Él "star", elen being the ordinary word) or a poetic or archaic meaning of an ordinary word



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Turco see Turcafinwë

túrë "mastery, victory" (TUR)

Túrin (masc. name), apparently meaning "victory-mood" (LR:395, stem TUR). The Etymologies gives Turindo as the Quenya form of this name; Túrin seems to be properly the Sindarin form, though it fits Quenya style well enough and Nienor used it in a Quenya sentence (near the end of ch. 21 in the Silmarillion)

Turindo (masc. name, see Túrin). (TUR)

turinqui ("q") "queen" (LT1:260; apparently the fem. of tur. In Tolkien's later Quenya, "queen" is tári.)

turma "shield" (TURÚM)

turnë pa.t. of tur- (TUR)

Túrosto "Gabilgathol", a dwelling of the Dwarves (Sindarin Belegost; the names mean "Mickleburg", "Great Fortress")

turu "wood" (properly firewood, but used of wood in general) (LT1:270)

turu- "kindle" (LT1:270; rather tinta- in LotR-style Quenya)

Turucáno ("-káno") "Turgon" (PM:344)

[Turumbar] (masc.name) (MBARAT) Changed by Tolkien to Turambar



#turúna "mastered", only attested attested in the elided form turún' (UT:138, apparently incomplete spelling turun in Silm ch. 21). The form must be understood as the past participle of tur- "wield, control, govern", though we would normally expect *túrina or *turna.

turúva "wooden" (LT1:270)

tussa "bush" (TUS)

tusturë "tinder" (LT1:270)

#tuv- "find", perfect utúvië "has found" in Aragorn's exclamation when he found the sapling of the White Tree: utúvienyes "I have found it" (utúvie-nye-s "have found-I-it") (LotR3:VI ch. 5)

tuvu- "receive" (GL:71; is this "Qenya" word related to #tuv- "find"?)

-twa ending for dual possessive (Plotz)



tyal- "play" (1st pers. aorist tyalin "I play") (TYAL)

tyalangan "harp-player" (TYAL)

tyalië "sport, play, game" (TYAL, LT1:260)

tyar- "cause" (KYAR)

tyaro "doer, actor, agent" (KAR)

tyav- "taste" (1st pers. aorist tyavin "I taste") (KYAB)

tyávë pl. #tyáver "taste", noun (pl. attested only in the compound lámatyáver, see lámatyávë.) (MR:215, 216)

tye "you, thee" as object (LR:70, Arct)

tyel (probably tyeld-, cf. long form tyeldë) "end" (noun) (FS, KYEL)

tyel- "end, cease" (KYEL)

tyelca ("k") "swift, agile" (KYELEK), "hasty" (PM:353)

Tyelcormo ("k") "hasty-riser", mother-name (never used in narrative) of Turcafinwë = Celegorm (PM:353)

tyeldë "end" (noun), also short form tyel (KYEL)

tyelima "final" (KYEL)

tyellë "grade" (pl. tyeller attested) (Appendix E)

tyelma "ending" (FS)

tyelpë "silver" (KYELEP/TELEP), etymology also in Letters:426 and UT:266. Tyelpë is the true Quenya descendant of primitive *kyelepê, but the Telerin form telpë was more common, "for the Teleri prized silver above gold, and their skill as silversmiths was esteemed even by the Noldor" (UT:266).

Tyelperinquar "Silver-fist, Celebrimbor" (PM:318; also Telperinqar, q.v.)

tyelpetéma "palatal series" (Appendix E)

Tyelperion less common name of Telperion (UT:266).

tyulma "mast" (TYUL, SD:419). "Qenya" pl. tyulmin "masts" in MC:216; read *tyulmar in LotR-style Quenya.

tyulussë "poplar-tree" (TYUL)

tyur "cheese" (QL:50 cf. GL:28)


u- "not do, not be" (1st pers. aorist uin "I do not, am not"), pa.t. úmë (UGU/UMU)

ú adv and prep. "without, destitute of" (VT39:14). Usually followed by genitive: ú calo "without light" (cala).

ú- (prefix) "not-, un-, in-", denying presence or possession of thing or quality (VT39:14, UGU/UMU, GÛ, LT1:272). Tolkien at one point considered redefining ú- as an element signifying "bad, uneasy, hard"; the already-published form únótima would then mean "difficult/impossible to count" rather than simply "uncountable" (VT42:33). However, Tolkien's very last word on the matter seems to be that ú- was to remain a mere negative (VT44:4)

Úamanyar "those not of Aman" (sg. #Úamanya), Elves who did not reach the Blessed Realm (but did leave Cuiviénen with the intention of going there) = Heceldi (WJ:371). Also Úmanyar and fuller Úmaneldi. (WJ:373)

"fleece" (LT1:249)

ufárëa "not enough" (FS). Cf. ú- "un-" and fárëa "enough, sufficient" (read *úfárëa?)

uilë "long trailing plant", especially "seaweed" (UY)

uin (1) see u-.

Uin (2) "the primeval whale" (LT1:263)

Uinen (Uinend-, as in dative Uinenden) name of a Maia, spouse of Ossë (UY, NEN). Adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:404), though it is also said that it contains -nen "water" (SA:nen); the latter explanation may be folk etymology. In the Etymologies, the name is derived from the same stem (UY) as uilë "long trailing plant, especially seaweed".

Úlairi "Nazgûl" (sg. *Úlairë? *Úlair?) Etymology obscure.

Ulban (Ulband-) "monster" (a name of Melko) (LT1:260)

ulca "evil, bad, wicked, wrong" (QL:97; in LotR-period Quenya attested in henulca "evileyed", SD:68)

úlëa "pouring, flooding, flowing" (ULU)

ullë intr. pa.t. of ulya-, q.v. (ULU). Cf. ullier "poured", a pl. past tense of ulya- "pour" occurring in LR:47; read probably *uller in Tolkien's later Quenya. In SD:247, ullier is translated "should flow".

ullumë an word occurring in Fíriel's Song, evidently meaning "not for ever". Cf. ú-, lúmë.

Ulmo name of the Vala of all waters (ULU), interpreted "the Pourer" by folk etymology, but the name was actually adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:400)

ulmula "mumbling" (MC:214; this is "Qenya")

ulto- "pour" (intransitive?) (LT1:270; in Tolkien's later Quenya ulya- pa.t. ullë)

ulu- "pour" (transitive?) (LT1:270; in Tolkien's later Quenya ulya- pa.t. ulyanë)

Ulumúri The great horns of Ulmo; etymology obscure (Silm)

ulundë "flood" (ULU)

ulundo "monster, deformed and hideous creature" (ÚLUG)

ulya- "pour", intr. pa.t. ullë, tr. ulyanë (ULU). Cf. ullier "poured", a pl. past tense of ulya- occurring in LR:47; read probably *uller in Tolkien's later Quenya. In SD:247, ullier is translated "should flow".

um- "not do, not be" (1st pers. aorist umin "I do not, am not"), past tense úmë (UGU/UMU). Future tense úva? (q.v.)

Úmaneldi *"Non-Aman Elves", Elves who never dwelt in Aman (= Úmanyar) (WJ:373). Sg. #Úmanel, #Úmaneld-.

Úmanyar "those not of Aman", Eldar that did not reach Aman, sc. Sindar and Nandor (SA:mân). Sg. #Úmanya. Also Úamanyar.

umbar (umbart-, as in dat.sg. umbarten) "fate. doom" (MBARAT), also name of tengwa 6 (Appendix E)

Umbardacil "Umbar-victor" (Appendix A); the place-name Umbar is not Quenya and has no connection with umbar "fate".

Umbarto "Fated", mother-name (never used in narrative) of Telufinwë = Amras. The ominous name was altered to Ambarto by Fëanor. (PM:353-354)

úmë pa.t. of um- (and u-?) (UGU/UMU)

úmëa "evil" (UGU/UMU). Is this connected to úmëai in Narqelion, perhaps a "Qenya" plural form?

úna "deprived of, destitute, forlorn" (VT39:14)

únat "a thing impossible to be or to be done" (VT39:26) Cf. ú- and nat.

unca- ("k") "hollow out" (UNUK)

Undolaurë "Glorund" (> Glaurung). Also Laurundo. (LT2:341)

undómë "twilight", usually of the time near evening, not near dawn (that is tindómë)

undu "down, under, beneath" (UNU), prefix undu- "down", in undulávë "down-licked" = covered. Lumbulë undulávë ilyë tier "(heavy) shadow down-licked all paths", lyrical translation "all paths are drowned deep in shadow"

undumë "abyss" (Markirya)

Úner "Noman" (UT:211)

ungo "cloud, dark shadow" (UÑG)

Ungoliantë "Ungoliant" (the Spider, ally of Morgoth); also Ungweliantë (UÑG, DYEL, SLIG)

ungwalë "torture" (ÑGWAL)

ungwë "spider's web", also name of tengwa 8 (Appendix E). However, this word was defined as "gloom" in the Etymologies (UÑG), while in early "Qenya" it meant "spider" ("especially Ungwë the Gloomweaver" = Ungoliant) (LT1:271)

Ungweliantë the Spider, ally of Morgoth (UÑG)

unotë, unotëa (read *únotë, *únotëa?) "not counted, uncounted" (VT39:14)

únótima "not possible to count, countless" (VT39:14), pl. únótimë (translated "numberless") attested (ú-nót-imë "not-count-able") (Nam, RGEO:66, Appendix E)

unqua ("q") "hollow" (adj.) (UNUK)

unqualë ("q") "agony, death" (KWAL)

unquë "hollow" (noun) (UNUK), also name of tengwa 16 (Appendix E; there spelt unque, while the Etymologies has unqe)

untúpa "down-roofs" = covers (perhaps for *undutúpa-, cf. undu-). Present tense of untup- with lengthening of the stem vowel and the suffix -a (cf. síla "shines" from sil-)

unuhuinë "under-shadow" (LR:47); see huinë.

únyárima "impossible to recount" (because all the facts are not known, or the tale is to long) (WJ:370)

úquétima "unspeakable", sc. impossible to say, put into words; also "unpronounceable" (WJ:370)

úr "fire" (UR) This stem was struck out in Etym, but a word that must be derived from it occurs in LotR, so it seems that Tolkien restored it. Early "Qenya" also has Ûr "the Sun" (also Úri, Úrinci ("k"), Urwen) (LT1:271). Cf. Úri.

Úr-anar word occurring in Fíriel's Song, translated "the red sun"; actually the prefixed element úr- must have to do with the element ur- "heat, be hot" mentioned in the Silmarillion Appendix.

úra "large" (UR)

urco ("k"), pl. urqui, an old word used in the lore of the Blessed Realm for anything that caused fear to the Elves during the March; by the Exiles recognized as the cognate of Sindarin orch and used to mean "Orc". The Sindarin-influenced form orco was also used. (WJ:390)

urdu "death" (LT2:342; rather nuru in Tolkien's later Quenya)

úrë "heat", also name of tengwa 36 (Appendix E)

úri "sun" (MC:214, 221; this is "Qenya"); genitive úrio "sun's" (MC:216)

Úrimë (in some editions Urimë, but this seems to be an error; cf. úrë "heat") eighth month of the year, "August" (Appendix D, SA:ur-, UT:302)

úrin "blazing hot" (LT1:271)

Úrin (Úrind-, as in "g.sg. Úrinden", in LotR-style Quenya this is dat.sg.) a name of the Sun (UR; this stem was struck out in Etym, but several words that must be derived from it occur in LotR, so it seems that Tolkien restored it.)

Úrion (Q?) a title of Fionwë (= later Eönwë); see the LR index. (UR; this stem was struck out in Etym, but several words that must be derived from it occur in LotR, so it seems that Tolkien restored it.)

urna "oven" (LT1:271)

uru "fire" (LT1:271)

uruitë "fiery" (UR; this stem was struck out in Etym, but several words that must be derived from it occur in LotR, so it seems that Tolkien restored it.)

urulókë "fire-dragon" (LOK), pl. Urulóki (SA:ur-)

Urundil masc.name, "copper-lover" (PM:365); this apparently suggests #urun as a word for "copper".

urus (urust-) "copper" (VT41:10)

úruva "fiery" (from UR; this stem was struck out in Etym, but several words that must be derived from it occur in LotR, so it seems that Tolkien restored it. The word úruva also occurred in early "Qenya"; in LT1:271 it is glossed "like fire".)

uruvoitë "fiery" (LT1:271)

urwa "on fire" (LT1:271)

urya- "burn" (intransitive) (LT1:271)

#us- "escape", verb (given in the form usin "he escapes" in LT1:251; this would have to mean "I escape" if the word is to be adopted to Tolkien's later Quenya). Cf. uswë.



usquë ("q") "reek" (USUK)

usta- "burn" (transitive) (LT1:271)

uswë "issue, escape" (noun) (LT1:251)

Uswevandë "way of escape" (LT2:336)

utúlien see tul- (EO)

Utumno name of the first great stronghold of Melkor in the North (SA:tum, TUB)

utúvienyes see *tuv-

úva "will not", future tense of a negative verb (present/aorist tense úyë?) in Fíriel's Song. Cf. also the negative verb u-, um- "not do, not be".

-uva future tense ending. In laituvalmet, tiruvantes, enquantuva, cenuva, caluva.



úvanë "without beauty", adj. úvanëa (VT39:14)

úvanima "not fair, ugly" (VT39:14)

Úvanimo "monster (creature of Melko[r]) (BAN, LT1:272); pl. úvanimor "monsters" (UGU/UMU, (GÛ) )

úvë "abundance, great quantity" (UB)

úvëa "abundant, in very great number, very large" (UB)

úyë a verb occurring in Fíriel's Song, apparently ye "is" with the negative prefix ú-, hence "is not" (úyë sérë indo-ninya símen, translated "my hearth resteth not here", literally evidently *"[there] is not rest [for] my heart here")


(exclamation) "I will not!" or "Do not!"; ván, ványë "I won't!", vammë "we won't" (WJ:371)

-va possessive ending, in Eldaliéva, Ingoldova, miruvóreva, Oroméva, Valinóreva (q.v. for references). Pl. - when governing a plural word (from archaic -vai) (WJ:407), but it seems that -va was used throughout in late Exilic Quenya (cf. miruvóreva governing the plural word yuldar in Namárië). Pl. -iva (-ivë), dual -twa, partitive pl. -líva.



vacco ("k") "jacket, cloak" (GL:21)

vaháya "far away" (LR:47, SD:310). Also spelt vahaiya (SD:247)

vahta- "to soil, stain" (WA3)

vaia < waia (also vaiya < waiya) "envelope", especially of the Outer Sea or Air enfolding the world within the Ilurambar or world-walls (WAY)

Vaiaro a name of Ulmo, lord of Vaiya (WAY)

vaima "robe" (LT1:271)

vaina "clad" (LT1:272)

vainë "sheath" (LT1:271)

vainolë "quiver" (noun) (LT1:271)

Vairë "the Weaver", name of a Valië, spouse of Mandos (Silm, WEY). The name is translated "Ever-weaving" in VT39:10, and it is implied that the archaic form was *Wairê rather than Weirê, the reconstruction given in the Etymologies (LR:398)

vaita- "to wrap" (LT1:271)

vaiwa "wind" (WÂ/WAWA/WAIWA)

vaiya < waiya (also vaia, waia) "envelope" (noun), especially of the Outer Sea or Air enfolding the world within the Ilurambar or world-walls (WAY, capitalized Vaiya under GEY; the latter entry was struck out). In a "Qenya" text in MC:214, vaiya is simply translated "sky".

Vala "Power, God, angelic power", pl. Valar or Vali (BAL, Appendix E, LT2:348). The Valar are a group of immensely powerful spirits guarding the world on behalf of its Creator; they are sometimes called Gods, though this is strictly wrong according to Christian terminology: the Valar were created. The noun vala is also the name of tengwa 22 (Appendix E). Gen. pl. Valion "of the Valar" (FS, MR:18); this form shows the pl. Vali, (irregular) alternative to Valar (the gen.pl. could certainly be *Valaron as well). Pl. allative valannar *"to/on the Valar" (LR:47, 56; SD:246). Vala is properly a verb "has power" (sc. over the matter of Eä), also used as a noun "a Power" (WJ:403). The verb vala- "rule, order", used with reference to the Valar only, is attested only in the sentences á vala Manwë! "may Manwë order it!" and Valar valuvar "the will of the Valar will be done" (WJ:404). However, Tolkien did not associate the word Valar with power from the beginning; it apparently meant "the happy ones" in Tolkien's original conception; cf. valto, vald- (LT2:348)

Valacar masc. name, *"Vala-head"??? (Appendix A)

Valacirca "Sickle of the Gods", a name of the Great Bear (Big Dipper) constellation (SA:val-, MR:388, KIRIK, OT/OTOS/OTOK)

Valandil masc. name, "God-friend, *Vala-friend" (Appendix A, translated in LR:60)

Valandur masc. name, *"Vala-servant" (Appendix A)

valaina "of or belonging to the Valar, divine" (BAL)

Valandor "the land of the Valar", confused with and replaced by Valinórë "the people of the Valar", short form Valinor (SA:dôr, Silm)

Valanya last day of the Eldarin six-day week, dedicated to the Valar (Appendix D). Etymology, see Letters:427. Also called Tárion.

Valaquenta "Account of the Valar" (SA:val-)

Valarauco ("k") "Demon of Might" (here vala- assumes its basic meaning "power, might"), Sindarin balrog (WJ:415). Pl. Valaraucar (sic, not -or) "Balrogs" (SA:val-, SA:rauco). Earlier forms from the "Qenya Lexicon" are Valcaraucë, Malcaraucë (q.v.); these should probably be ignored in LotR-style Quenya.

#Valariandë "Beleriand" (genitive in the phrase Nyarna Valarianden "the annals of Beleriand" in LR:202; Tolkien later changed the genitive ending from -n to -o; hence read *Nyarna Valariandëo)

Valaróma "Vala-horn", Oromë's horn (Silm)

valassë "divinity" (or rather *"valahood"; the word should probably not be used with reference to the divinity of Eru). (BAL)

Valatar (Valatár- as in "gen.sg. Valatáren", in Tolkien's later Quenya this is a dative singular instead) "Vala-king", applied to the nine chief Valar: Manwe, Ulmo, Aule, Mandos, Lorien, Tulkas, Ossë, Orome, and Melko[r]. Note: This list, recorded in the Etymologies, differs from the scenario of the published Silmarillion; Ossë is not a Vala in Tolkien's later conception. (BAL)

Valatári "Vala-queen" (BAL; it is there said that Vala has no feminine form except this compound, but Silm gives Valië)

valcanë ("k") "vague" (MC:213; this is "Qenya")

Valcaraucë ("k") "balrog", also Malcaraucë (LT1:250; in Tolkien's later Quenya valarauco)

vald- "blessedness, happiness" (LT1:272 - a final vowel would seem to be required)

valda "worth, worthy, dear" (GL:23)

Valdë "female Vala" (also Valis) (LT1:272, in Tolkien's later Quenya Valië)

Valië female Vala, pl. Valier attested (Silm)

Valimar "Vala-home", a region in Valinor, also called Valmar. In Namárië, this word is used = Valinor. (Nam, RGEO:67)

valimo "happy" (LT1:272; no adjectives end in -o in LotR-style Quenya. Use valin.)

valin "happy" (LT1:272)

Valinor "the land (or people) of the Valar", *"Vali-land" (Vali = Valar), land of the Gods in the West (BAL, NDOR); cf. Valandor. Full form Valinórë (BAL; Vali-nórë under NDOR) In the early "Qenya Lexicon", Valinor, Valinórë is glossed "Asgard", the name of the city of the gods in Norse mythology (LT1:272). Possessive (here object genitive) Valinóreva in Nurtalë Valinóreva, the "Hiding of Valinor" (Silm).

Valis "female Vala" (also Valdë) (LT1:272; in Tolkien's later Quenya Valië)

Valmar alternative form of Valimar, q.v. (Silm)

Valmo "male Vala" (also Valon) (LT1:272; these forms may or may not be valid in Tolkien's later Quenya)

Valon "male Vala" (also Valmo) (LT1:272; these forms may or may not be valid in Tolkien's later Quenya)


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