rime), FROST-PATTERNS niquis, niquessë (the latter by association with quessë "feather") -WJ:417, LT1:265

FROZEN halcin -LT1:254

FRUIT yávë (so in Etym, Silm:439, and VT43:31; LT1:273 has yáva, whereas yava appears in VT43:31). BEAR FRUIT yavin (which must mean *"I bear fruit", stem #yav-. Tolkien often employs the 1st person aorist when mentioning a verb in his wordlists.) -YAB, LT1:273

FULL quanta (+ genitive to express "full of", as in quanta Eruanno "full of grace", VT43:28); FULL TO THE BRIM, WITH MOUTH FULL penquanta ("peñ), FULLY aqua (completely, altogether, wholly); FULL WRITING (= writing with separate symbols for vowels) quanta sarmë, FULL STOP (in Tengwar punctuation a dot placed under a consonant to indicate that it is not followed by a vowel, VT46:10, 33) pusta (stop), FULL SIGN #quanta tengwë (only pl. quantë tengwi is attested). In early Elvish analysis of Quenya, this was the term for a consonant + a vowel (this was analyzed as a kind of unitary phoneme rather than two phonemes; hence a stem like mata- "eat" was analyzed as two quantë tengwi: ma + ta). -KWAT/VT43:28, VT39:11, WJ:392, VT39:8, PUS

FUNGUS hwan (hwand-, as in pl. hwandi) (sponge) -SWAD

FURTHER, FURTHERMORE (adv.) entë (moreover, what is more) -VT47:15



GALADRIEL Altariel (Altariell-; gen. Altariello is attested. Altariel is the form used in Noldorin Quenya, Galadriel's own mother-tongue; the Telerin form is Alatáriel [UT:266]. According to PM:347, the true Quenya equivalent of the Telerin form would have been Ñaltariel, but this form was apparently not used.) -Silm:433, RGEO:66

GAME tyalië (sport, play) -TYAL/LT1:260

GANDALF Olórin (his name in Valinor, derived from a stem meaning "dream" - not an actual translation of "Gandalf", meaning "Elf of the Wand", a name he was given by people who did not know that he was actually a Maia.) -LotR:391, UT:396 cf. 391

GAOL #mando (isolated from Angamando "Iron-Gaol"; mando is also defined as "safe keeping"). -MR:350

GAP fásë (gulf) -GL:36

GARLAND ría (wreathe); MAIDEN CROWNED WITH A FESTIVAL GARLAND riellë -PM:347

GASH cirissë (slash), hyatsë (cleft) -KIRIS, SYAD

GATE ando; GREAT GATE andon (pl andondi). (LT1:264 has osto "the gates of the Sun" and Ostor "East", but in Tolkien's later Quenya osto means "town" or "fortress".) -AD, LotR:1157, LT1:264

GATHER hosta- (collect, assemble); GATHERING (of three or more coming from different directions) yomenië (meeting) -MC:223, WJ:407

GENEROUS faila (fair-minded, just) -PM:352

GENTLE milya (soft, weak) (Note: milya- is also a verb "long for"), moica (soft), GENTLE BREEZE vílë -VT45:34, GL:58, LT1:273

GET net- (pa.t. nentë given) - QL:66

GET LOW (of the Sun) númeta-, númenda- -LT1:263

GERM erdë (seed. Note: a homophone means "person".) -ERÉD

GESTURE-CODE hwermë -WJ:395, VT39:5

GIANT (noun) norsa (Þ) (see also MONSTER). Another word for "giant", hanaco, Tolkien later struck out. -NOROTH, VT45:21

GIFT anna; LAND OF GIFT (a name of Númenor) Andor (haplology of *Annandor), DEAR GIFT (the meaning of Melian's name) Melyanna, GIFT OF GOD, see GRACE. -ANA, Silm:313, 434

GIMILZÔR Telemnar -UT:223

GIMLET teret (auger) -LT1:255

GIRDLE #lesta (isolated from #Lestanórë; see DORIATH. #Lesta is the cognate of Sindarin lest as in Lest [or List] Melian "the Girdle of Melian" [WJ:228]. Note: #lesta also means "measure".) GIRDLE, BELT quilta. -WJ:369, Silm:390, QL:78

GIRL wen (stem wend-, as in the pl. wendi) (maid). The word seldë was not clearly glossed by Tolkien, but appears to mean "female child", hence "girl". -LT1:271, VT46:13

GIVE anta-. In one text, Tolkien apparently used ana as the imperative "give!", but the text was rewritten and this may have been an ephemeral form (VT44:13). GIVER antë (f), anto (m) (the latter word from Etym is probably obsoleted by anto "mouth" in LotR:1157 - an alternative word for "[male] giver" might be *antando). Another fem. word for "giver" is #ánië, isolated from massánië (see BREAD-GIVER). -ANA, VT44:13, PM:404

GIVE BIRTH nosta- (but in later sources, nosta- is glossed "beget", q.v.) -LT1:272

GIVEN (OR ADDED) NAME anessë (pl anessi is attested. This word encompasses both "after-names" and "mother-names".) -MR:217

GLAMHOTH Sancossi (see GOBLIN) -LT2:341

GLASS calca, hyellë, hyelma (the latter perhaps = "a glass", whereas hyellë could be glass as a substance), maril (crystal - perhaps with stem marill-). LITTLE GLASS lipil. Cf. also vírin, "a magic glassy substance of great lucency used in fashioning the Moon" -VT47:35, KHYEL/VT45:23, VT46:13, LT1:258, LT2:339

GLAURUNG see GLORUND

GLEAM (WHITE) ilca- (part. ilcala is attested) -MC:223

GLINT (vb) tinë (pres 3rd pers sg); GLINT (noun) tindë, wintil; GLINTING tinda (silver) -TIN, LT1:261

GLITTER (vb) mirilya-; GLITTERING rilya (in the Etymologies as printed in LR, this word also seemed to be glossed "brilliance", but according to VT46:11, this gloss properly refers to another word), GLITTERING LIGHT rilma; GLITTERING REFLECTION (from jewels, glass, polished metals, or water) nalta (radiance - alata in Silm:433 is the Telerin form. In PM:347, nalta is spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But if this word is written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) -MBIRIL, RIL/VT46:11, PM:347

GLOBE coron (#corn-, as in dat.sg. cornen) (ball); GLOBED corna (round) -KOR

GLOOM ungwë, lumbë (shadow), huinë (darkness, shadow), lómë (stem lómi-) (night, twilight, darkness, dusk), yaru; GLOOMY morna (black, dark, sombre); CHILD OF GLOOM lómëar (probably not a valid word in LotR-style Quenya) -UÑG, LUM, VT41:8, GL:37, LT1:255, Silm:431

GLORIOUS alcarinqua (radiant) (The shorter form alcarin is attested in VT44:10 and also as a title of king Atanatar II. Cf. also Alcarinquë, a name of Jupiter.) The form alcarë appears as an adjective "glorious" in VT44:10, but this was apparently an ephemeral form, and the Etymologies, alcarë is rather a longer form of the noun alcar "glory". -AKLA-R-, WJ:412, RGEO:73/LotR:1075/VT44:10, Silm:55

GLORUND, GLORUNN Laurundo, Undolaurë (Tolkien later changed Glorund to Glaurung. Read *Laurungo, *Ungolaurë in Quenya?) -LT2:341

GLORY alcar, alcarë (splendour, brilliance) In VT44:10, alcarë is an adjective "glorious" rather than a noun "glory", but this was apparently an ephemeral form. -AKLA-R-/RGEO:73/UT:317/WJ:369/Silm:427, VT43:37, VT44:34, VT47:13

GNOME (only = wise one, Noldo) Noldo (spelt Ngoldo [Ñoldo] in Tengwar writing, reflecting the earlier pronounciation); pl. Noldor is attested. GNOMISH (general adjective:) Noldorinwa, (Gnomish language:) Noldorin, GNOME-LAND Noldomar -LT1:262, Silm:61, LotR:1157, VT39:16

GO lelya- or lenna- (pa.t. lendë in both cases; the printed Etymologies gives "linna" instad of lenna-, but according to VT45:27 this is a misreading) (proceed, travel); #men- (attested in the aorist: menë "goes"), vanya- (pa.t. vannë) (depart, disappear – it may be that Tolkien abandoned the verb vanya-, if it is regarded as the conceptual predecessor of auta-, see GO AWAY below), GO ROUND pel- (revolve, return); GO ATHWART tara- (cross); GO AWAY auta- (leave, pass); pa.t. oantë, perf. oantië (in the physical sense "went away [to another place]", vánë ("the most frequently used past [tense]" - less "physical" than oantë, rather meaning to be lost or to disappear), also anwë (this pa.t. was "only found in archaic language"), perf. avánië (pl. avánier is attested); perf. vánië with no augment may occur in verse. CAUSE TO GO (in a desired direction) menta- (send), GONE vanwa (departed, vanished, dead, lost, past and over, no longer to be had) BE GONE! heca! - also with pronominal affixes: sg hecat, pl hecal "you be gone!" (stand aside!) LET GO lerya- (release, set free), sen- (let loose, free) -WJ:363, LED/VT45:27, VT47:11, 30, PEL, LT2:347, WAN, Nam, WJ:364, VT41:5, WJ:366, VT41:5, VT43:18

GOAT - she-goat: nyéni -LT1:262

GOBLET súlo (stem *súlu-), fion -SUG (see SUK), LT1:253

GOBLIN (Orc) urco (stem *urcu-, pl urqui) or orco (stem *orcu-, pl. orqui, or stem *orco-, pl. orcor); THE GOBLINS Sancossi (sancë "hateful" + hossi "armies", said to be the Quenya equivalent of Sindarin Glamhoth)

-ÓROK, LT2:202/MR:74/WJ:390, LT2:341

GOD Eru ("The One, He that is Alone", "the One God", a proper name that can hardly be used as a common noun meaning "god" in general. The form Eru may obsolete Enu in LT2:343. Genitive Eruo, VT43:32; dative Erun, VT44:32). Other names/titles: Ilúvatar "Father of All", Ainatar *"Holy-Father". GOD (in general, "a god") aino (this word from PE15:72 is the equivalent of ainu within Tolkien's mythos, but since aino could be interpreted as simply a personalized form of aina "holy", it can perhaps be adapted as a general word for "god" or "holy one"). PAGAN GOD ainu, PAGAN GODDESS aini (angelic spirit, holy one). (As Christopher Tolkien notes, the Ainur are of course not "pagan" to the people of Middle-earth. In Etym and Silm, Ainu/Aini is capitalized.) SON OF GOD (Jesus) Eruion, MOTHER OF GOD (Mary, in Tolkien's Quenya renderings of Catholic prayers) Eruamillë (also Eruontari, Eruontarië *"God-begetter") -Silm:15/396/431, Letters:387, VT44:16-17, 34, LT1:248 cf. AYAN and Silm:426, VT43:32, VT44:7, 16-17, 18 34

GODWINE (name, "God-friend") Valandil (sc. *"Vala-friend") -VT46:4

GOLD (the metal) malta (so in LotR - Etym has malda [stem SMAL], but cf. the archaic form smalta mentioned under LAWAR); GOLD laurë (= "not the metal but the colour, what we should call golden light", Letters:308, "of light and colour, not of the metal", Silm:433, "not a metallic word. It was applied to those things which we often call 'golden' though they do not much resemble metallic gold: golden light, especially sunlight", RGEO:70, "a word for golden light or colour, never used for the metal", PM:353, "light of the golden Tree Laurelin", LR:368; a "mystic name" of gold, LT1:255 [no doubt an obsolete notion]; in LT1:258 and LT2:341 the gloss is simply "gold".) RED GOLD †cullo (obsoleting culu in LT2:341? In LT1:255 culu is said to be a poetic word for "gold", but also used mythically as a name of all red and yellow metals), GOLDEN laurëa (pl laurië is attested; LT1:258 has laurina), GOLDEN-RED culda, culina (flame-coloured); (cf. Silm. Appendix: "cul- 'golden-red' in Culúrien") -LotR:1157/SMAL, Letters:308/RGEO:70/LAWAR, KUL, RGEO:70/Nam, Silm:429

GONDOLIN Ondolindë ("Stone Song", so in Silm:149, 415; LT1:254 gives Ondolinda, changed from Ondolin) -LT1:254

GONE vanwa (departed, lost, past) -WAN, Nam

GONG tombo -LT1:269

GOOD (of things) mára (fit, useful), GOOD (morally good) manë; GOODBYE mára mesta -MAG (see MA3), LT1:260, Arct

GOODS armar (sg #arma if there is a sg) -3AR

GOOSE ván, wán (pl. váni is given, but seems perfectly regular) -WA-N-

GORE nasta (spear-point, spear-head, triangle), nehtë (spearhead, narrow promontory, wedge. Note: a homophone means "honeycomb"), mear (from a root possibly meaning "ooze") -SNAS/VT46:14, UT:282, LT1:260

GORGE cilya (pass between hills, cleft) (so in Etym, but cf. #cirya in the name Calacirya "Pass of Light" [gen. Calaciryo in Namárië] - though this clashes with cirya "ship". An early version of Namárië actually had Calacilyo, not Calaciryo; see An Introduction to Elvish p. 5) -KIL

GORTHAUR Sauron (Þ) -Silm:418 cf. THUS

GOSPEL evandilyon -QL:36

GOTHMOG Cosomot (prob. *Cosomoc-, cf the alternative form Cosomoco) -LT1:258

GOVERN #tur- (attested as turin "I...govern", 1st pers. aorist), pa.t. turnë (wield, control). LT1:273 has vard- "rule, govern", but this is hardly a valid word in LotR-style Quenya. -TUR

GOVERNANCE heren (fortune) -KHER

GOVERNOR cáno (chieftain, commander; see COMMANDER for details) -PM:345, 361-362

GRACE #Eruanna (literally *"God-gift, gift of God"), attested in the genitive form Eruanno. Also #erulissë, literally "God-sweetness" (attested in the instrumental case: erulissenen), or simply lissë, literally "sweetness". -VT43:28, 29, VT44:18

GRACIOUS raina (smiling, sweet-faced). NOTE: A homophone means "nettled, enlaced". -VT44:35

GRADE #tyellë (only pl tyeller is attested - note irregular plural instead of the expected form **tyelli) -LotR:1153

GRAIN orë (ori-) -QL:50

GRAMMAR tengwesta (system or code of signs) -TEK cf. WJ:394

GRANDCHILD indyo (descendant) (Indyo looks like Vanyarin Quenya; the combination ndy became ny in Noldorin Quenya [see MIDDLE]. The Noldor likely said inyo, which form occurred in a deleted marginal note in the Etymologies). -ÑGYO(N), VT46:19

GRANT lav- (yield, allow) -DAB

GRASP mapa- (seize). This word was struck out in one of Tolkien's earlier word-lists, but in Etym it was restored. In early material we have map- "seize, take" with pa.t. nampë. -MAP, LT2:339, QL:59

GRASS salquë, (stiff and dry:) sara (Þ) (bent) -SALAK, STAR

GREAT (in size) alta (large) (The form alat- is used in compounds when the next word has an initial vowel, as in Alatairë. Tolkien's gloss of alta, alat- was actually illegible, and I give the root meaning of the stem ÁLAT. The meaning of the Quenya word cannot differ too widely from it, for Alatairë is said to correspond to "Noldorin" Belegoer [in LotR-style Sindarin Belegaer], The Great Sea.) - An early [TLT] word for "great", velicë, is possibly obsolete in LotR-style Quenya: In LT1:254 velicë is said to correspond to Gnomish beleg, but according to LR:352 the stem from which beleg is derived is "not found in Q[uenya]").-ÁLAT, cf. BEL, cf. Silm:428, LT1:254

GREAT BEAR see SICKLE OF THE VALAR.

GREAT LONGING mavoinë -LT2:345

GREAT NUMBER - in a very great number: úvëa (abundance) -UB

GREAT QUANTITY úvë (abundance) -UB

GREAT WOOD taurë (forest) -TAWAR

GREED milmë; GREEDY milca -MIL-IK

GREEN laica (so in Letters:282; earlier sources have laiqua, whereas laica meant something wholly different ["keen, piercing"] in earlier material: LT2:337), wenya (yellow-green, fresh), ezel, ezella (adopted from Valarin; only used in Vanyarin Quenya)."Green" is expressed as a mere prefix lai- (representing the root underlying the adjective laica) in: GREEN-ELVES Laiquendi; cf. also VERDIGRIS = lairus. GREENNESS wén, laiquassë (freshness, youth). -LÁYAK/LT1:267, WJ:399, GWEN, WJ:385, LT1:267

GREY #mista (isolated from lassemista "leaf-grey"), also hiswa, but the most usual word for "grey" may be sindë (stem *sindi-) (Þ) or sinda (Þ). (WJ has sindë "pale or silvery grey", wheras sinda is given in Silm:438; cf. also sindanoriello "from a grey land", Sindacollo "Grey-cloak" and Sindar "Grey-Elves, *Grey Ones".)GREY-ELVES Sindar (Þ) (sg. Sinda), less commonly Sindeldi (sg Sindel); GREY-CLOAK Sindacollo, Singollo (Þ) (so in Silm:421; MR:217 has Sindicollo, presupposing sindë, sindi- as the word for "grey"); GREY-ELVEN sindarinwa (adj), Sindarin (= Grey-Elven language) (Þ) -LotR:505 cf. Letters:224, KHIS, LotR:1171, Silm:438, THIN/WJ:384, Nam, Silm:419, WJ:384, LotR:1157, 1161

GRIEF nyérë (sorrow). Pl. probably *nyérer not *nyéri; cf. the similar formation tyávë "taste" pl. tyáver. The noun nyérë points to a verbal stem *nyer- "grieve". -GL:60/LT1:261

GROT (small) rotto (cave, tunnel) -PM:365, VT46:12

GROUND talan (#talam-, as in pl. talami) (floor) -TALAM

GROUP OF FIVE (5 similar things) maqua (basically "hand", with 5 fingers); GROUP OF TEN (10 similar things) maquat (dual of maqua, here referring to a "pair of fives") -VT47:7, 10

GROW ol- (not clearly identified as a Quenya word in the source; it may be a primitive root); GROW FAT tiuya- -VT45:13, TIW

GROWL (vb) yarra- (snarl), (of dogs:) núru- (grumble); GROWL (noun) nur (complaint)



-MC:223, LT1:263

GRUMBLE (vb) nurru- (murmur), núru- (growl [of dogs]). (These may simply be two forms of the same word. Nurru- is by far the later [TLT] form.) GRUMBLING (adj) nurrua -MC:223, LT1:263

GUARD - use the word glossed "watch, heed", q.v. Cf. LT1:258. For "guard" as a noun, #tirno "watcher" may be isolated from halatirno (see FISHWATCHER)

GUESS (vb) intya-; GUESS (noun) intya (supposition, idea)

GULF yáwë (cleft, ravine). According to VT46:22, it is possible that the gloss "gulf" actually reads "gully" in Tolkien's manuscript. Cf. also fásë = gulf, gap. -YAG, GL:36

GULL maiwë -MIW

GULLY, see GULF

GYRATE hwinya- (eddy, swirl) -SWIN




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