Él "star", elen being the ordinary word) or a poetic or archaic meaning of an ordinary word


mahta- "wield a weapon" (MAK), "to handle, wield, manage" (VT39:10) mahtar



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mahta- "wield a weapon" (MAK), "to handle, wield, manage" (VT39:10)

mahtar "warrior" (MAK)

Maia pl. Maiar "the Beautiful" (MR:49), the lesser (= non-Vala) Ainur that entered Eä. Variant Máya in VT42:13, pl. Máyar in PM:363, 364 (is Máya to be understood as the older form of Maia?)

maica ("k") "sharp, piercing" (SA:maeg), cf. hendumaica; also noun maica ("k") "blade of a cutting tool or weapon, especially sword-blade" (VT39:11)

mailë "lust" (MIL-IK)

mailëa "lustful" (MIL-IK)

mairo "horse" (GL:56; later sources have rocco)

maita "hungry" (VT39:11)

maitë "handed" in Angamaitë, hyarmaitë, morimaitë, Telemmaitë, q.v. Etym gives maitë pl. maisi "handy, skilled" (MA3)

Maitimo "well-shaped one", mother-name (never used in narrative) of Nelyafinwë = Maedhros (PM:353)

maivoinë "great longing" (LT2:345)

maiwë "gull" (MIW), pl. maiwi in Markirya. Cf. also the "Qenya" pl. maiwin "gulls" (MC:213)

malarauco "balrog, demon" (RUK - rather valarauco in mature Quenya)

malcanë ("k") "torture" (LT1:250)

Malcaraucë "balrog", also Valkaraucë ("k") (LT1:250; in mature Quenya Valarauco)

malda "gold" (as metal - but LotR gives malta, q.v.) (SMAL)

malina "yellow" (SMAL, Letters:308); Malinalda *"Yellow-tree", a name of Laurelin (SA:mal-; evidently malina + alda). The translation "Tree of Gold" in the Silmarillion Index is free; malina means "yellow", not "gold(en)". Cf. malinornélion "of yellow-trees"; see laurelindórenan lindelorendor... (LotR2:III ch. 4; cf. Letters:308). Malinornélion is partitive pl. genitive of malinornë "mallorn" (UT:167, normal pl. malinorni, UT:168).

malinai ??? (Narqelion)

mallë pl. maller "street, road" (MBAL, LR:47, 56, LT1:263, SD:310)

málo "friend" (MEL)

malo "pollen, yellow powder" (SMAL)

málos "forest" (LT2:342 - rather taurë in mature Quenya)

malta "gold", also name of tengwa 18 (Appendix E). Does this obsolete the form malda in the Etymologies, stem SMAL?

malwa "fallow, pale" (SMAL)

máma "sheep" (WJ:395)

mamil "mother" (UT:191)

man "who" (Nam, RGEO:67, FS, LR:59, Markirya, MC:213, 214); cf. PM:357 note 18, where a reference is made to the Eldarin interrogative element ma, man). However, man is translated "what" in LR:59: man-ië? "what is it?" (LR:59; the stative-verb suffix - is hardly valid in mature Quenya) Either Tolkien later adjusted the meaning of the word, or man covers both "who" and "what". Cf. also mana, manen.

mána "blessed" (FS)

mana a word translated "what is" in the sentence mana i-coimas Eldaron[?] "what is the coimas (lembas) of the Eldar?" (PM:395, a variant reading in PM:403) Either it is *ma "what" + "is", or mana may itself be a unitary word "what", and there is not really any word meaning "is" in the sentence.

manar "doom, final end, fate, fortune" (usually = final bliss) (MANAD (under MAN) )

manca- ("k") "trade" (MBAKH)

mancalë ("k") "commerce" (MBAKH)

mandë "doom, final end, fate, fortune" (usually = final bliss) (MANAD, under MAN)

mando "custody, safe keeping" (MR:350) or "prison, duress" (in Mandos, see below) (SA:band); Mando "the Imprisoner or Binder", usually lenghtened Mandos (MBAD (ÑGUR, GOS/GOTH, SPAN) )

Mandos (Mandost-) "Castle of Custody" (the approximate meaning, according to MR:350) Used as the name of a Vala, properly the place where he dwells (the Halls of Mandos), while his real name is Námo (WJ:402). In the Etymologies, Mandos (also Mandossë) is interpreted somewhat differently, "Dread Imprisoner" (MBAD (MANAD) ). See also Mando.

mandu "abyss" (MC:214; this is "Qenya" - mature Quenya has undumë)

mandulómi "hell-shadows" (MC:221; this is "Qenya")

mánë "a spirit that has gone to the Valar or to Erumáni" (LT1:260)

manë "good (moral)" (sc. *"good in a moral sense") (LT1:260)

manen "how" (PM:395)

mannar "into (the) hands", allative pl. of . (FS)

mantë pa.t. of mat-, mata-, q.v.

manu "departed spirit" (MAN)

Manwë "Blessed Being" (Letters:283), adopted from Valarin Mânawenûz; names ending in - were already frequent in Quenya (WJ:399). In the Etymologies derived from MAN, WEG. Cf. Mánwen, Mánwë the oldest Quenya forms of Manwë, closer to the Valarin form (WJ:399). Lower-case manwë in LR:56.

mapa- "grasp, seize" (MAP; according to LT2:339 this word was struck out in the "Gnomish Lexicon" [where it was quoted as the cognate of certain Gnomish words], but it reappears in the Etymologies.)

#maquet- *"ask", only attested in the past tense: maquentë (PM:403)



mar "earth", ablative Mardello "from earth" (FS). May be more or less identical with már "home, house" (of persons or peoples; in names like Val(i)mar, Vinyamar, Mar-nu-Falmar, Mardil) (SA:bar). Early "Qenya" has mar (mas-) "dwelling of men, the Earth, -land" (LT1:251)

mar- "abide, be settled or fixed" (UT:317); maruvan "I will abide" (mar-uva-n "abide-will-I") (EO)

Mar-nu-Falmar "Home under Waves", name of the sunken Númenor (Silm)

mára "useful, fit, good" (of things) (MAG; see MA3; Arct, VT42:34)

maranwë "destiny" (MBARAT)

#mardë "hall"; only pl. mardi is attested (Nam, RGEO:66)

Mardil masc. name, "(one) devoted to the house", sc. of the kings (Appendix A; interpreted in Letters:386)

mardo "dweller" (LT1:251)

márië "it is good" (FS; from mára "good"; the stative-verb suffix - is hardly valid in mature Quenya)

marilla "pearl" (LT1:265)

mart "a piece of luck" (LT2:348; in mature Quenya, no word can end in -rt. Read marto, as in LT2:348?)

mart- "it happens" (impersonal) (LT2:348 - read marta-?)

marta "fey, fated" (MBARAT)

Martalmar (name) (TALAM)

Martan, Martano "Earth-smith", "Earthbuilder", a surname of Aule (TAN, GAWA/GOWO - the form Martanô given under MBAR must be understood as primitive)

marto "fortune, fate, lot" (LT2:348)

martya- "destine" (MBARAT)

marya "pale, fallow, fawn" (MAD)

-mas element in placenames, equivalent to English -ton, -by (LT1:251; may or may not be valid in mature Quenya)



massánië "breadgiver", used as a title of the highest woman among any Elvish people, since she had the keeping and gift of the coimas (lembas). Also simply translated "Lady" (PM:404)

masta "bread" (MBAS, PM:404)

masta- "bake" (MBAS)

masto "village" (LT1:251)

mat- "eat" (MAT), also given as mata- (VT39:5), pa.t. mantë "ate" (VT39:7)

maur "dream, vision" (LT1:261)

maurë "need" (MBAS)

mausta "compulsion" (MBAW)

mauya- "compel" (MBAW)

mavar "shepherd" (LT1:268, GL:58)

mavoitë "having hands" (LT2:339)

maxa ("ks") "pliant, soft" (MASAG)

maxë ("ks") "dough" (MASAG)

#Máya pl. Máyar see Maia



*mbelekôro is mentioned as "the oldest Q form" of Melkor; this is obviously a form that belongs to Common Eldarin rather than Quenya as we know it; note that it is asterisked as unattested (WJ:402)

me "us"; mel-lumna "us-is-heavy", sc. *"is heavy for us" (LR:47, mel- is evidently an assimilated form of *men "for us", dative of me); dual met "us (two)"

mëar "gore" (LT1:260)

mectar ("k") "Swordsman". In Telimectar ("k"). (LT1:268; mature Quenya mehtar, also macar)

mel- "love (as friend)" (MEL); melánë "I love", a doubtful word in mature Quenya; read perhaps *mélanyë or *melanyë (LR:70)

méla "loving, affectionate" (VT39:10)

Melcor (so spelt in MR:362) see Melkor

melda "beloved, dear" (MEL); meldielto "they are beloved" (sc. meld[a]--lto "beloved-are-they" - both the stative verb ending - "is/are" and the ending -lto "they" may be obsolete in mature Quenya) (FS)

meles, melessë "love" (LT1:262; rather melmë in mature Quenya)

meletyalda "your mighty" = "your majesty" (see -lda; meletya = *"mighty"). In full Aran Meletyalda "king your mighty" (WJ:369)

melima "loveable, fair" (MEL); Melimar a name of the Lindar (in Tolkien's former conception = the later Vanyar, not the Teleri) (MEL)

melin "dear" (MEL)

melindo "lover" (m.) (MEL)

melissë "lover" (f.) (MEL)

Melko "Mighty One", name of the rebellious Vala, usually called Melkor (MIL-IK, MOR; FS - MR:350 confirms that the form Melko is still valid in mature Quenya, though not interpreted "Greedy One" as in the Etymologies)

Melkor (spelt Melcor in MR:362), the rebellious Vala, the devil of the Silmarillion mythos. Older form Melkórë "Mighty-rising" (hence the interpretation "He that arises in power"). Oldest form *mbelekôro (WJ:402). Melkorohíni "Children of Melkor", Orcs ("but the wiser say: nay, the slaves of Melkor; but not his children, for Melkor had no children") (MR:416)

melmë "love" (noun) (MEL)

melwa "lovely" (LT1:262)

men (1) "way" (SA) or "place, spot" (MEN)

men (2) "who", evidently a misreading or miswriting for man (MC:221, in Markirya)

ména "region" (MEN)

ménë "on us" (SD:310)

Menel "heavens" (Markirya, SA), "the heavens, the firmament" (SD:401), "the apparent dome in the sky" (MR:387). Found in names like Meneldil *"Heaven-friend" = astronomer (Appendix A; Letters:386), Meneldur masc. name, *"Heaven-servant" (Appendix A); Menelmacar "Swordsman of the Sky", the Orion constellation (also called Telumehtar, Appendix E, first footnote); the older name was Menelmacil *"Heaven-sword" (WJ:411); Meneltarma "Pillar of Heaven", name of the great central mountain of Númenor (SA:tar, VT42:21). Menelya fifth day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the heavens (Appendix D)

menta- "send, cause to go" (in a desired direction) (VT41:6), also noun menta = "sending" or "message" as in sanwe-menta "thought-sending, mental message" (VT41:5)

mentë "point, end" (MET)

mëoi "cat", a somewhat strange word by mature Quenya standards (no other cases of final -oi in the singular). Vardo Mëoita "Prince of Cats"; mëoita seems to be a kind of adjective rather than a genitive (LT2:348).

mer- "wish, desire, want" (the form merë given in Etym seems to be the 3rd person sg. aorist, *"wishes, desires, wants"); pa.t. mernë (MER)

[merca ("k") "wild" (MERÉK)]



meren (merend-), merendë "feast, festival" (MBER)

merya "festive" (MBER)

meryalë "holiday" (MBER)

mesta ?"journey" (Arct)

met "us (two)", including the dual ending -t. Me (LR:56) evidently means "we".

Metelairë alternative name of August (PM:135)

Meterrívë alternative name of January (PM:135)

métima "last" (Markirya), in Markirya also twice métim', since the following words (auressë, andúnë) begin in an a.

metta "end"; Ambar-metta "world-end, the end of the world" (EO); mettarë *"end-day" = New Years' Eve in the Númenórean calendar and the Steward's Reckoning, not belonging to any month (Appendix D)

metya- "put an end to" (MET)

mi "in, within" (MI); "in the" (Nam, RGEO:66; CO gives mi; the correct forms should evidenly be mi = "in" and = mi i "in the"). Allative minna "to the inside, into" (MI).

milca ("k") "greedy" (MIL-IK)

milmë "desire, greed" (MIL-IK)

milya- "long for" (MIL-IK)

mína "desiring to start, eager to go", also verb mína- "desire to go in some direction, to wish to go to a place, make for it, have some end in view" (VT39:11)

Minalcar masc. name, *"First-glory"??? (Appendix A)

Minardil masc.name *"minar[?]-friend". Perhaps minar is to be understood as a variant of minas (s being voiced to z by contact with the voiced plosive that follows, and then regularly becoming r); if so, the name means *"Tower-friend" (Appendix A)

minassë, noun "fort, city, with a citadel and central watch-tower" (VT42:24)

minasurie "enquiry" (Þ, the word is actually cited as minaþurie) in Ondonóre Nómesseron Minaþurie "Enquiry into the Place-names of Gondor". The editor tentatively analyzes minaþurie as #mina "into" + #þurie (#surië) "seeking" (VT42:17, 30-31).

Minastan masc.name, *"Tower-maker" (Appendix A)

Minastir masc. name, *"Tower-watcher" (Appendix A)

minda "prominent, conspicuous" (MINI)

mindë "turret" (VT42:24)

mindo "isolated tower" (MINI)

Mindolluin *"Blue Tower" (mindon + luin), name of a mountain. (Christopher Tolkien translates the name as "Towering Blue-head" in the Silmarillion Index, but this seems to be based on the questionable assumption that it includes the Sindarin element dol "head, hill". Unless this translation is given in his father's papers, the name is better explained as a Quenya compound.)

mindon "(great, lofty) tower", said to be an augmented form of mindë (VT42:24). Allative pl. mindoninnar in Markirya, changed to the contracted form mindonnar. Cf. also Mindon Eldaliéva "Lofty Tower of the Eldalië" (Silm)

minë "one" (MINI)

minga-ránar "in waning-moon" (locative -r) (MC:213; this is "Qenya")

minna "to the inside, into" (also mir) (MI). Possibly #mina in minasurie, q.v.

Minnónar "First-born", Elves (as contrasted to Apanónar, the After-born, Men). Sg. #Minnóna (WJ:403)

minquë ("q") "eleven" (MINIK-W, LT1:260)

mintya ??? (Narqelion)

minya "first" (MINI) (cf. Minyatur); "eminent, prominent" (VT42:24, 25). Minyar "Firsts", the original name of the Vanyar (or rather the direct Quenya descendant of the original Primitive Quendian name) (WJ:380)

Minyarussa "First-russa" (VT41:10)

Minyatur "First-ruler"; Tar-Minyatur "High First-ruler", title of Elros as the first King of Númenor (SA:minas, PM:348, SA:tur)

miquilis ("q") "kisses" (noun) (MC:215; this is "Qenya")

mir (1) "to the inside, into" (also minna) (MI)

mir (2) "one" (LT1:260; in LotR-style Quenya rather minë)

mírë "jewel" (MIR, SA:mîr). Cf. Elemmírë; short form -mir in Tar-Atanamir. (SA:mîr)

Míriel *"Jewel-woman" (Silm), genitive Míriello (see namna)

miril (mirill-, as in pl. mirilli) "shining jewel" (MBIRIL)

mirilya- "glitter" (MBIRIL)

mirima "free" (MIS)

Mirimor *"the Free", a name of the Teleri; sg. #Mirimo (MIS)

mirroanwi "incarnates, those (spirits) 'put into flesh' "; sg. *mirroanwë (MR:350)

miruvor, full form miruvórë "meed", "a special wine or cordial"; possessive miruvóreva "of meed" (Nam, RGEO:66; WJ:399). In the "Qenya Lexicon", miruvórë was defined "nectar, drink of the Valar" (LT1:261).

mista "grey"; see lassemista

mista- "stray about" (MIS)

mistë "fine rain" (MIZD)

Mittalmar the "Midlands" of Númenor (UT:165)

mitya "interior" (adj) (MI)

miulë "whining, mewing" (MIW)

mixa ("ks") "wet" (MISK)

-mmë pronominal ending, at one conceptual stage exclusive "we", seen in vammë "we won't" (WJ:371). Later, Tolkien redefined -mmë as the ending for dual "we" (VT43:6); it is unclear whether this form is inclusive or exclusive, or whether this distinction is upheld in the dual pronouns. If it is, -mmë is most likely exclusive (connecting with the dual pronoun met in Namárië).



mo, indefinite pronoun "one, someone" (VT42:34)

-mo ending frequent in names and titles, sometimes with an agental significance (WJ:400)



moc- ("k") "hate" (given as mocir ["k"] "I hate" in LT1:258; read *mocin if the word is to be adapted to Tolkien's later Quenya)

moica ("k") "gentle, soft" (GL:58)

moilë "tarn" (LT2:349)

moina (1) "familiar, dear" (MOY (MUY) )

moina (2) "safe, secure" (GL:58; this "Qenya" word is evidently obsoleted by # 1 above. This second moina seems to reappear as muina "hidden, secret" in Tolkien's later Quenya.)

mól "slave, thrall" (MÔ)

mólanoldorin "the language of the Noldor enslaved by Morgoth" (MÔ) (Changed from múlanoldorin.)

mor "darkness" (Letters:308; probably just an Elvish "element" rather than a complete word; Namárië has mornië for "darkness")

morco ("k") "bear" (MORÓK)

mordo (1) "shadow, obscurity, stain" (MOR)

mordo (2) "warrior, hero" (LT1:268 - probably obsoleted by # 1 above)

morë "black" (MOR), "dark, darkness" (Letters:282). In compounds mori- (q.v.)

mórë "blackness, dark, night, darkness" (MOR, MC:214), also given with short vowel: morë "dark, darkness" (Letters:282).

mori- "dark, black" in a number of compounds (independent form morë, q.v.): Morimando "Dark Mando" = Mandos (MBAD), morimaitë "black-handed" (LotR3:VI ch. 6). Moriquendi "Dark Elves" (SA:mor, WJ:361, 373). Moringotto "Black Foe", Sindarin Morgoth. The oldest form is said to have been Moriñgotho (MR:194). Morion "the dark one", a title of Morgoth (FS). Morifinwë "dark Finwë", masc. name; he was called Caranthir in Sindarin (short Quenya name Moryo). (PM:353)

móri "dark" (MC:221; this is "Qenya"; in Tolkien's later Quenya mórë, morë)

mori "night" (LT1:261, in Tolkien's later Quenya mórë, morë)

morilindë "nightingale" (MOR)

morion "son of the dark" (in Fíriel's Song, Morion is translated "dark one", referring to Melko[r]) (LT1:261)

Mormacil ("k") "Black-sword" (name of Túrin, Sindarin Mormegil) (MAK)

morna "dark, black" (Letters:282, LT1:261) or "gloomy, sombre" (MOR). In tumbalemorna (Letters:282), q.v. Pl. mornë in Markirya (the first version of this poem had "green rocks", MC:215, changed to ondolisse mornë "upon dark rocks" in the final version; see MC:220, note 8).

mornië "darkness" (Nam, RGEO:67). Early "Qenya" also has Mornië "Black Grief", "the black ship that plies between Mandos and Erumáni" (LT1:261). This is probably a compound mor- "black" and nië "tear".

morqua "black" (LT1:261; also morna in LotR-style Quenya)

moru- "to hide" (LT1:261)

Moryo see Morifinwë


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