Él "star", elen being the ordinary word) or a poetic or archaic meaning of an ordinary word


lehta- "loose, slacken" (LEK), also adj. lehta



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lehta- "loose, slacken" (LEK), also adj. lehta "free, released" (VT39:17); #lehta tengwë "free element, released element", a term for "vowel" (only pl. lehta tengwi [ñ] is attested; we would rather expect *lehtë tengwi with the pl. form of the adjective) (VT39:17)

lelya- "go, proceed (in any direction), travel", pa.t. lendë (WJ:363)

lemba "left behind" (LEB/LEM)

Lembi "Elves remaining behind" = Telerin Ilkorins (LEB/LEM). Sg. #Lembë.

lemenya archaic ordinal "fifth", replaced by lempëa (VT42:25)

lemnar "week" (of five days) (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK)

lempë cardinal "five" (LEP/LEPEN/LEPEK, GL:53, VT42:24); lempëa ordinal "fifth", an analogical formation replacing older lemenya, in turn altered from the historically "correct" form lepenya because of analogy with the cardinal lempë "five" (VT42:25; Vanyarin Quenya maintained lepenya, VT42:26)

lenca ("k") (1) "slow" (LT2:341)

*lenca ("k") (2) - see leuka



lendë "left, went" (pa.t. of lelya- "go") (FS, LR:47, SD:310, WJ:362), or, according to the Etymologies, the pa.t. of linna- "go" and lesta- "leave" (LED, ELED)

lenémë "with leave" (+ genitive: "with leave of") (SD:246)

lenu- "stretch" (LT2:341)

lenwa "long and thin, straight, narrow" (LT2:341)

Lenwë the leader of the Nandor (Nandorin Denweg, primitive *Denwego) (WJ:412)

lepenya, see lempë

lëo "shade, shadow cast by any object" (DAY)

lepsë "finger" (LEP/LEPET)

*lér "man" (NI1 ) hypothetical Q form of PQ dêr; the form actually used in Quenya was nér)



léra adj. "free", of persons (VT41:5)

lerina adj. "free" of things: not guarded, reserved, made fast, or "owned" (VT41:5)

lerya- "release, set free, let go"; negated avalerya- "bind, make fast, restrain, deprive of liberty" (VT41:5, 6)

lerta- verb "can" in the sense "be free to do", being under no restraint (physical or other). Lertan quetë "I can speak (because I am free to do so, there being no obstacle of promise, secrecy, or duty)". Where the absence of a physical restraint is considered, this verb can be used in much the same sense as pol- (VT41:6)

lesta- (pa.t. lendë) "leave" (ELED)

lestanen "in measure", a word occurring in Fíriel's Song, apparently the instrumental form of a noun #lesta "measure", not otherwise attested.

Lestanórë "Doriath", gen. Lestanórëo (WJ:369)

leuca (1) "snake" (Appendix E)

leuca ("k") (2) (probably a misreading for *lenca) "loose, slacken" (LEK)

-li partitive pl. ending (simply called a plural suffix in the Etymologies, stem LI); genitive -lion in vanimálion, allative -linna and -linnar in falmalinnar, q.v. The other cases are only known from the Plotz letter: possessive -líva, dative -lin, locative -lissë or -lissen, ablative -lillo or -lillon, instrumental -línen, "respective" -lis.



li-, lin- a multiplicative prefix (LT1:269)

lia "fine thread, spider filament" (SLIG). Cf. lia "twine" (LT1:271)

liantassë "vine" (LT1:271)

liantë (1) "spider" (SLIG), perhaps obsoleting (2) liantë "tendril" (LT1:271)

líco ("k") "wax" (Markirya comments, MC:223)

lícuma ("k") "taper, candle"

lië "people" (LI, Narqelion, VT39:6), in Eldalië (q.v.); possessive #liéva in Mindon Eldaliéva (q.v.)

lillassëa "having many leaves", pl. lillassië in Markirya (ve tauri lillassië, lit. *"like many-leaved forests", is translated "like leaves of forests" in MC:215). The lil- element is clearly an assimilated form of lin-, # 1, q.v.

-lillo or -lillon ending for partitive pl. ablative (Plotz); see -li



lilótëa adjective "having many flowers" (VT42:18)

lilta- "dance" (LILT, Narqelion)

limba "a drop" (LIB1)

limbë "many" (LT2:342)

limpë "(wine), drink of the Valar" (LIP), cf. the early "Qenya" gloss "drink of the fairies" (LT1:258)

lin, lind- "a musical sound" (Letters:308), "melody" (LT1:258)

lin- (1) (prefix) "many" (LI), seen in lindornëa, lintyulussëa; assimilated lil- in lillassëa.

[lin- (2) "sing" (GLIN, struck out)]



linda "fair, beautiful" (SLIN, LIND)

Lindar "Singers" (sg. Linda), what the Teleri called themselves (WJ:380, MR:349, UT:253). It seems that Lindar is also interpreted "the Beautiful" (cf. linda "fair, beautiful"), but this interpretation seems to belong primarily to Tolkien's earlier conception, when Lindar was the name of the First Clan, the later Vanyar (which name similarly means "the Fair"). Adj. Lindarin = Telerin (but Tolkien of course held it to be = Vanyarin when the First Clan, the later Vanyar, were still called Lindar – before he decided to apply this name to the third clan, the Teleri) (TÂ/TA3)

lindë "air, tune, singing, song" (SA:gond, (LIN2, [GLIN]); lindelorendor "music-dream-land"; see laurelindórenan lindelorendor... (LotR2:III ch. 4, cf. Letters:308)

lindë- ?"sing" (LT1:258; in LotR-style Quenya lir- or #linda-)

lindelë "music" (LIN2, LT1:258 - #lindalë in Ainulindalë).

lindelëa "melodious" (LT1:258)

Lindi What the Green-elves (Laiquendi, Nandor) called themselves; also used in Exilic Quenya (WJ:385)

lindo "singer, singing bird" (LIN2)

Lindon, Lindónë "Lindon", place-name (WJ:385)

lindórëa ??? (Narqelion)

Lindórië fem. name, perhaps *"She that arises in beauty" (compare Melkor "He that arises in Might") (Silm). Cf. linda.

lindornëa "having many oak-trees" (adj.) (DÓRON, LI)

línë "cobweb" (SLIG)

-línen ending for partitive pl. instrumental (Plotz); see -li



linga- "hang, dangle" (LING/GLING)

linganer "hummed like a harp-string" (MC:216; this is "Qenya")

lingwë "fish" (LIW)

lingwilókë "fish-dragon, sea-serpent" (LOK)

linna- "go", pa.t. lendë "went" (LED; cf. lelya-)

-linnar see -li



linquë ("q") "wet" (LINKWI). In early "Qenya", this word was glossed "water" (LT1:262), and "wet" was linqui or liquin, q.v.

linqui ("q") "wet" (MC:216; Tolkien's later Quenya has linquë.)

#linta "swift", only pl. lintë attested (Nam, RGEO:66)



lintitinwë "having many stars" (LT1:269)

lintulinda, lintulindova *"many-???", *"swift-???" (Narqelion)

lintyulussëa "having many poplars" (LI)

linya "pool" (LIN1)

linyenwa "old, having many years" (YEN)

-lion ending for partitive pl. genitive (Plotz); see -li



lipil "little glass" (LT1:258)

lipsa "soap" (LIB2)

liptë- "to drip" (LT1:258; rather *lipta- in Tolkien's later Quenya?)

liquin ("q") "wet" (LT1:262; Tolkien's later Quenya has linquë.)

liquis ("q") "transparence" (LT1:262)

-lin ending for partitive pl. dative (Plotz); see -li

-linna or -linnar ending for partitive pl. allative (Plotz); see -li

lir- "to chant" (1st pers. aorist lirin "I chant, I sing") (LIR1, GLIR)

lir' ??? (Narqelion)

lírë "song", instrumental lírinen "in [the] song" or *"by [the] song" (Nam, RGEO:67)

lirilla "lay, song" (LT1:258)

lirit "poem" (LT1:258)

lirulin "lark" (MR:238, 262), changed from aimenel, aimenal

lis (liss-, e.g. dat.sg. lissen) "honey" (LIS)

liscë ("k") "reed, sedge" (LT2:335)

lissë "sweet" (Nam, RGEO:66)

-lissë or -lissen ending for partitive pl. locative (Plotz); see -li



litsë "sand" (LIT)

-líva ending for partitive pl. possessive (Plotz); see -li



lívë "sickness" (SLIW)

-llo ablative ending, "from" or "out of", e.g. sindanóriello "out of a grey land", Rómello "from the East", Mardello *"from Earth" (FS). Pl. -llon or -llor (in elenillor); dual -lto (Plotz)

-lma pronominal ending "our", attested (with the genitive ending -o that displaces final -a) in the word omentielmo "of our meeting". Tolkien emended omentielmo to omentielvo in the Second Edition of LotR, reflecting a revision of the Quenya pronominal system (cf. Letters:447). According to VT43:14, the cluster -lm- in the endings for inclusive "we/our" was altered to -lv-. In the revised system, -lma should apparently signify exclusive "our".

-lmë pronominal ending for "we". Likely it was originally intended to be inclusive "we", including the person(s) spoken to; later Tolkien apparently made this the ending for exclusive "we" instead (cf. the changed definition of the corresponding possessive ending -lma, see above). Exemplified in laituvalmet "we shall bless them" (lait-uva-lme-t "bless-shall-we-them") (LotR3:VI ch. 4, translated in Letters:308)



-lto ending for dual ablative (Plotz)

-lv- element in pronominal endings for inclusive "we/our" (VT43:14). Omentielvo "of our meeting" (q.v.) apparently includes the ending #-lva "our" with the genitive ending -o attached. The corresponding ending for inclusive "we" may be assumed to be normally *-lvë; the variant form #-lwë occurs in the verb navilwë "we judge" (VT42:34)



"night, a night" (DO3/DÔ)

loa, literally "growth", used of a solar year (= coranar) when seasonal changes are considered (Appendix D; in PM:126 loa is translated "time of growth". Pl. loar, or "löar", in MR:426) The form loa is also mentioned as the hypothetical Quenya cognate of Sindarin ("swampy"), but precisely because it clashed with loa "year", this Quenya cognate was not in use (VT42:10)

loc- ("lok-") "bend, loop". (May be a primitive stem rather than Quenya.) (SA:lok)

locta- ("k") "sprout, put forth leaves or flowers" (LT1:258; would have to become *lohta- in LotR-style Quenya)

loctë ("k") "blossom (of flowers in bunches or clusters)" (LT1:258; would have to become *lohtë in LotR-style Quenya)

loëndë *"year-middle", the middle (183rd) day of the year, inserted between the months of Nárië and Cermië (June and July) in the Númenórean calendar and the Steward's Reckoning (Appendix D)

*lohta- see locta-

*lohtë see loctë

loico "corpse, dead body"; loicolícuma "corpse-candle" in Markirya

lókë "dragon, snake, serpent, drake", older hlókë (SA:lok-, LT2:340, LOK; in the Etymologies the word is followed by "-î", whatever that is supposed to mean)

lom- "hide" (LT1:255; given in the form lomir "I hide"; read *lomin if the word is to be adapted to LotR-style Quenya.)

lomba "secret" (LT1:255)

lómë "dusk, twilight", also "night"; according to SD:415, the stem is lómi-. As for the gloss, cf. Lómion "Child of Twilight [dusk]", the Quenya name Aredhel secretly gave to Maeglin (SA). Otherwise lómë is usually defined as "night" (Letters:308, LR:41, SD:302 cf.414-15, SA:dú); the Etymologies defines lómë as "Night [as phenomenon], night-time, shades of night" (DO3/DÔ, LUM, DOMO). In early "Qenya" the gloss was "dusk, gloom, darkness" (LT1:255). Cf. lómelindë pl. lómelindi "nightingale" (SA:dú, LR:41; SD:302, MR:172, DO3/DÔ, LIN2, TIN). Derived adjective #lómëa "gloomy" in Lómëanor "Gloomyland"; see Taurelilómëa-tumbalemorna...

lómëar "child of gloom" (pl. evidently Lómëarni) (LT1:255, 259)

lómi "clouds" (MC:214; this is "Qenya"; in LotR-style Quenya it would evidently be the pl. of lómë)

lómin "shade, shadow" (LT1:255)

lóna (1) "pool, mere" (VT42:10)

lóna (2) "island, remote land difficult to reach" (LONO (AWA) ). Obsoleted by #1 above?

[lóna (3) is a form Tolkien mentioned as the hypothetical Quenya cognate of Sindarin loen, Telerin logna adj. "soaking wet" (VT42:10), but this cognate was not in use because it clashed with #1 above. At this point, Tolkien may seem to have forgotten #2.]

?lóna (4) "dark" (adj.) (DO3/DÔ). If this is to be the cognate of "Noldorin"/Sindarin dûr, as the context seems to indicate, lóna is likely a misreading for *lóra in Tolkien's manuscript.

londë "land-locked haven". In Alqualondë "Swan-haven" (SA). In the Etymologies, stem LOD, londë is glossed "road (in sea), entrance to harbour" (LOD).

lor- "to slumber" (LT1:259; the corresponding abstract noun lórë "slumber" is attested in Tolkien's later Quenya, so this verb must still be valid). Cf. also lor "dream" (Letters:308; probably just an Elvish "element" rather than a complete word)

lorda "drowsy, slumbrous" (LT1:259)

lórë "slumber" (LOS)

Lórellin name of the lake where the Valië Estë sleeps; apparently meaning *"Dream-lake" or *"Slumber-lake" (Silm)

Lórien (from lor-) name of a Vala, properly the place where he dwells, while his real name is Irmo (WJ:402, LOS (ÓLOS, SPAN) )

lorna "asleep" (LOS)

lossë (1) noun "snow" or adj. "snow-white" (SA:los, MC:213, VT42:18)

lossë (2) "blossom" ("usually, owing to association with olosse snow, only used of white blossom") (LOT(H) )

lossëa "snow-white" (VT42:18)

losselië "white people" (MC:216)

losta- "to bloom" (VT42:18)

lótë "flower", mostly applied to larger single flowers (LOT(H), LT1:259, VT42:18). (The shorter form -lot occurs in compounds, e.g. fúmellot, q.v.) In the names Ninquelóte *"White-flower" (= Nimloth), Vingilótë "Foam-flower", the name of Eärendil's ship (SA:loth), also in Lótessë fifth month of the year, "May" (Appendix D). See also olótë, lotsë.

lótefalmarínen "with waves crowned with flowers" (MC:220; this is "Qenya")

lotsë "small single flower" (VT42:18)

loxë ("ks") "hair" (LOK)

-lto "they", pronominal suffix occurring in Fíriel's Song (meldielto "they are beloved" and cárielto "they made"), also in LT1:114: tulielto "they have come". Probably not valid in Tolkien's later Quenya (replaced by -ntë?)



"a time, occasion" (LU)

lúcë ("k") "enchantment" (LUK)

luhta- "enchant" (LUK)

luin "blue", pl. luini (Nam, RGEO:66). In Helluin, name of the star Sirius, and Luinil, name of another blue-shining star (or planet). (SA; Luinil is tentatively identified with Neptune, MR:435)

Lumbar name of a star (or planet), tentatively identified with Saturn (MR:435), evidently connected to lumbo, lumbulë (Silm)

lumbë "gloom, shadow" (LUM)

lumbo "cloud", pl. lumbor in Markirya. In early "Qenya", lumbo was glossed "dark lowering cloud" (LT1:259)

lumbulë "(heavy) shadow" (Nam, RGEO:67)

lúmë (1) "time" (LU) or "hour", allative lúmenna "upon the hour", elided lúmenn' in the greeting elen síla lúmenn' omentielvo because the next word begins with a similar vowel. The complete form lúmenna omentielvo is found in WJ:367 and Letters:424. Cf. also the compounds lumenyárë and lúmequenta, q.v.

lúmë (2) "darkness" (one wonders if Tolkien confused lúmë "time, hour" and lómë "night") (Markirya)

lumenyárë "history, chronological account" (NAR2 - read *lúmenyárë?)

lúmequenta ("q") "history, chronological account" (LU)

lúmequentalë ("q") "history" (LU, KWET)

lúmequentalëa ("q") "historical" (LU)

lumna adj. "lying heavy, burdensome, oppressive, ominous" (DUB).

lumna- stative verb "be heavy" (LR:47, SD:310; cf. lumna- "to lie heavy" in the Etymologies, stem DUB-)

lúnë "blue" (LUG2, LT1:262; Namárië has #luin)

lúnelinquë ("q") "blue-wet" (?), translated "surging" (MC:213, 220; this is "Qenya")

lunga "heavy" (LUG1)

lunganar "sagged" (MC:221; this is "Qenya")

lunganë "bending" (MC:214; this is "Qenya")

Lúnoronti "Blue Mountains" (LUG2)

luntë "boat" (LUT, MC:216), "ship" (LT1:249, LT1:255)

lúrë "dark weather" (LT1:259)

lúrëa "dark, overcast" (LT1:259)

lussa- "to whisper" (SLUS/SRUS)

lussë "a whispering sound" (SLUS/SRUS)

lusta "void, empty" (LUS)

lútë "sail" (MC:213; this is "Qenya")

lútier "sailed" (MC:216; this is "Qenya")

lúto "flood" (LT1:249)

lutta- "flow, float" (LT1:249)

lutu- "flow, float" (LT1:249)

lúva "bow" (Appendix E)

luvu- "lower, brood" (LT1:259)

*-lva pronominal ending, "our", XXX Only attested in the genitive -lvo in the word omentielvo (see -lma). For this reason it has been argued that the ending may actually be *-lwa, since there is some evidence that wo would change to vo in Quenya and the w of *-lwa could be derived from the dual ending -u. (FG)



lyá ??? (Narqelion)

-lya pronominal suffix "thy, your" in tielyanna "upon your path" (UT:22 cf. 51) and caritalya(s) "your doing (it)" (VT41:17)

-lyë 2. person sg. ending: "thou", hiruvalyë "thou shalt find" (Nam, RGEO:67)


ma neuter personal pronoun "something, a thing" (VT42:34)

"hand" (MA3, LT2:339, Narqelion, VT39:10), dual *mát "a pair of hands" attested with a pronominal suffix: máryat "his/her (pair of) hands" (see -rya, -t) (Nam, RGEO:67), pl. allative mannar "into hands" (FS). Cf. -maitë "-handed".

#mac- ("k") "hew with a sword" (VT39:11, where the aorist macë is given); cf. early "Qenya" mac- ("k") "slay" (LT1:259)



maca- ("k") "to forge metal" (which rang at the stokes of hammers). (VT41:10; in this source this is suggested as the origin of the word macil "sword", but mac- above would also seem to be relevant, so Tolkien may have changed his mind about the precise etymology of macil.)

máca "each, every" (GL:41); rather ilya in Tolkien's later Quenya

Macalaurë ("Makalaurë"), masc. name, the mother-name (never used in narrative) of Canafinwë = Maglor (PM:353, MAK); his Sindarin name is seen to be based on his mother-name. In the Etymologies, Macalaurë is interpreted "Gold-cleaver" (MAK)

macar ("k") (1) "swordsman" (VT39:11). In Menelmacar (see menel). According to VT41:10, macar is literally "forger" (derived from maca-, q.v.), "often used in later use of a warrior".

macar ("k") (2) "tradesman" (MBAKH)

macil ("k") "sword" (MAK, LT1:259, VT39:11)

mahalma "throne", nominative pl. mahalmar "thrones" and locative pl. mahalmassen in CO. Adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:399)

Máhan (pl. Máhani attested in WJ:402), one of the eight chiefs of the Valar (Adopted and adapted from Valarin, but usually translated as Aratar) Máhanaxar the "Doom Ring" of Aman; adopted and adapted from Valarin. (WJ:399)


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