Él "star", elen being the ordinary word) or a poetic or archaic meaning of an ordinary word

quoro- ("q") "choke, suffocate" (LT1:264). See quorin

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quoro- ("q") "choke, suffocate" (LT1:264). See quorin.

-r nominative plural ending regularly used on nouns ending in -a, -i, -, -o, -u, e.g. Ainur, Valar, tier.

(1) pl. rávi "lion" (RAW)

(2) "arm" (LT2:335, there spelt ; certainly obsoleted by # 1 above. In Tolkien's later Quenya, "arm" is ranco)

rac- ("k") "break", past participle rácina ("rákina") "broken" in Markirya

#racina "stripped, deprived"; this adj. is only attested in the pl. (racinë ["k"]). Compare rácina under rac- above. Cf. #racina tengwë (only pl. racinë tengwi ("k") is attested) "stripped sign", "deprived sign"; in early Elvish analysis of Quenya the term for a consonant with no following vowel; the vowel was held to have disappeared or been omitted (VT39:6)

ráca ("k") "wolf" (DARÁK)

racta- ("k") "stretch out, reach" (LT2:335; read *rahta- if the word is to be adapted to LotR-style Quenya)

*rahta- see racta-

raica ("k") "crooked, bent, wrong" (RÁYAK, VT39:7), pl. raicar in LR:47 (read perhaps *raicë in LotR-style Quenya)

raima "net" (VT42:12)

raimë "network, lace" (VT42:28). In the Etymologies as printed in LR, a word raimë "hunt, hunting" is also cited in the entry ROY1, but given the form of the root itself, this word should evidently read *roimë.

raina, adj. "nettled, enlaced" (VT42:11)

raita- 1) "make network or lace" (also rëa-), 2) "catch in a net" (VT42:12)

[raiwe "lace" (VT42:12)]

ráma "wing", pl. rámar (RAM, Nam, RGEO:66, LT2:335); Markirya has both nominative pl. rámar "wings" and instrumental pl. rámainen *"with wings" (translated "on wings" by Tolkien); rámali "wings" in MC:213 would be a partitive pl. in LotR-style Quenya. Variant rámë in the names Eärrámë, Alquarámë, q.v.

rama- "to shout" (LT1:259)

rámalókë "winged dragon" (LOK)

rámavoitë "having wings" (LT2:335, Narqelion)

ramba "wall" (RAM, SA)

rambë "a shout" (LT1:259)

ran (ram-) "noise" (LT1:259, QL:79)

Rána "the Wayward, the Wanderer", a name of the moon (MR:198, MC:221, Silm); the Etymologies gives Rana with a short vowel (RAN). According to one late source, Rána is not properly the Moon itself but is rather the "name of the spirit (Máya) that was said to abide in the Moon as its guardian" (VT42:13).

ranco ("k") "arm", pl. ranqui ("q") (RAK)

randa "cycle, age" (100 Valian Years) (RAD)

ránë "straying, wandering" (noun) (RAN)

ránen "errant" (RAN; may be a misreading for *ránëa)

ranga (pl. rangar is attested) "yard, full pace". This Númenórean linar measure was "slightly longer than our yard, approximately 38 inches [= 96.5 cm]". (UT:285, 461)

rangwë "fathom" (RAK)

ranqui ("q") pl. of ranco (RAK)

ranya- (1) verb "to stray" (RAN), (2) noun ranya "erratic wandering" (VT42:13)

Rása "the Sea" (LT2:347; rather ëar in Tolkien's later Quenya)

rassë "horn" (especially on living animal, but also applied to mountains) (RAS, PM:69)

rato "soon" (Arct)

rau (pl. rávi) "lion" (LT1:260; the pl. is valid in Tolkien's later Quenya, but the sg. has become )

rauco ("k") "a powerful, hostile, and terrible creature", "very terrible creature", especially in the compound Valarauco "Demon of Might" (WJ:415, VT39:10, cf. SA:raukor. In the Etymologies, stem RUK, the gloss is "demon".) In the compound Valaraucar "Balrogs", the pl. of rauco is surprisingly #raucar instead of *raucor.

raumo "(noise of a) storm" (Markirya)

raust "hunting, preying" (LT1:260; in LotR-style Quenya *roimë [misreading "raime" in LR:384]. No word can end in -st in LotR-style Quenya.)

rauta "metal" [meaning changed by Tolkien from "copper"] (RAUTÂ)

rauta- "to hunt" (LT1:260; in Tolkien's later Quenya rather roita-)

ráva (1) "bank" (especially of a river) (RAMBÂ)

ráva (2) "wild, untamed" (RAB)

rávë "roaring noise" (Markirya)

rávëa "roaring" (adj.) (Markirya)

ravennë "she-lion" (LT1:260)

"day" (of the sun), a full 24-hour cycle (Appendix D); short - in compounds like Ringarë (q.v.)

rëa- "make network; make lace" (VT42:12)

remba- "net, entrap" (VT42:12)

rembë "mesh" (Appendix E, in a footnote), "hunter's or fisher's net" (VT42:29)

rembina "entangled" (VT42:12)

remma "snare" (as noun) (VT42:12)

rempa "crooked, hooked" (REP)

réna "edge, border, margin" (REG)

rendë pa.t. of rerin (RED)

#rer- "to sow" (1st pers. aorist rerin "I sow"), pa.t. rendë (RED)

ría "wreath" (PM:347)

#ric- "twist", perfect irícië "has twisted" (VT39:9)

rië "crown" (RIG)

riel (*riell-) "garlanded maiden" (SA:kal-), full form riellë "a maiden crowned with a festival garland" (PM:347). In Altariel, Altariellë.

rihta- "jerk, give quick twist or move, twitch" (RIK(H) )

rilma "glittering light" (RIL)

rilya "glittering, brilliance" (RIL)

ríma "edge, hem, border" (RÎ)

rimba "frequent, numerous" (RIM)

rimbë "crowd, host, great number" (RIM, SA:rim, Letters:282)

rimpa "rushing, flying" (RIP)

rin "dew" (LT1:265; rather rossë in LotR-style Quenya)

rína "crowned" (RIG)

rincë ("k") "flourish, quick shake" (RIK(H) )

rinda "circular" (RIN)

rindë "circle" (RIN)

ringa "cold" (Markirya); the Etymologies gives ringë (RINGI), but it seems that ringa is to be preferred (cf. Ringarë below). In early "Qenya", ringa is glossed "damp, cold, chilly" (LT1:265)

Ringarë the twelfth and last month of the year, "December" (Appendix D, SA:ring); the word seems to mean *"Cold-day".

ringë 1. (adj.) "cold", also ringa (which form is to be preferred; cf. Ringarë in LotR); 2. (noun) "cold pool or lake (in mountains)" (RINGI)

Ringil name of one of the great Lamps (pillared on ice), apparently contains ringë (RINGI)

ringwë "rime, frost" (LT1:265)

rista-, rista "cut" (vb and noun) (RIS)

Rithil-Anamo "Ring of Doom", translation of the foreign word Máhanaxar that was adopted and adapted from Valarin (WJ:401). Presumably *Risil-Anamo in Exilic Quenya.

-ro pronominal ending "he", in antaváro, q.v.

rocco ("k") "horse" (ROK, SA:roch; Letters:382; cf. 282 where the spelling really is rocco, not rokko. In Letters:382 the word is defined as "swift horse for riding".)

*roimë "hunt, hunting" (the spelling "raime" in the entry ROY1 in the Etymologies as printed in LR would seem to be a misreading, given the form of the root itself)

roina "ruddy" (ROY2)

roita- "pursue" (ROY1)

róma (1) "horn" (WJ:368 - this refers to a "horn" as an instrument rather than as part of an animal; see rassë, tarca)

róma (2) "loud sound, trumpet-sound" (ROM)

róma (3) "shoulder" (LT2:335; evidently obsoleted by # 1 and # 2 above.)

romba "horn, trumpet" (ROM)

rómen, Rómen "east" (RÔ, MEN, SA:men), "uprising, sunrise, east" (SA:rómen); also name of tengwa 25 (Appendix E). Rómenna, a place in the eastern part of Númenor, is simply the allative "eastward" (SA:rómen), cf. also rómenna in LR:47, 56. Ablative Rómello "from the East" or "[to one] from the East", hence Tolkien's translation "to those from the East" in his rendering of Namárië (Nam, RGEO:67). Masc. name Rómendacil "East-victor" (Appendix A; cf. Letters:425)

rómenya "eastern" (RÔ)

-ron gen. pl. ending in aldaron, see alda. The -r is actually the nominative pl. ending, to which is appended the genitive ending -o and a second plural marker, -n.

róna "east" (probably adj.) (RÔ)

rondo "a vaulted or arched roof, as seen from below" (and usually not visible from outside); "a (large) hall or chamber so roofed", "vaulted hall" (WJ:414; VT39:9; in the Etymologies, stem ROD, the gloss is simply "cave")

ronta "hollow" (adj? noun?) (also rotwa) (LT2:347. In Tolkien's later Quenya, the preferred words for "hollow" are unqua adj. and unquë noun.)

ronya " 'chaser', hound of chase" (ROY1)

roquen "horseman [but the Quenya word does not show gender], rider, knight" (WJ:372, UT:282)

rossë "fine rain, dew" (ROS1, PM:371)

rosta "ascent" (LT1:267)

róta "tube" (LT2:347)

rotelë "cave" (LT2:347)

rotsë "pipe" (LT2:347); pl. rotser (?) in Narqelion? (Cf. QL:xiv)

rotto "a small grot or tunnel" (PM:365)

rotwa "hollow" (adj? noun?) (also ronta) (LT2:347. In Tolkien's later Quenya, the preferred words for "hollow" are unqua adj. and unquë noun.)

"Drûg", Rúatan pl. Rúatani "Drúedain" (UT:385)

ruc- ("k") "feel fear or horror" (1st pers. aorist rucin "I feel fear or horror"); the verb is said to be constructed with "from" (sc. the ablative case?) of the object feared. (WJ:415)

rúcima ("k") "terrible" (WJ:415)

rúcina ("k") "confused, shattered, disordered, ruined" in Markirya (the first version of this poem had "red skies", MC:215, changed to "ruined skies" in the final version; see MC:220, note 8)

ruhta- "terrify" (WJ:415)

rúma- "shift, move, heave (of large and heavy things)"; participle rúmala in Markirya; this was changed to rúma, evidently the naked verbal stem used as participle

Rúmil masc. name, genitive Rúmilo (WJ:398)

runda "rough piece of wood" (RUD)

rúnya "red flame" (SA:ruin; PM:366 gives runya)

runya "slot, footprint" (RUN; according to PM:366 runya also means "red flame", but SA:ruin has rúnya)

[rusca] "red-brown" (VT41:10)

rusco (ruscu-, pl. rusqui) "fox" (PM:353, VT41:10)

ruscuitë "foxy" (VT41:10)

russa "red-haired" (VT41:10)

Russandol "Copper-top", a nickname (epessë) of Maitimo/Nelyafinwë (= Maedhros) (PM:354)

russë (1) "(a head or pelt of) red hair" (VT41:10)

russë (2) "corruscation, †sword-blade" (RUS)

rusta "broken" (MC:214; this is "Qenya")

ruste "crumbling" (MC:214; this is "Qenya")

#ruxa- "crumble"; verbal stem only attested as a participle ruxal' "crumbling" in the Markirya poem, elided from *ruxala (since the next word begins in an a).

-rya pronominal ending "his, her" (Nam, RGEO:67) in máryat "her hands", ómaryo "of her voice" (genitive of *ómarya "her voice"), súmaryassë "in her bosom" (locative of súmarya "her bosom"); for the meaning "his" cf. coarya "his house" (WJ:369)

-s (1) pronominal ending "it", seen in caritas, tiruvantes, and utúvienyes, q.v. May also be used for "he/she" as in eques (q.v.); it seems that -s covers the entire 3rd person singular.

-s (2) ending for the mysterious case sometimes called "respective". Pl. -is, dual -tes, partitive pl. -lis.

"fire" (LT1:265; "Qenya" spelling . Use rather nárë in LotR-style Quenya.)

saccantë ("k") "rent" (past tense of an otherwise unattested verb #saccat- "rend"?) (SD:246)

Sahóra "the South" (LT1:248, 255; rather Hyarmen in LotR-style Quenya)

#saila "wise" (isolated from alasaila "unwise" in a late source)

saira "wise" (SAY; a later source has the alternative formation #saila as above)

sairina "magic" (evidently adj.) (GL:72)

sairon "wizard" (SAY); according to LT2:337 and GL:29, Sairon is also the Quenya name of Dairon (Daeron).

saiwa "hot" (LT1:248, 255, 265)

salma "lyre" (LT1:265)

Salmar (masc. name; etymology unclear - cf. salma?) (Silm)

salmë "harp-playing" (LT1:265; rather nandelë in Tolkien's later Quenya)

salpa- (1) (verb) "lick up, sup, sip" (SÁLAP), "take a sup of" (LT1:266)

salpa (2) (noun) "bowl" (LT1:266)

salquë ("q") "grass" (SALÁK-(WÊ) )

sáma "mind" (pl. sámar and dual samat [sic, read *sámat?] are given) (VT39:23, VT41:5)

sambë (Þ) "room, chamber" (STAB)

samna (Þ) "wooden post" (STAB)

samnar "diphthongs" (sg. #samna "diphthong"?) (SAM)

samno (Þ) "carpenter, wright, builder" (STAB)

san "then" (MC:216; also twice in Narqelion)

sana "day (24 hours)" (LT1:250; the later word is to be preferred to this early "Qenya" form, the plural of which would clash with sanar below.)

sanar "mind" (literally "thinker" or "reflector", suggesting an underlying verb #sana- "to think, to reflect") (VT41:13)

Sanavaldo "the Almighty" (SD:401)

sanca (Þ) ("k") "cleft, split" (STAK)

sancë ("k") "hateful" (LT2:341)

Sancossi ("k") "the Goblins" (LT2:341)

sanda (Þ) "firm, true, abiding" (STAN)

sandastan "shield-barrier", a battle-formation (UT:282; probably sandastam- since the final element is derived from a stem stama- "bar, exclude". Compare talan, talam- from TALAM.)

sanga (Þ) "crowd, press, throng" (STAG, SA:thang, LT2:342; pl. sangar (?) twice in Narqelion). In Sangahyando (Þ) "Throng-cleaver", name of a man in Gondor (SA:thang; a footnote in Letters:425 explains that "throng" here means a closely formed body of enemy soldiers. In the Etymologies, stems STAG, SYAD, sangahyando is said to be a swordname, and LT2:342 likewise defines the word as a name of Turambar's sword: "cleaver of throngs, Throng-cleaver".

sanganë "gather" (MC:214; this is "Qenya")

sangwa "poison" (SAG)

sanwë "thought, an act of thinking" (VT39:23, 30; VT41:5, 13)

sanwecenda ("k") "thought-inspection, thought-reading" (VT41:5)

sanwë-latya "thought-opening", direct, telepathic thought-transfer (VT39:23)

sanwe-menta "thought-sending, mental message"

sanya (Þ) "regular, law-abiding, normal" (STAN)

sanyë (Þ) "rule, law" (STAN)

sapsanta "grave-into" (MC:221; this is "Qenya"; note obsolete allative in -nta, later dual allative only)

sar (sard-, as in pl. sardi) "(small) stone" (SAR). In Elessar, q.v.

sára (1) "bitter" (SAG)

sára (2) "fiery" (LT1:248; this "Qenya" word may have been obsoleted by # 1 above)

sara (Þ) "stiff dry grass, bent" (STAR)

sarat (pl. sarati given) "letter", any individual significant mark, used of the letters of Rúmil after the invention of Fëanor's tengwar (WJ:396). Cf. sarmë.

sarco ("k") "flesh" (LT2:347; Tolkien's later Quenya has hrávë)

sarcuva ("k") "corporeal, bodily" (LT2:347)

sarda "hard" (VT39:17); pl. sardë "hards" may be used in the same sense as sarda tengwi, q.v. (As an independent form we would rather expect a nominal pl. sardar.)

#sarda tengwë "hard sound", a term for "consonant", but not used of semi-vowels (y, w) and continuants (l, r, m, n). (Only pl. sarda tengwi [ñ] is attested; we would rather expect #sardë tengwi with the pl. form of the adjective.) Sarda tengwi are also simply called sardë "hards", see sarda. (VT39:17)

sarmë "writing" (VT39:8). Cf. sarat.

sarna "of stone" (SAR)

sarnë "strong place" (SAR)

sarnië (sarniyë) "shingle, pebble-bank" (UT:463, VT42:11)

sarqua ("q") "fleshy" (LT2:347)

Sarquindi ("q") "Cannibal-ogres" (LT2:347)

sati-, verb "set aside, appropriate to a special purpose or owner" (VT42:20). The final -i may be simply the connecting vowel of the aorist (as in *satin "I set aside").

satya "private, separate, not common, excluded" (VT42:20)

saura (Þ) "foul, evil-smelling, putrid" (THUS)

Sauro, Sauron (Þ) "the Abhorred", name of a Maia. Earlier Thauron (SA:thaur, THUS), archaic *thaurond- (Letters:380, where a special letter is used instead of the digraph th). The stem of Sauron would then be *Saurond-.

sáva "juice" (SAB)

Sáya name of the fire-fay (GL:66)

selda (meaning not clear, related to seldë "child" [meaning changed from "daughter"] and seldo *"boy", perhaps an adjective *"childlike", since -a is a frequent adjectival ending) (SEL-D)

seldë "child" [meaning changed by Tolkien from "daughter"] (SEL-D)

seldo (meaning not clear, perhaps the masculine form of seldë "child", hence *"boy") (SEL-D)

seler (Þ) (sell-, as in pl. selli) "sister" (THEL/THELES)

selli (Þ) pl. of seler (THEL/THELES)

*selma (Þ) "a fixed idea, will" (WJ:319; only the archaic/Vanyarin form Þelma [thelma] is given)

senda "resting, at peace" (SED)

*sendë see ser-

-ser "friend" (SER)

ser- "rest" (1st pers. aorist serin "I rest"); pa.t. probably *sendë since the R of ser- was originally D (cf. stem SED; compare rer- pa.t. rendë from RED concerning the past tense)

sercë ("k") "blood" (SA:sereg; the Etymologies gives yár as the Quenya word for "blood")

sérë "rest, repose, peace" (SED); see under úyë concerning the sentence úyë sérë indo-ninya símen in Fíriel's Song

Serindë (Þ) fem. name; "Broideress" (Silm) or "Needlewoman" (PM:333). Original form Therindë, q.v.

sermë "friend" (fem.) (SER)

sermo "friend" (evidently masc., since sermë is stated to be fem.) (SER)

seron "friend" (SER)

"now" (Nam, RGEO:67, LR:47, SD:310), sin (SI, LR:47) or sín (SD:247, 310) before vowels. Compare the distribution of a/an in English. In Fíriel's Song, is translated "here".

sicil ("k") "dagger, knife" (SIK)

sil- "shine" (white), present tense síla "shines, is shining" (FG); aorist silë, pl. silir (The Return of the Shadow:324), frequentative sisíla- (Markirya comments)

silda-ránar "in gleaming-moon" (locative -r) (MC:213; this is "Qenya"; cf. sildë)

sildai ??? (Narqelion)

sildë "gleaming" (?) (MC:214; this is "Qenya"; cf. silda-ránar)

silima the substance the Silmarils were made of, invented by Fëanor (SA:sil)

Silindo "Jupiter" (LT1:265; this planet is called Alcarinquë in Tolkien's later Quenya)

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