Él "star", elen being the ordinary word) or a poetic or archaic meaning of an ordinary word

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UDÛN Utumno (stem *Utumnu-) -Silm:438

UGH horro, orro (alas! ow!) ("exclamation of horror, pain, disgust") -VT45:17

UGLY úvanima (not fair). See also WITHOUT BEAUTY.-VT39:14

ULTIMATE métima (final, last) -MC:222 cf. 215

UN- (prefix denying presence or possession of thing or quality) ú- (no-, not, un-, in-) (according to LR:396 s.v. UGU, this prefix usually has a "bad sense", cf. vanimor "fair folk" vs. úvanimor "monsters"), il- (denoting "the opposite, the reversal, i.e., more than the mere negation"), also pretonic prefix la- "un-, not-". -VT39:14, UGU, UMU, LT1:255, VT45:25

*UNCOUNTABLE únótima (pl. únótimë is attested). Translated "numberless"; the interlinear translation in RGEO:66 has "not-count-able", while VT39:14 offers the translation "countless". -Nam

UNCOUNTED unotë, unotëa (read *únotë, *únotëa?) (not counted) -VT39:14

UNDER undu, nu (so in Nam; Etym has no); UNDERNEATH nún (down below); "UNDER-POINT" (lower digit = "toe") nútil (nútill-, pl. nútilli given) -UNU, NÛ, VT47:10

UNDERSTAND hanya- (know about, be skilled in dealing with); UNDERSTANDING (noun) handë (knowledge); UNDERSTANDING (adjectival) handa (intelligent) -KHAN

UNFURL panta- (spread out, open) -PAT

UNIVERSE ilu, ilúvë (the whole, the all, Allness). The term ilu used of the universe includes God and all souls and spirits, that are not properly included in the term . -ILU (see IL), VT39:20

UNWILL avanir (VT39:23)

UNPRONOUNCEABLE úquétima (impossible to say/put into words, unspeakable) -WJ:370

UNSPEAKABLE úquétima (impossible to say/put into words, unpronounceable) -WJ:370

UNTIL, UNTO tenna (also in shortened form tenn' before a word in a-) -LotR:1003, VT44:35-36

UNWISE alasaila -VT41:13, 18

UP, UPWARDS amba, ama (prefix:) am-. (The "Qenya" form amu in LT2:335 is prob. obsolete.) "UP-POINT" (upper digit = "finger") ortil (ortill-, pl. ortilli given). UPWARD SLOPE amban; UPHILL (adj) ambapenda, ampenda - AM2, UNU, VT47:10

UPON - this English preposition may be rendered by the allative case, endings -nna pl. -nnar, dual -nta. Cf. falmalinnar "upon foaming waves", tielyanna "upon your path". -Nam, UT:22 cf. 51

UPPER AIRS AND CLOUDS fanyarë (skies) -MC:223

UPRISING ambaron, Ambarónë (sunrise, Orient) (a similar but untranslated word, Ambaróna, occurs in LotR:490). Rómen is glossed "uprising, sunrise, east" in Silm:437, but the normal meaning of the word is always "east". Cf. also: "UPRISING-FLOWER" *ambalotsë ("referring to the flower or floreate device used as a crest fixed to [the] point of a tall [illegible word, possibly 'archaic'] helmet", "pointed helm-crest". Tolkien asterisked the word because it was not attested, only a possible Quenya form of the name Amloth) -AM2, LotR:490, WJ:318

URANUS Luinil (or less probably Nénar; it is not known for certain which of the two is Uranus and which is Neptune) -Basic Quenya:24, cf. Silm:55

URGE horta- (speed, send flying); URGING (noun, not adjectival participle) hortalë (speeding), URGENCY hormë -KHOR

US: exclusive me (attested with a dual ending: met "us two" in an exclusive sense, "he/she and me" [though in VT47:11 it is curiously implied to be inclusive "you and I" instead]). This pronoun evidently connects with the ending -mmë, see WE). It is uncertain what inclusive "us" (i.e. "you and me") might be, possibly ve (for older we), connecting with the ending -lvë, -lwë. Evidently me (and ve) would be the same as subject and object, so that it could also be translated "we" as a short independent pronoun, and it can also receive case endings, e.g. attested forms like locative messë "on us", allative mello "from us", dative men "for us". The forms atarmë, metermë "for us" also seem to include me, but these forms were evidently ephemeral ("for us" is better rendered as men, itself an attested form). -Nam/RGEO:67, VT43:15, 19, VT44:18

USEFUL mára (fit, good) -MA3

VAGUE néca (faint, dim to see) -MC:223

VALE (dark) tumbë (deep valley); DEEP VALE imbë (dale) (Note: imbë is also the preposition "between") -LT:269, VT45:18

*VALIAN valarinwa, attested in Lambë Valarinwa "the language of the Valar, *Valian Language". Cf. also valaina "of the Valar, belonging to the Valar" (divine) -WJ:395, BAL

VALLEY nan (nand-), tumbo (stem *tumbu-) (deep valley under/among hills, dark vale; so in Etym, Silm:438 and LT1:269. Letters:308 gives tumba "deep valley".) VALLEY (adj.) nalda; "VALLEY OF SINGING GOLD" Laurelindorinan (Lórien). -TUB, LotR:488 cf. Letters:308, LT1:261, UT:449


VANISHED vanwa (gone, departed, dead, lost, past and over) -WAN, Nam, WJ:366

VAST - LT2 gives aica "broad, vast", but aica is said to mean "sharp" in later writings. -LT2:338

VEIL (vb) halya- (conceal, screen from light), fanta- (to cloak, mantle). "VEILS, RAYMENT" fana (pl fanar is attested. This word was used of the visible bodies in which the Valar presented themselves to incarnates.) VEILED halda (hidden, shadowed, shady) -SKAL, VT43:22, RGEO:74

VENUS Eärendil (Basic Quenya:24, cf. Silm:55), Tancol ("Signifer", "the significant star" - MR:385)

VERDIGRIS lairus (lairust-) -VT41:10

VESSEL venë (small boat, dish) -LT1:254

VESTMENT colla (cloak) -MR:385

VICTORY túrë (mastery), apairë -TUR, GL:17

VIGIL tiris (watch) -LT1:258

VIGOUR tuo (muscle, sinew, strength), vië (manhood), vëassë, laito/laisi (new life, youth); VIGOROUS vëa (adult, manly); SET VIGOROUSLY OUT TO DO horya- (be compelled to do, have an impulse) -TUG, LT1:267, WEG, VT45:22

VILLAGE masto, (walled village:) opelë (town) -LT1:251, PEL(ES)

VINE liantassë -LT1:271

VIOLENCE ormë (rushing, wrath, haste); VIOLENT naraca (harsh, rending) (possibly "of sounds", but Tolkien's extra comment is partially illegible) -GOR, KHOR, NÁRAK, VT45:37

VIOLET helin, Helinyetillë ("Eyes of heartsease") (pansy) -LT1:262


*VIRGINAL (or, *MAIDENLY) *vénëa (only attested in elided form vénë') -VT44:10

VIRGINITY vénë (with the alternative, older [MET] form wénë), venessë -WEN

VOCALIC EXTENSION ómataina (i.e., the addition to the base of a final vowel identical to the base vowel [sundóma]) -WJ:417

VOICE óma (pl instrumental ómainen "with voices" is attested. In some words, óma is translated "vowel", q.v.) VOICELESS ómalóra -OM, WJ:391, VT39:16 (the latter source defines óma as "voice, resonance of the vocal chords"), VT45:28

VOID lusta (empty), cúma (the Void) -LUS, KUM

VOWEL #ómëa (only pl. ómëar attested), also #óma-tengwë, #ómatengwë (this term refers to vowels considered as independent phonemes, according to Fëanor's new insights on phonemics; only pl. ómatengwi is attested), óman (pl. "amandi" in LR:379 is a misreading for omandi, VT46:7; this term from the Etymologies may in any case be obsoleted by the above-mentioned forms), #lehta tengwë (lit. "free/relased element"; only pl. lehta tengwi is attested; we would rather expect *lehtë tengwi). (Note: In some compounds, óma seems to mean "vowel" instead of "voice": VOWEL SIGN #ómatehta (only pl ómatehtar is attested), DETERMINANT VOWEL sundóma, VOCALIC EXTENSION ómataina (q.v. for definition). Yet another term for "vowel", #penna pl. pennar, is given in VT39:16, but this is taken from a draft and not included in the final text Tolkien wrote. - The term #mussë tengwë "soft element" (only attested in the pl.: mussë tengwi) covers vowels, semi-vowels (y, w) and continuants (l, r, m, n). -VT39:8/16, OM, WJ:396, 319, 417, VT39:17

WAIF hecil (gender-spesific forms are hecilo m. and hecilë f.) (one lost or forsaken by friends, outcast, outlaw) -WJ:365

WAILING (noun) yaimë; WAILING (adj) yaimëa -MC:223

WAIN lunca (VT43:19); as for the constellation (aka the Great Bear), see SICKLE OF THE VALAR

WAKENING (adj) cuivëa (awakening) -KUY

WALK (vb) vanta-; WALK (noun) vanta -BAT

WALL ramba; WALL AND MOAT ossa; TOWN WITH WALLS AND TOWERS tirios -RAMBÂ/Silm:436, LT1:258, LT2:336

*WANDER ranya- (only glossed stray under RAN, but cf. Silm:436: "ran- 'wander, stray'" and the following word:) WANDERING (noun) ránë (straying) (pl. probably *ráner not ráni; cf. the similar formation tyávë "taste" pl tyáver.) WANDERER Rána (a name of the Moon), #ran (isolated from Palarran "far-wanderer", the name of a ship) -RAN, Silm:436, UT:460, 461

WANT #mer- (cited in the form merë, evidently the 3rd person aorist; pa.t. given as mernë) (wish, desire) -MER


WARM lauca -LAW

WARRIOR ohtatyaro, ohtar, #mehtar (isolated from Telumehtar "Orion, warrior of the sky", a word occurring in LotR. Etym gives mahtar "warrior" under MAK, but Telumehtar not **Telumahtar under TEL). LT1:268 also has mordo "warrior, hero", but in Tolkien's later Quenya mordo means "obscurity, shadow, stain, smear, dimness". -KYAR (see KAR), UT:458, LotR:1146, MAK, TEL

WARWICKSHIRE Alalminórë (Land of Elms) -LT1:249

WATCH (vb) #tir- (cited in source as tirin "I watch", 1st pers. aorist), also attested as pa.t. tirnë, imperative tira and fut. tiruva is attested (the last is translated "shall heed" in the source), WATCH-TOWER tirion; WATCH (noun) (vigil) -TIR, VT47:31, MC:222 cf. 215, LT1:258, LT1:268

WATER nén (nen-) (LT1:262 also has linquë); WATER-FALL - LT1:249 gives axa, but this is probably obsoleted by axa "narrow path" in Etym; WATERY *nenda (wet - in the Etymologies as printed in LR, nenda seemed to be a Quenya word, but according to VT46:3 it actually appears as a primitive form nendâ in Tolkien's manuscript; the Quenya form would still be *nenda, but it is unattested). WATER-MEAD, WATERED PLAIN nanda; WATER-LOVERS Nendili (used of the Lindar), WATER-VESSEL calpa; DRAW WATER calpa- (scoop out, bale out); ISSUE OF WATER ehtelë (fountain, spring, also cehtelë, see FOUNTAIN), WATER FALLING OUT SWIFTLY FROM A ROCKY SPRING celussë (freshlet), YELLOW WATER-LILY nénu -NEN, WJ:410, NAD, KALPA, KEL, UT:426, LT1:248

WAVE (crested), WAVE-CREST falma (partitive plural allative falmalinnar is attested. LT1:266 has solmë instead of falma.) -PHAL, VT42:15, Nam/RGEO:67

WAX líco (evidently with stem *lícu-), neitë -MC:223, GL:60

WAY tië (path, course, line, direction, road), #vanda (isolated form Qualvanda "Road of Death" in LT1:264; cf. vand- "way, path" on the same page) -TE3/RGEO:67, LT1:264

WE (see also US) - Quenya has several endings for "we". A distinction is made between inclusive "we", including the person(s) addressed, and exclusive "we", a "we" that does not include the person(s) addressed. There is also a distinction between singular and dual forms, the dual forms referring to a "we" of two persons (the speaker and one other person), while the plural forms refer to a "we" of at least three people. Relevant pronominal endings are -lmë, -lvë/*-lwë, -ngwë and -mmë. However, Tolkien repeatedly revised the precise application of these endings. In one conceptual phase, -mmë was pl. exclusive "we", as in vammë "we won't" (WJ:371), whereas -lmë was pl. inclusive "we". In the mid-sixties, when the revised edition of LotR appeared, Tolkien had apparently changed the system so that -lmë had become exclusive "we" (rather than inclusive as before), and now *-lvë (and/or -lwë, VT42:34) was the ending for pl. inclusive "we". The ending -mmë Tolkien now assigned a "dual" meaning (VT43:6), but it is unclear whether this is meant to be a dual inclusive "we" (i.e. "thou and I") or dual exclusive "we" (i.e. "I and one other person"), or indeed whether the inclusive/exclusive distinction is upheld in the dual pronouns. The ending -ngwë denoted pl. inclusive "we" at one stage (VT43:36), but this apparently became -lmë later. If -mmë is dual exclusive "we", -ngwë may conceivably have been re-assigned the meaning of dual inclusive "we". The emphatic, independent forms of these pronouns would be *elmë, *elvë, emmë, *engwë (emmë occurs in Tolkien's translation of the Hail Mary, VT43:20, but there reflecting the older meaning of -mmë: pl. exclusive "we", not a dual form like it later became). As for the shorter, non-emphatic forms, me is apparently plural exclusive and met dual exclusive "we" (see US for reference); some extrapolate *ve (pl.) and *vet (dual) as the corresponding inclusive forms. -WJ:371, LotR:989, 94, cf. Letters:447, VT42:36, VT43:34

WEAK milya (soft, gentle) (Note: milya- is also a verb "long for".) -VT45:34

WEAL, WEALTH alma (good fortune), ausië, autë (prosperity, also adj: rich) WEALTHY herenya (blessed, fortuneate, rich) -GALA, LT2:336, KHER

WEAR see BEAR. WEAR (OUT) yerya- (get old) (Note: yerya is also the adjective "old, worn") -GYER

WEARY lumba -VT45:29

WEATHER - dark weather: lúrë -LT1:259

WEAVE lanya-; EVER-WEAVING Vairë (name of a Valië) -LAN, VT39:10

WEB natsë (net); SPIDER'S WEB ungwë -NAT, LotR:1157

WED vesta-; WEDDING vestalë -BES, WED

WEDGE nehtë (spearhead, gore, narrow promontory. Note: a homophone means "honeycomb".) -UT:282

WEEK lemnar (from a root meaning "five", since the Valian week had five days), enquië (from a root meaning "six", since the Eldarin week had six days), otsola (evidently meaning a seven-day week like our own, as otso = "seven") -LEP, LotR:1141 cf. ÉNEK, GL:62

WEEPING nyényë -LT1:262

WEFT lanat, wistë -LAN , LT1:254

WELL (adverb) mai -VT47:6

WENT lendë (departed) (past tense of lelya-/lenna- "go") LT1:264 gives , but this is probably not a valid word in LotR-style Quenya. -LED cf. VT45:27, WJ:363

WEREWOLF nauro (In Etym, this word is spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But if this word is written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) -NGAW

WEST númen (so in Etym and LotR; Númen is capitalized in UT:305. According to VT45:38 the form núme- also occurs in Tolkien's Etym manuscript, and númë is attested in LT1:263 as well), andúnë (sunset, evening); WESTERN númenya; IN THE WEST númëa; WESTLAND see WESTERNESSE; WESTLANDS Andustar (a region in Númenor) "WEST-WINGS" (the name of a ship) Númerrámar -LotR:1157/NDÛ, Nam, UT:305, Silm:428, LT1:263, UT:165, 419, UT:175, 458

WESTERNESSE, WESTLAND Númenor (full form Númenórë) -Silm:313, 414

WET mixa, linquë (obsoleting liquin in LT1:262), *nenda (watery - in the Etymologies as printed in LR, nenda seemed to be a Quenya word, but according to VT46:3 it actually appears as a primitive form nendâ in Tolkien's manuscript; the Quenya form would still be *nenda, but it is unattested.) -MISK, NEN, LINKWI

WHAT, evidently mana as in mana i coimas Eldaron[?] "what is the coimas [lembas] of the Eldar?" (PM:396). See also WHO. Where "what" means "that which", it may be translated by a relative pronoun, as in lá carita i hamil mára "not to do what you judge good" -VT42:33

WHAT IS MORE yëa, (Note: is also an interjection "lo! now see!"); see MOREOVER under MORE. -VT47:31

WHEREIN yassen (refering back to a pl word; sg #yassë). See WHICH. -Nam, RGEO:66, 67

WHICH ya (known from the Arctic sentece and attested with a plural locative ending in Nam: yassen "which-in, wherein". See WHO concerning relative pronouns.) -Nam, RGEO:66

WHINING miulë (mewing) -MIW


WHISPER (vb) lussa-; WHISPERING SOUND lussë -SLUS (and because this is the basic root here, and Tolkien elsewhere indicated that older initial sl- produces Quenya hl-, it may be that these words should properly be cited as *hlussa-, *hlussë.)

WHICH (relative pronoun) ya, ; this relative pronoun may receive case endings, e.g. yassen "in which, wherein" (pl.) in Namárië. See THAT #3. - It is unclear what the interrogative "which" would be in Quenya; maybe mana "what" (?) can be substituted. -VT43:34, VT47:21

WHITE ninquë (stem *ninqui-) (chill, pallid), fána/fánë (associated with the whiteness of clouds, fanyar), lossë (snow-white). -NIK-W-/GL:60/Silm:435 cf. WJ:417, SPAN/VT46:15, RGEO:69, MC:221-223

WHO (interrogative pronoun) man (so in Nam and MC:222; MC:221 one place has men, but that is evidently an error, for man occurs in the same text. In FS and LR:59/63, man is translated "what". Either Tolkien later adjusted the meaning of the word, or man covers the meaning of both "who" and "what", but mana is seemingly attested in PM:396 as a distinct word for "what".) NOTE: this "who" is used only in questions. As for "who" as a relative pronoun, as in "the man who did this", see THAT #3. -Nam/MC:222

WHOEVER aiquen (if anybody) -WJ:372

WHOLE ilya (all), THE WHOLE ilúvë (the All, Allness, universe). According to early material, "the whole" (followed by some noun) is rendered by i quanda, e.g. *i quanda cemen "the whole earth" -IL, Silm:433, QL:70

WHOLLY aqua (fully, completely, altogether) -WJ:392

WICKED olca (bad). Compare ulca "evil", q.v. -VT43:23-24

WIDE palla, landa; FAR AND WIDE palan (or "wide, over a wide space, to a distance", VT45:21); THE WIDE WORLD Palurin -PAL, LAD, Silm:435, LT1:264

WIELD #tur- (cited in source as turin "I wield", 1st pers. aorist), pa.t. turnë (control, govern). WIELD, esp. WIELD A WEAPON mahta- (deal with, fight, handle, manage) -TUR, MAK/VT39:11, MA3, VT47:6, 18, 19

WIFE vessë (In UT:8, indis is translated "wife", but in Etym this word is glossed "bride".) -BES, UT:8 cf. NDIS

WILD verca, #hravan (only pl. hravani is attested; Hravani the "Wild" was used in Exilic Quenya to designate Men not belonging to the three houses of the Edain.) -BERÉK, WJ:219

WILDERNESS ráva (Note: a homophone means "riverbank"). The form ravanda (or possibly rovanda) mentioned in VT46:10 may be either a Quenya word or an etymological form cited to explain the "Noldorin" word rhofan. -RAB, VT46:10

WILL (noun) níra (= "will" as a potential or faculty, while "act of will" is nirmë), *selma (Þ) ("a fixed idea, will". In WJ:319, the word is given as Þelma, but Þ (th) would become s in the Noldorin Quenya. Cf. Þindë, sindë in WJ:384) Other words for "will" turn up in Tolkien's various translations of "thy will be done" in the Lord's Prayer: indómë, replacing #mendë (mendelya "thy will"); according to VT43:16, Tolkien in his notes defined indómë as "settled character, also used of the 'will' of Eru". -VT39:30/VT41:6, 17; WJ:319, VT43:15-16

WILL NOT - I will not: (exclamation, also = Do not!); avan, ván, vanyë "I won't", avammë, vammë "we won't" -WJ:371

WILLOW-TREE tasar, tasarë (Þ) (probably obsoleting tasarin in LT2:346) -TATHAR/Silm:438

WIND #súrë (Þ?) (instrumental form súrinen is attested, indicating a stem-form súri-), súlimë (Þ) (also the name of the month of March), vaiwa, waiwa (the latter is probably an older [MET] form); SOUND/NOISE OF WIND , WINDY wanwavoitë (pl. wanwavoisi) -MC:222 cf. 215, LT1:266, Nam/RGEO:66, VT47:12, WÂ, LT1:266

WIND UP telya- (transitive) (conclude, finish) -WJ:411

WINE miru, limpë (the drink of the Valar, or of the fairies). The word míruvórë, míruvor is defined as "a special wine or cordial.") -LT1:261, LIP, LT1:258, WJ:399

WING ráma (Pl. rámar and plural instrumental form rámainen are attested. The form #rámë, occurring in the ship-name Eärrámë "Sea-Wing", evidently has a feminine ending.)

HAVING WINGS rámavoitë (pl. prob. *rámavoisi, cf. LEAPING, WINDY), "WEST-WINGS" (the name of a ship) Númerrámar -RAM/LT2:335, MC:222, Silm:295, UT:175, 458

WINTER hrívë, (in early [TLT] material:) Yelin, Hesin. (In the Calendar of Imladris, hrívë was a precisely defined period of 72 days, but the word was also used without any exact definition.) Lasselanta "leaf-fall" could be used for the beginning of winter, but the usual translation of this word is "autumn". "WINTER ONE" Hescil (a title of Nienna "who breedeth winter", LT1:66, 255) -LotR:1141, 1145; LT1:255, LT1:260

WISDOM nolwë (secret lore, obsoleting nólemë in LT1:263), nólë (long study, lore, knowledge) (In Etym these words, as well as nóla below, are spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. Nólë is so spelt also in Silm:432. But if these words are written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) WISE #saila (isolated from alasaila "unwise"), nóla (learned), saira, istima (having knowledge, learned), iswa, isqua -NGOL, VT41:13, 18, Silm:432, IS, SAY/VT46:12, LT2:339

WISH (vb) #mer- (cited in the form merë, evidently the 3rd person aorist; pa.t. given as mernë) (desire); WISH TO GO TO A PLACE mína- (desire to go in some direction, make for it, have some end in view). -MER, VT39:11

WITCH (of the good magic) curuni -LT1:269

WITH: For the purpose of Neo-Quenya writing, the best translation of "with" (in the sense of "together with") is probably #as, attested with a pronominal suffix (see below). A string of various prepositional elements meaning "with" are attested, but all are probably not meant to coexist in the same form of Quenya; rather Tolkien often changed his mind about the details. The preposition , le found in early material (QL:52) is probably best avoided in LotR-style Quenya (in which langauge le is rather the pronoun "you"). Tolkien later seems to be experimenting with yo and ó/o as words for "with"; yo hildinyar in SD:56 probably means *"with my heirs", and VT43:29 reproduces a table where various pronouns are suffixed to ó-, probably meaning "with" (óni *"with me", ólë *"with you", etc.) In the essay Quendi and Eldar, Tolkien assigns a dual meaning to ó- as a prefix; it was used "in words describing the meeting, junction, or union of two things or persons, or of two groups thought of as units" (WJ:367; cf. 361 regarding the underlying stem WO, said to be a dual adverb "together"). The plural equivalent of dual ó- is yo- (as in yomenië, WJ:407 cf. 361 regarding the underlying root ), and it may seem to be this yo that occurs as an independent preposition in yo hildinyar in SD:56. The idea that ó- is a distinctly dual form does not appear in all sources; in VT43:29 we have forms like *ómë *"with us", implying at least three persons. In Tolkien's drafts for a Quenya rendering of the Hail Mary, he experimented with various prepositional elements for the phrase "with thee" (see VT43:29). A form carelyë was replaced with aselyë in the final version. Removing the ending -lyë "thee" and the connecting vowel before it leaves us with #as as the word (or a word) for "with"; this is ultimately related to the conjunction ar "and" (see VT43:30, 47:31). – In English, the preposition "with" may also have an instrumental force, which is best rendered by the Quenya instrumental case (e.g. *nambanen "with [= using] a hammer").

WITHER hesta-, WITHERED hessa (dead) -LT1:255

WITHIN mi (see IN) -MI

WITHOUT (adj & prep) ú (usually followed by genitive: ú calo "without light [cala]") (destitute of). WITHOUT BEAUTY úvanë, adj. úvanëa. (As for a suffix "-less", also glossed "without" by Tolkien, see entry -LESS.) -VT39:14

WIZARD istar (nom. pl. istari and gen.pl. istarion are attested), sairon, curuvar WIZARDRY - in LT1:269, curu is glossed "magic, wizardry", but in Etym the gloss is simply "skill". -LotR:1121, UT:388, cf. IS, SAY; LT1:269

WOLF ráca, narmo, WEREWOLF nauro; WOLFHOWL naulë (In Etym, narmo, nauro and naulë are spelt with initial ñ, that is, ng. Initial ng had become n in Third Age Quenya, and I follow the system of LotR and transcribe it accordingly. But if these words are written in Tengwar, the initial n should be transcribed with the letter noldo, not númen.) -DARÁK, NGAR(A)M, NGAW

WOMAN nís (so in MR:213, Etym gives nis, but both sources agree that the pl is nissi (the alternative pl. form nísi in VT43:31 seems abnormal, since this would be expected to become *nízi > *níri). A longer form of nís/nis is nissë, clashing with *nissë "in me". For clarity writers should probably use the short sg nís, as Tolkien himself does in MR:213, with the stem niss- before endings, as in the pl. nissi). At the end of compounds the form -nis may occur, as in Artanis (see NOBLE WOMAN). A poetic word for "woman" is †(female). The form #nína (gen. pl. nínaron attested, VT43:31) may have been but an ephemeral word for "woman" in Tolkien's conception. LARGE WOMAN nisto -NDIS/NÎ/NIS, MR:213, VT43:31, NÎ, INI, VT47:33

WOMB #móna (isolated from mónalyo "of thy womb"). Another word, #carva, was possibly rejected by Tolkien. -VT43:31


WOOD toa (probably "wood" as a material rather than "wood" = "forest"; not to be confused with the homophone adj. toa "of wool, woollen"), GREAT WOOD taurë (pl. tauri is attested) (forest), wood as material: tavar (also toa), rough piece of wood: runda, piece of shaped wood: pano, smouldering wood (ember): yulmë (Note: yulmë also means "drinking, carousal") firewood: turu ("firewood" was the proper meaning, but the word was used for "wood" in general); OF WOOD taurina, WOODEN turúva, WOODEN POST samna (Þ); WOODEN HALL ampano, WOODPECKER tambaro, WOODLAND tavas (LT1:261 also gives nan(d), but this means "valley" in LotR-style Quenya.) -VT39:6, TÁWAR/Silm:438/MC:222 cf. 215, RUD, PAN, YUL, LT1:270, STAB, TAM, LT1:267

WOOF winda -LT1:254

WOOL (obsoleting oa in LT1:249; GL:71 has toa, but cf the following:) OF WOOL, WOOLLEN toa (not to be confused with the homophone toa "wood") -TOW

WORD quetta (pl. quettar is attested. LT2:348 gives quent; this word is no doubt obsolete in LotR-style Quenya. GL:28 has "qetta-") -Silm:436, WJ:391

WORLD Ambar (earth), THE WIDE WORLD Palurin. (LT2 gives irmin "the world, all the regions inhabited by Men"; this is probably not a valid word in LotR-style Quenya.) OF THE WORLD marda (an adjective, *"wordly"); THE ENDING OF THE WORLD Ambar-metta, ambarmetta; "WORLD-ARTIFICER" Martamo (a title of Aulë) REDEEMER OF THE WORLD Mardorunando (it is not clear whether the initial element #mardo means "world" or "of the world"; cf. marda above). -LotR:1003 cf. MBAR, VT44:36, LT1:251, 264, LT2:343, LT1:266, VT44:17

WORN yerna (old [of things]), colla (pa.p. of #col- "bear, *wear") (borne). Also used as a noun = "vestment, cloak". -GYER, MR:385

WORTH, WORTHY valda (dear) -GL:23

WOSE , Rúatan (pl Rúatani is given) -UT:385

WOUND (vb) harna-; WOUNDED harna; WOUND (noun) harwë -SKAR

WRAP vaita- (enfold) -LT1:271, VT46:21

WRATH ormë (haste, violence, rushing) -GOR, KHOR

WREATHE ría (garland) -PM:347

WRIGHT samno (Þ) (carpenter, builder) -STAB

WRITE #tec- (3rd pers. aorist tecë is given); WRITING sarmë (in the Etymologies also tengwë, but in a later source this word is said to mean "indication, sign, token", and this meaning may be predominant in Tolkien's later Quenya; pl tengwi is attested); WRITING SYSTEM tencelë (spelling); WRITINGS parma (book) -VT39:8, TEK cf. WJ:394, 395, LT2:346

WRONG raica (crooked, bent). INDUCEMENT TO DO WRONG #úsahtië (temptation), attested in the allative case (úsahtienna) -RÁYAK, VT43:23

YARD ranga (pl rangar is attested). The basic meaning of ranga was "full pace". This Númenórean linear measure was "slightly longer than our yard, approximately 38 inches [= 96.5 cm]". -UT:285, 461

YAWN yanga-, #hac- (only attested as participle: hácala "yawning") -YAG, MC:222

YEAR loa (lit. "growth"), coranar (lit. "sun-round", used when the year was considered more or less astronomically - but loa is stated to be the more usual word for "year"). The pl. coranári is attested (PM:126). LONG-YEAR yén (pl. yéni is attested in Nam; the Etymologies as printed in LR cite the stem-form as yen-, but according to VT46:22 Tolkien's manuscript actually has the pl. form yéni as in Nam). A "long-year" is a period of 144 solar years, an Elvish "century" - the Eldar used duodecimal counting, in which 144 is the first three-digit number, like our 100. But sometimes it seems that yén simply means "year". Cf the following words: LAST YEAR yenya, HAVING MANY YEARS linyenwa (old), *RECKONING OF YEARS Yénonótië -LotR:1141, YEN, MR:51

YELLOW malina, tulca (the latter was adopted from Valarin and used in Vanyarin Quenya only),YELLOW POWDER malo (stem *malu-) (pollen), "YELLOW HAMMER" (yellow bird) ammalë, ambalë, YELLOW WATER-LILY nénu -SMAL, WJ:399, LT1:248

YES (literally "is", i.e. "[so it] is"). In one conceptual phase, Tolkien used for "yes", but in both earlier and later material, is the negation "no, not" instead. -QL:64, VT42:33

YOKE yanta (bridge), yaltë -YAT, GL:37

YON, YONDER (adj) enta (note: a homophone means "another, one more"); YONDER (interjection?) en (there, look!) -EN, VT45:12

YOU (pl. only; for sg "you", see THOU) The ending -lyë may cover pl. as well as sg. "you"; on the other hand, Tolkien also used -llë for pl. "you" (VT43:36). The reduced form -l may be attached to an imperative: hecal! "you be gone!" [WJ:364] and probably also as object: *Utúvienyel, "I (-nye) have found you (-l)". Perhaps -l can be used for plural "you" in subject postition as well, e.g. *lendel, "you went", though this could perhaps also be *lendellë. The independent (emphatic) word for "you, even you" as subject may be *ellë, while object "you" seems to be le (perhaps also used as a polite or formal sg: "thee", though the sg. seems to be #lye in at least one late version of Quenya). YOUR – the ending would be -lya if -lyë is both sg. and pl. "you" (the ending -lya is attested with sg. meaning).

YOUNG nessa, vinya, cana; YOUTH nésë (Þ), nessë, vírië, vínë, laito/laisi (vigour, new life). Note: all of these words seem to mean "youth" as an abstract; for "youth" = "young person", see YOUNGSTER. YOUTHFUL nessima -NETH, VT46:22, VT47:26, LR:25, GL:37, LT1:267

YOUNGSTER winyamo (read *vinyamo in Exilic Quenya) -VT47:26

YOURSELF (or "thyself", reflexive pronoun) immo (a general sg. reflexive pronoun, covering English "myself, him/herself, yourself"). Also specific 2nd person forms: intyë (apparently familiar), imlë (apparently formal). Plural YOURSELVES indë (a form imde is also listed, but may be intended as the older form that yielded indë) -VT47:37


ZIMRAPHEL Míriel -UT:224, Silm:324

ZIMRATHÔN Hostamir -UT:222

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