Kendriya vidyalaya sangathan silchar region

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Page No.


Examinations Specifications

4 to 8


Tips to Score better in English

9 to 10


Reading Comprehension

10 to 19


Advanced Writing Skills

20 to 45


Literature and long reading Text/Novel

Flamingo and Vistas

The Invisible Man

45 to 98


Sample Paper(Solved)

98 to 113


Sample Paper (Unsolved)

113 to 135



One Paper 3 Hours Marks: 100

Unit wise weightage

Unit/Areas of Learning



Section A
Reading Skills

Reading unseen prose passages and note making

Section B

Advanced Writing Skills
Section C (Prescribed Books and long reading novel)

(i) Flamingo & Supplementary Reader – Vistas

(iii) Long reading text/Novel




SECTION A: Reading Comprehension 30 Marks

Reading Unseen Passages and Note making

Two unseen passages with a variety of very short answer or MCQ questions to test comprehension, interpretation and inference. Vocabulary such as word formation and inference of meaning will also be tested.

The total length of the two passages will be between 1100 - 1200 words. The passage will include two of the following:

a. Factual passages, e.g., instructions, descriptions, reports.

b. Descriptive passages involving opinion, e.g., argumentative, persuasive or interpretative text.

c. Literary passages, e.g., extract from fiction, drama, poetry, essay or biography. A poem could be of 28-35 lines.

• The passages can be literary, factual or discursive to test comprehensions. The length of one passage should

be between 600-700 words.

• A third passage of 400-500 words for note-making and abstraction.


Unseen Passages

No. of words

Testing Areas

Marks allotted


1100-1200 words for two passages.

Very short answer/short answer type or MCQ type questions to test local, global and inferential comprehension. Vocabulary such as word formation and inference of meaning will also be tested.

MCQ – 6
Total: 6+16= 22 m



Note making in an appropriate format


Note making -5

Summary -3

Total 05+3=08m

SECTION B: Writing Skills 30 Marks
Short Answer Questions, e.g., advertisement and notices, designing or drafting posters, writing formal

and informal invitations and replies.

• Long Answer Questions: Letters based on verbal / visual input.

Letter types include

• Business or official letters (for making enquiries, registering complaints, asking for and giving information,

placing orders and sending replies)

• Letters to the editor (giving suggestions on an issue or opinion on issue on public interest

• Application for a job

Very Long Answer Questions: Two compositions based on visual and/or verbal Output may be

descriptive or argumentative in nature such as an article, a debate or a speech.

Writing skills

Testing Areas


Marks allotted

1. SAQ
2. LAQ


appropriacy of style

and tone, using

appropriate format

and fluency,

inference, analysis,

evaluation and


Notice, poster, advertisement, invitations and replies
Letter writing
Article, debate, speech,report, description

4 x1= 4m

6 x 1= 6m
10 x 2= 20m

Total: 30m


Flamingo and Vistas

Very Short Answer Questions - Based on an extract from poetry to test comprehension and appreciation.

Short Answer Questions - Based on prose / drama / poetry from both the texts.

Long Answer Question - Based on texts to test global comprehension and extrapolation beyond the texts to bring out the key messages and values.

Long Answer Question - Based on texts to test global comprehension along with analysis and extrapolation.

Long Answer Question - Based on theme, plot and incidents from the prescribed novels.

Long Answer Question - Based on understanding appreciation, analysis and interpretation of the character sketch.
Prescribed Books

1. Flamingo: English Reader published by National Council of Education Research and Training, New Delhi

2. Vistas: Supplementary Reader published by National Council of Education Research and Training, New Delhi

Note: Long answer questions based on values can be given in the writing section or in the literature section.

Textbooks Name of the lessons deleted


  • Poets and Pancakes

  • The Interview

  • A Road Side Stand (Poetry)

Vistas 4

  • The Third Level

  • 5. Journey to the End of the Earth

3. Long Reading Text/Novel (either one) Author

i) The Invisible Man (unabridged) H.G. Wells

Literature and long reading novel

Testing Areas


Marks allotted

2. SAQ
3. VLAQ(120-150 words)

Recalling, reasoning,

appreciating literary


inference, analysis,

evaluation, creativity

with fluency

Extracts from poetry
Prose, drama and poetry from both texts
Global comprehension and extrapolation beyond the texts to bring out the key messages and values.

4m x1= 4m

3mx 4= 12m
6mx2=12m (text)

6mx2=12m (novel)

Total: 40 m

As a student of Class XII, you must be wondering how to score better in English in the fast approaching Board Examinations. How to Prepare for Exam is a big question that you always ask yourself. Here are some tips that may help you. Many of you may be working hard and getting good marks and some of you may not be working hard but still manage to get high marks in exams. Others may be wondering how it happens? Also there will be a few of you who study well but still are not able to score well in exams. Don’t worry; there are some very simple tips to follow which will help you achieve success. These tips will tell you 'How to prepare for Exams”.

READ- Spend about 30 minutes reading at home every day. You will be amazed by the number of new words you can learn and use these words to improve writing skills.
ASK QUESTIONS! - Nothing pleases an English teacher more than a question about the topic at hand. If you don’t know, then ask! Do not hesitate.
STAY FOR EXTRA HELP AFTER SCHOOL – If you want to improve in English (ex. Prose, poetry, writing skill), then ask the teacher for extra help. He/she will like to help you after class.
Make sure to practice the reading and comprehension skills at a regular basis. Every week solve one unseen passage and one passage for note making. After solving request your teacher to evaluate. The passage can be picked up from the News papers. Speaking Tree from “Times of India”, Editors column from other News Papers.
Practice minimum two writing skills every week and get it evaluated from your teacher. Improvise as per the teachers suggestions.
GO ABOVE AND BEYOND YOUR TEACHER’S EXPECTATIONS – The topics given for the articles should be written in more words than expected. Write and practice the issues which attract common mans attention.
Talk to your teacher after class about something that was discussed in the class that you thought was interesting or confusing. This will clarify the issue in your mind as the teacher would explain again.
If the practice of writing on a regular basis is done keeping in mind the marking criteria, better scores in final exams will be ensured.
Participate in the class discussions on the lessons. Support your opinions with quotes from the lesson.
Try to relate the lessons in your text books with current events. (if possible)
Read the classic literature, such as The Scarlet Letter, To Kill a Mocking Bird and Gone with the Wind.
Attend your English class with interest. Pay attention and you will definitely learn something of value and interest in every class.
Do miss the valuable study materials, question papers given to be solved by the teacher. Solve them meticulously and get them evaluated.Unnnnn744566+525

While studying make short notes. Notes should be brief so that you can revise the lesson with these notes. You can refer back to the portion in the text book if needed.
There is no short cut to success. WORK HARD and success will be yours.

If you work hard as a student the remaining life will be comfortable. But if you have enjoyed life as a student then get ready to face hard life ahead.
SECTION-WISE Analysis of the Question Paper


Comprehension means understanding or perception. The following points are to be carefully noted while attempting questions on comprehension.

Go through the passage carefully and arrive at the general idea of the subject the passage presents.

Read a second time to get a better understanding of the passage.

Arrive at the meaning of difficult words by relating them to the preceding and following sentences.

Underline relevant words and phrases of the passages which can help you deduce the answers.

Read the questions carefully.

Answer precisely using simple language.

Answers should reveal your understanding of the passage.

If you are asked to provide a suitable title or heading to the passage remember the title is hidden either in the beginning or ending of the passage.

Title should relate to the main idea of the passage and should be brief.
Section A: Reading (solved)


Q1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow. (12m)

1. In spite of all the honours that we heaped upon him, Pasteur, as has been said, remained simple at heart. Perhaps the imagery of his boyhood days, when he drew the familiar scenes of his birthplace, and the longing to be a great artist, never wholly left him. In truth he did become a great artist, though after his sixteenth year he abandoned the brush forever. Like every artist of worth, he put his whole soul and energy into his work, and it was this very energy that in the end wore him out. For to him, each sufferer was something more than just a case that was to be cured. He looked upon the fight against hydrophobia as a battle, and he was absorbed in his determination to win. The sight of injured children, particularly, moved him to an indescribable extent. He suffered with his patients, and yet he would not deny himself a share in that suffering. His greatest grief was when sheer physical exhaustion made him give up his active work. He retired to the estate at Villeneuve Etang, where he had his kennels for the study of rabies, and there he passed his last summer, as his great biographer, Vallery Radot, has said, “practicing the Gospel virtues.”

2 “He revered the faith of his fathers, “says the same writer, “and wished without ostentation or mystery to receive its aid during his last period.”

3 The attitude of this man to the science he had done so much to perfect can be best summed up in a sentence that he is reputed once to have uttered, concerning the materialism of many of his contemporaries in similar branches of learning to his own: “The more I contemplate the mysteries of Nature, the more my faith becomes like that of a peasant.”

4 But even then in retirement he loved to see his former pupils, and it was then he would reiterate his life principles: “Work, “ he would say, “never cease to work.” So well had he kept this precept that he began rapidly to sink from exhaustion.

5 Finally on September 27, 1895, when someone leant over his bed to offer him a cup of milk, he said sadly: “I cannot, “ and with a look of perfect resignation and peace, seemed to fall asleep. He never again opened his eyes to the cares and sufferings of a world, which he had done so much to relieve and to conquer. He was within three months of his seventy-third birthday.

6 Thus passed, as simply as a child, the man whom the French people were to vote at a plebiscite as the greatest man that France had ever produced. Napoleon, who has always been considered the idol of France, was placed fifth.

7 No greater tribute could have been paid to Louis Pasteur, the tanner’s son, the scientist, the man of peace, the patient worker for humanity.

1.1 Answer the following questions:

a. Even accolades and honours did not change the simple man that Pasteur was. Why? 2 marks

b. How did Pasteur view those who suffered from diseases? 1 mark

c. How did Pasteur engage himself in the estate? 2 marks

d. What advice did he always give to his pupils? 2 marks

e. How did France, the country of his birth, honour this great scientist? 2 marks

1.2 Find words from the passage which mean the same as (1mx 3)

a) to give up completely (para1)

b)living, occurring or originating at the same time (para3)

c) the direct vote of all all members of an electorate on an important public question.(para 6)



a. Even accolades and honour did not change Pastuer as he continued to live in his childhood. He continued to be a simple hearted person who wished to be a painter.

b. Pastuer viewed those who suffered with disease as sufferers who had just a case to be dealt with and cured.

c. In the estate he conducted studies on rabies and practised the gospel of virtues.

d. Pastuer advised his pupils never to stop working because working for him was the most important principle of life.

e. France, the country of his birth, honoured this great scientist by voting him as the greatest man that France had ever produced.

1.2 : a. Abandoned

b. Contemporaries

c. Plebiscite

Q2.Read the paasage carefully and answer the questions that follow: (10m)
1.The play of names has almost a touch of fable here-Nirakar, the formless one, regenerating the primal form of a forest that had passed into the mist. For the last 20 years Nirakar Mallick, a small farmer in Orissa’s Kendra Para district, has been greening a coastal landscape that had of late been experiencing more of brown. Droughts, as they are wont to be, are cruel in these parts. At other times, it’s excess water that’s the bane. Nirakar’s latest sally-the rebirthing of a forest on a two hectare stretch circling the river Brahmani near his village- came after the green patch was denuded in the 1999 super cyclone.

2. The tidal waves that had swamped Orissa’s coasts had led to heavy soil erosion, rendering these villages for ever vulnerable to floods. But now thanks to Nirakar, over five thousand trees of sundry varieties cover the area. This has not only helped restore the local ecosystem but also provided a potential source of income to the community. People, however, were skeptical in the beginning. They were losing out on grazing ground for cattle. Some were also suspicious of Nirakar’s motive, fearing he was out to grab government land. But once the trees began shooting up and the entire village looked rejuvenated, everybody was won over. Nirakar, for one, never made any bid to corner the fruits of his labour.

3. So now there are fruit bearing trees in the forest-jackfruit, mango, guava, coconut-as well as timber rich ones like teak, casuarinas, eucalyptus. Not all of the seven thousand seedlings he’d planted, survived the elements. That didn’t deter him, and Nirakar proudly says that as long as he is alive, no one from the area would ever harm a tree.

4.Over the years, Nirakar has spent a small fortune out of his own hard earned savings in greening mission. As a driver in Orissa Lift Irrigation Corporation (OLIC), he‘d get about Rs 3000 a month. From this, he would put aside Rs 500 for planting trees. For the last two years he has not been receiving his salary from the defunct OLIC. He manages to make both ends meet by working his share of the one acre farmland inherited from his father.

Born in 1962 in a poor Harijan family in Aliha village, Nirakar inherited a feel for the soil and the green thumb of his father. A good student, he had to quit the studies after class 9th to take up a job. He joined the OLIC in 1982 and got married the same year. Today he is father of trees, two sons and a daughter.

5. Though officially a driver , Nirakar is a jack of all trades, doubling up as mechanic, fitter, electrician and operator at Aliha’s lift irrigation project. For the area’s small farmers who depend on the water supplied through lift irrigation, he is nothing short of a hero.

6. Anti hero too, for some, at a point of time. Traditionally, the Harijans of Aliha never planted coconuts. The Brahmins had told them that if they dared to plant the forbidden fruit, there would be death in the community. Nirakar broke this “divine” taboo. He got about agricultural farm and distributed it among his people. Today almost every courtyard in Aliha village has half a dozen fruit bearing coconut trees and no one died. Nirakar’s wife is an enthusiastic partner in his green ventures. His children also help. He has now taken a plantation of 20,000 seedlings along the tree kilometers stretch from Manipatna to Singri in his block. Nirakar aims to plant at least one lakh trees before he dies.

7. Recognition has evaded him so far and Nirakar is least bothered. His only regret is that the government has not taken over maintenance of the forest from him so that it can be preserved for posterity. He hopes his good work is not lost after he is gone. He is, as you must have realized by now, crazy about his trees. “The trees speak to me,” he says, “God has paid me back richly in many ways. I need nothing more”.

2.1 Choose the most appropriate option: (1m x 6)

a) For the last 20 years Nirakar Mallick has been

i) planting trees ii) painting green coastal landscapes

iii)has been living in Orissa’s Kendra para district iv) both i and ii

b) Orissa’s Para district is prone to

i) Floods ii) Droughts

iii) both i and ii iv) industrial deforestation
c)The seven thousand seedlings planted by Nirakar

i) all died ii)Some died

iii)all survived iv)none of the above
d) For the last two years, Nirakar has been running his household with the help of money

i) from his farmland ii)from salary received from OLIC

iii) both I and ii iv)none of the above
e) Nirakar was “a Jack of all trades” means

i) he was a good driver

ii) he was a good mechanic, fitter, electrician and operator

iii) He worked as a driver but was actually a mechanic, fitter, electrician and operator

iv) He could do many different types of work
f)Nirakar has broken the ‘divine taboo’ by

i) planting 7000 seedlings ii)distributing agricultural land among Harijans

iii) successfully leading the green campaign iv) planting coconut trees
2.2 Answer the following questions briefly: (1m x 2)

a) Give an appropriate title to the passage.

b)Why did Nirakar quit his studies in childhood?

2.3Find the words from the passage which mean the same as: (1m x 2)

a) a cause of great distress or annoyance (para 1)

d)discourage/prevent (para 3)

2.1 a) i b) iii c) ii

d) i e) iv d) iv
2.2 a) The green hero.

b) So that he could start working/ to take up a job.

1. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: (12 marks)

1 ---- I was in Hyderabad giving a lecture, when a 14 year old girl asked me for my autograph. I asked her what her goal in life is: She replied: I want to live in a developed India. For her, you and I will have to build this developed India. You must proclaim: India is not an under-developed nation; it is a highly developed nation.

2 ---- Allow me to come back with vengeance. Got 10 minutes for your country? YOU say that our government is inefficient. YOU say that our laws are too old. YOU say that the municipality does not pick up the garbage. YOU say that the phones don't work, the railways are a joke, the airline is the worst in the world and mails never reach their destination. YOU say that our country has been fed to the dogs and is the absolute pits. YOU say, say and say.

3 ---- What do YOU do about it? Take a person on his way to Singapore. Give him a name - YOURS. Give him a face - YOURS. YOU walk out of the airport and you are at your International best. In Singapore you don't throw cigarette butts on the roads or eat in the stores. YOU are as proud of their Underground Links as they are. You pay $5 (approx. Rs. 60) to drive through Orchard Road (equivalent of Mahim Causeway or Pedder Road) between 5 PM and 8 PM.

4 ---- YOU come back to the parking lot to punch your parking ticket if you have over stayed in a restaurant or a shopping mall irrespective of your status identity. In Singapore you don't say anything, DO YOU? YOU wouldn't dare to eat in public during Ramadan, in Dubai. YOU would not dare to go out without your head covered in Jeddah. YOU would not dare to buy an employee of the telephone exchange in London at 10 pounds (Rs. 650) a month to, "see to it that my STD and ISD calls are billed to someone else." YOU would not dare to speed beyond 55 mph (88 kph) in Washington and then tell the traffic cop, "Jaanta hai sala main kaun hoon (Do you know who I am?). I am so and so's son. Take your two bucks and get lost." YOU wouldn't chuck an empty coconut shell anywhere other than the garbage pail on the beaches in Australia and New Zealand. Why don't YOU spit Paan on the streets of Tokyo? Why don't YOU use examination jockeys or buy fake certificates in Boston? We are still talking of the same YOU.

5 ---- YOU who can respect and conform to a foreign system in other countries but cannot in your own. You who will throw papers and cigarettes on the road the moment you touch Indian ground. If you can be an involved and appreciative citizen in an alien country why cannot you be the same here in India. Once in an interview, the famous Ex-municipal commissioner of Bombay Mr. Tinaikar had a point to make. "Rich people's dogs are walked on the streets to leave their affluent droppings all over the place," he said. "And then the same people turn around to criticize and blame the authorities for inefficiency and dirty pavements. What do they expect the officers to do? Go down with a broom every time their dog feels the pressure in his bowels? In America every dog owner has to clean up after his pet has done the job. Same is in Japan. Will the Indian citizen do that here?" He's right.

6 ---- We go to the polls to choose a government and after that forfeit all responsibility. We sit back wanting to be pampered and expect the government to do everything for us whilst our contribution is totally negative. We expect the government to clean up but we are not going to stop chucking garbage all over the place nor are we going to stop to pick a up a stray piece of paper and throw it in the bin. We expect the railways to provide clean bathrooms but we are not going to learn the proper use of bathrooms. We want Indian Airlines and Air India to provide the best of food and toiletries but we are not going to stop pilfering at the least opportunity. This applies even to the staff who is known not to pass on the service to the public. When it comes to burning social issues like those related to women, dowry, girl child and others, we make loud drawing room protestations and continue to do the reverse at home. Our excuse? "It's the whole system which has to change, how will it matter if I alone forego my sons' rights to a dowry." So who's going to change the system? What does a system consist of? Very conveniently for us it consists of our neighbors, other households, other cities, other communities and the government. But definitely not me and YOU.

7 ---- When it comes to us actually making a positive contribution to the system we lock ourselves along with our families into a safe cocoon and look into the distance at countries far away and wait for a Mr. Clean to come along & work miracles for us with a majestic sweep of his hand. Or we leave the country and run away. Like lazy cowards hounded by our fears we run to America to bask in their glory and praise their system. When New York becomes insecure we run to England. When England experiences unemployment, we take the next flight out to the Gulf. When the Gulf is war struck, we demand to be rescued and brought home by the Indian government. Everybody is out to abuse and rape the country. Nobody thinks of feeding the system. Our conscience is mortgaged to money.

8 ---- Dear Indians, The article is highly thought inductive, calls for a great deal of introspection and pricks one's conscience too....I am echoing J.F. Kennedy's words to his fellow Americans to relate to Indians.....


10- ---- Let’s do what India needs from us.
A.1.1. Answer the following questions briefly: (9 marks)

i) What are the negative remarks we SAY about our country? (2 M )

ii) How does an Indian behave in Singapore? (1 M)

iii) List the deeds an Indian would not dare to do while traveling abroad. (2 M)

iv) What is our attitude towards elections and social issues? ( 2 M )

v) Dr. Kalam says , “ Our conscience is mortgaged to money.” What does he mean by this statement ?

A.1.2. Find words from the passage which mean the same as the following. (3 marks)

(a) not genuine, imitation ( para 4)

(b) rich (para 5)

(c) surrender, give up (para 6 )

Q2.Read the passage and answer the questions

Thomas Paine and Common Sense

Thomas Paine was born in England in 1737. He was the son of uneducated English farmers. In his early years, he served as an apprentice in his father's corset making business, but eventually served as a merchant seaman before starting his own corset business. In 1759, Paine married Mary Lambert, who would soon die during childbirth.

After the death of his wife, Paine moved around England and took several different jobs such as a servant, tax collector, and teacher. In 1771, Paine married Elizabeth Ollive, his landlord's daughter. It was during this time, while living in Lewes, East Sussex, that he became involved in local politics. In 1772, he published his first political work, known as The Case of the Officers of Excise, which championed better pay and working conditions for tax collectors. That same year, Paine met Benjamin Franklin, who encouraged him to move to America and wrote him a recommendation to do so. Paine arrived in Philadelphia on November 30, 1774, just days after obtaining a legal separation from his second wife. Upon his arrival in America, he was near death from Typhoid, which had claimed the lives of five other passengers on the ship.

Although it took six weeks for Paine to recover from the trip to America, he quickly made his mark on American politics and sentiments. On January 10, 1776, he anonymously published Common Sense, a pro-independence pamphlet that would galvanize the colonists against the British and that would greatly influence the expediency of the Declaration of Independence. Paine's pamphlet quickly spread through the colony's literate population and became the international voice of the pro-independence colonies. Common Sense would quickly become the top selling publication of the 18th century. That same year, he penned The Crisis, which greatly helped to inspire the Continental Army. Below is a famous quote from The Crisis:
"These are the times that try men's souls. The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country; but he that stands it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman. Tyranny, like hell, is not easily conquered; yet we have this consolation with us, that the harder the conflict, the more glorious the triumph."

During and after the Revolution, Paine worked in France on French-American foreign affairs. It was during this time that he began to advocate the French Revolution. On January 29, 1791, he published The Rights of Man, a pamphlet encouraging the French Revolution and criticizing European monarchies. At first, he was seen as a great asset to the revolutionaries of France and was appointed to the French Convention and was named an honorary French citizen. However, as powers shifted in revolutionary France, Paine quickly became unpopular, was arrested, and scheduled to be executed (though he escaped execution by chance). During his incarceration, Paine penned The Age of Reason, a pamphlet that condemned organized religion. This pamphlet ultimately alienated many of his former supporters and resulted in his virtual ostracism from politics upon his return to America. Paine died in New York City in 1809. According to record, only six people came to his funeral.
2.1 Chose the correct option: (1m x6)

1.) Which of the following did Thomas Paine NOT do in his early years?

A. Go to war

B. Work as an apprentice

C. Run a business

D. Serve on a boat

2.) What did Thomas Paine’s first publication support?

A. Education for all

B. The war for independence

C. Better pay for tax collectors

D. Marriage
3.) Based on the passage, in what condition was Thomas Paine’s health when he arrived in Philadelphia?

A. He was in good health

B. He was in O.K. health

C. He was in bad health

D. He was near death
4.) When did Thomas Paine publish Common Sense?

A. Before he arrived in America

B. Before he obtained a legal separation from his second wife

C. After he recovered from Typhoid

D. 1791
5.) Which of the following would best describe the main idea of Common Sense?

A. America should seek peace with England

B. America should fight to become an independent nation

C. Americans should support their king

D. Obtaining freedom will be easy
6.) Which of the following would describe Paine’s ‘Sunshine Patriot’ as in the following lines:

The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of their country…

A. Someone who likes warm weather

B. Someone who fights to the death

C. Someone who is inspirational

D. Someone who fights only when it is easy

2.2 Answer the following questions briefly.

a) How did the French feel about Thomas Paine? 1m

b) Which of Paine’s pamphlets angered his former supporters? why? 2m

c) Find words from the last paragraph which means the same as ‘ to exclude from a society or group’
Q2. Read the passage given below and answer the questions that follow: 8 m

Residents of the Bhirung Raut Ki Gali, where Ustad Bishmillah Khan was born on March 21, 1916, were in shock. His cousin, 94-year -old Mohd Idrish Khan had tears in his eyes. Shubhan Khan, the care-taker of Bismillah’s land, recalled : “Whenever in Dumaraon, he would give rupees two to the boys and rupees five to the girls of the locality”. He was very keen to play shehnai again in the local Bihariji’s Temple where he had started playing shehnai with his father, Bachai Khan, at the age of six. His original name was Quamaruddin and became Bishmillah only after he became famous as a shehnai player in Varanasi. His father Bachai Khan was the official shehnai player of Keshav Prasad Singh, the Maharaja of the erstwhile Dumaraon estate, Bismillah used to accompany him.

For Bishmillah Khan, the connection to music began at a very early age. By

his teens, he had already become a master of the shehnai. On the day India gained freedom, Bismillah Khan, then a sprightly 31 year-old, had the rare honour of playing from Red Fort. But Bishmillah Khan won’t just be remembered for elevating the shehnai from an instrument heard only in weddings and naubatkhanas to one that was appreciated in concert halls across the world. His life was a testimony to the plurality that is India. A practicing Muslim, he would take a daily

dip in the Ganga in his younger days after a bout of kusti in Benia Baga Akhada. Every morning, Bishmillah Khan would do riyaaz at the Balaji temple on the banks of the river. Even during his final hours in a Varanasi hospital, music didn’t desert Bishmillah Khan. A few hours before he passed away early on Monday, the shehnai wizard hummed a thumri to show that he was feeling better. This was typical of a man for whom life revolved around music. Throughout his life he abided by the principle that all religions are one. What marked Bishmillah Khan was his simplicity and disregard for the riches that come with musical fame. Till the very end, he used a cycle rickshaw to travel around Varanasi. But the pressure of providing for some 60 family members took its toll during his later years.

2.1 On the basis of your reading of the above passage make notes using headings and sub-headings. Use recognizable abbreviations where necessary.

2.2 Make a summary of the above passage in not more than 80 words using the notes made and also suggest a suitable title.


Title: Bismillah Khan – A Legend


1 shocked at demise

cousin I Khan in tears

caretaker of Dumaraon recalls

gave Rs 2 to boys

Rs 5 to girls

2 His initial life

2.1 org. name Quamaruddin

2.2 played shehnai with father at temp.

got famous as Bismillah at Vns.

3 Music was family heritage

3.1 father: Dumarao’s court poet

3.2 Pld. Shehnai from 6 yrs.

pld. Shehnai at red fort in 1947, age 31

Daily schedule in Vns.

4.1 took dip in Ganga

4.2 riyaz at Balaji Temp.

4.3 Hummed thumri before his last breath.

4.4 used to travel in cycle rikshaw

4.5 bread earner for 60 fml. Mem.

Bismillah believed in secularism

5.1 all religions are one

5.2 believed in plurality of life

5.3 pract. Islam

Abbreviations used

Rs – rupees

Org. – original

Temp. – temple

Vns. – Varanasi

Pld. – played

Fml. – family

Mem. – member

Pract. – Practised


Ustad Bismillah Khan was born and brought up at Dumaraon. He started learning music at a very early age. He used to play shehnai with his father at the temple at Varanasi. He even accompanied his father who was a court poet at Dumaraon. He got the honour of playing shehnai at Red Fort on the occasion of Independence. He believed in secularism and believed that all religions are one. Music was his soul. He breathed his last at Varanasi, but he played thumri before that on his death bed.
Q. Read the following passage and answer the questions that follow: (8 marks)
It is worth saying something about the social position of beggars, for when one has consorted with them, and found that they are ordinary human beings, one cannot help being struck by the curious attitude that society takes towards them. People seem to feel that there is some essential difference between beggars and ordinary "working" men. They are a race apart--outcasts, like criminals and prostitutes. Working men "work," beggars do not "work"; they are parasites, worthless in their very nature. It is taken for granted that a beggar does not "earn" his living, as a bricklayer or a literary critic "earns" his. He is a mere social excrescence, tolerated because we live in a humane age, but essentially despicable.

Yet if one looks closely one sees that there is no essential difference between a beggar's livelihood and that of numberless respectable people. Beggars do not work, it is said; but, then, what is work? An accountant works by adding up figures. A beggar works by standing out of doors in all weathers and getting varicose veins, chronic bronchitis, etc. It is a trade like any other; quite useless, of course--but, then, many reputable trades are quite useless. And as a social type a beggar compares well with scores of others. He is honest compared with the sellers of most patent medicines, high-minded compared with a Sunday newspaper proprietor, amiable compared with a hire-purchase tout--in short, a parasite, but a fairly harmless parasite. He seldom extracts more than a bare living from the community, and, what should justify him according to our ethical ideas, he pays for it over and over in suffering. I do not think there is anything about a beggar that sets him in a different class from other people, or gives most modern men the right to despise him.

Then the question arises, Why are beggars despised?--for they are despised, universally. I believe it is for the simple reason that they fail to earn a decent living. In practice nobody cares whether work is useful or useless, productive or parasitic; the sole thing demanded is that it shall be profitable. In all the modem talk about energy, efficiency, social service and the rest of it, what meaning is there except "Get money, get it legally, and get a lot of it"? Money has become the grand test of virtue. By this test beggars fail, and for this they are despised. If one could earn even ten pounds a week at begging, it would become a respectable profession immediately. A beggar, looked at realistically, is simply a businessman, getting his living, like other businessmen, in the way that comes to hand. He has not, more than most modern people, sold his honor; he has merely made the mistake of choosing a trade at which it is impossible to grow rich.

by George Orwell (1933)
A.2.1—On the basis of your reading of the passage make notes on it, uses recognizable abbreviations wherever necessary. Use a suitable format. Supply an appropriate title. (5 marks)

A.2.2.-Write a summary of the passage in not more than 80 words. (3 marks)

Section B (Advanced writing skills) (30 M)
Q1: This question includes the following short COMPOSITIONS:


2. advertisements – classified and commercial


4. INVITATIONS and replies
Notice (4 Marks / 50 Words)

A Notice is a written or a printed information or news announcement. Notices are either displayed at prominent places or published in newspapers/magazines. It is meant only for a select group. Since a notice contains a formal announcement or information, its tone and style is formal and factual. Its language should be simple and formal. A notice is always brief and to the point.

Remember, Circulars are also written like notices, but unlike notices, they carry more than one message, and they are circulated through a messenger.

Adhere to the specified word limit of 50 words.

Write the word NOTICE at the top.

Name and place of the school, organization or office issuing the notice should be mentioned.

Give an appropriate heading.

Write the date of issuing the notice.

Clearly mention the target group (for whom the notice is to be displayed).

Purpose of the notice.

Mention all the relevant details (date, venue, time).

Mention whom to contact for extra information.

Signature, name and designation of the person issuing the notice.

Put the notice in a box.




29 JUNE 2011

Content Target group-for whom the notice is. Date, time, venue

and all important details and any extra information

that is needed. (Body of the Notice 50 words )




Format of a notice


Marking Scheme of Notice

Format : Title (Notice/Heading/Place/Date/Signature with name and

Designation) (1 mark)

Content : (a) where?

(b) When?

(c) Target group

(d) Agenda

(All within 50 words) (1.5 marks)

Expression : Coherence, spellings and grammatical accuracy. (1.5 marks)

Your school (Amar Vidyalaya), Bangalore is organizing a cultural evening to collect funds for the slum children. The Vice-Chancellor, Bangalore University has consented to be the Chief Guest on the occasion. Draft a notice in this connection to be displayed on your school notice board. Imagine you are the Rakesh Tilak ,Cultural Secretary of your school. (Word limit: 50 words)




1st JULY 2011

The school is organizing a Cultural Evening to collect funds for the slum children in the neighborhood, on 10th July 2011 from 6 p.m. to 9 p.m. in the school playground. Dr. S.M.Rao Vice-Chancellor, Bangalore University has consented to be the Chief Guest on the occasion. All are invited and requested to give wide publicity to the event. For more details contact the undersigned.

Rakesh Tilak


Cultural Secretary


1.You are scout master/guide captain of KR Sagar Public School, Mysore. You have decided to send a troop of scouts and guides of your school to the Jamboree to be held at Lucknow for a week. Draft a notice in not more than 50 words, inviting the names of those scouts and guides who are interested to participate in the Jamboree. Invent the necessary details.5

As the Secretary of the Science Club of your school, write a notice in about 50 words informing students of an inter class science quiz.

2.You are Abhinav/Alka. You have planned a 2-week course to be arranged to help the children of your housing society called “Renaissance Housing Society” at Mysore acquire Spoken English Skills. As the Secretary of the Society , prepare a notice for the Society’s notice board stating the objective of the course ,giving necessary details of the course and requesting the children of the society to join the course.(Word limit : 50 words)

3. Your school, Adarsh Vidyalaya, Solan, is organising a lecture by the famous writer Vikram Seth on the occasion of ‘Literacy Week’ being celebrated in your school. Write a notice informing students about the lecture. Invent necessary details.

Draft a suitable notice for your School Notice Board giving details of the inauguration of the Literary Association activities in your school. You are Deepak/Deepaika, Secretary, School Literary Association. Your School is called Modern Senior Secondary School, Belgaum.

4. Your school has just completed 25 years of its meritorious service to society. The Students’ Council of your school has decided to celebrate its Silver Jubilee. As President of the Council, write a notice in not more than 50 words, for the students of your school, informing them about the Council’s decision and seeking their co-operation for the success of the proposed Silver Jubilee Celebrations.

5. You are Sanjay / Sangeeta. As President of the Excursion Club you have organized an excursion to Katmandu (Nepal) during the summer vacation for the senior students of your school. Write a notice in about 50 words informing the students about the proposed excursion.
Advertisements: (4 Marks /50 Words)

An ADVERTISEMENT is a kind of public notice asking for or offering services or buying and selling property, goods etc., or providing information about missing persons, pets etc.

There are two kinds of advertisements:

1- Classified

2- Commercial


You will come across classified advertisements in the columns of newspapers and magazines. The important features of a Classified Advertisements are--

* No blocks, no design and language to be factual.

* Simple and formal and to the point

* Comprehensive; yet must leave out no important matter.

* Never be too lengthy (confine to the word limit)

Marking Scheme

Format Suitable Heading/Classification) 1 Mark

Content relevance 1.5 Marks

Expression (Grammatical Accuracy, Spellings Suitable Style- 1.5Marks


Classified Advertisements

Clearly state the category at the top-e.g.-For Sale, To Let etc.

Give all necessary details in points using commas.

Give contact address, name, and telephone number.

Put the matter in a box.

Kinds of Classified Advertisements

I. Situation Vacant/Wanted

2. Lost and found

3. Sale and purchase

4. Accommodation wanted

5. Educational

6. Placement services

7. Matrimonial

8. To-Let

9. Tuitions

10. Packers and Movers

11. Kennel

12 Travels and Tours

Question 1-You are Personal Assistant to G.M., ABC Metal Tools Company, Mumbai. Your General Manager has asked you to draft a Classified advertisement for a local daily for the post of two engineers. Draft the advertisement in not more than 50 words.


Required two well qualified Mechanical Engineers with a maximum experience of five years. Remuneration commensurate with the performance and output of the candidate. Send the Curriculum Vitae within seven days to the Personnel Manager, ABC Metal Tools Company, 7, Vashist Complex Sikanderpur , Malad East, Mumbai, along with necessary certificates and references within a week.



Question 2-You are Anurag/Aparna of 110,Swasthya Vihar , New Delhi .You wish to let out a portion of your newly built house. Draft an advertisement in not more than 50 words for publication in the “To-Let” column of The Hindustan Times, giving all necessary details .


Available 1500 sq.ft. ground floor of a newly built house in Swasthya Vihar with two spacious bedrooms, attached bathrooms, drawing-cum-dining room, kitchen and interiors. Rent expected-Rs. 7000/-. Interested persons may please contact—Anurag/Aparna ,

110 Swasthya Vihar , New Delhi.Phone-27439543



Specify the post and number of vacancies

Qualities of the person required

Name of the company (optional)

Age and sex of the candidate

Pay scale and perks

Mode of applying

Contact address and phone number


Begin with LOST/FOUND

Description of the article

When and where the article was Lost/Found

Reward for finding it

Contact address and phone number


Type of accommodation, No. of rooms/floor

Whether it’s independent or an apartment

Rent expected

Type of tenant required-Bank employee/small family

Whom and when to contact

Contact address/phone number


Breed of dog




Price expected

Contact address and phone number


Make : Maruti/Hyundai Santro etc.

Model/colour/accessories/year of manufacture/mileage


Ownership details

Price expected

Contact address/phone number


Specify the services

Give reason why you should be given a chance

Area of work

Whom to contact

Contact address and phone number


Plot for sale

Location-where it is

Area : in sq. meters/yards

Name of the development authority

Price expected

Contact address/phone number

Travels and Tours

Name of the agency

Destinations and durations

Details of the package

Discounts if any

Contact address and phone number


Classes and subjects

Special qualities of the tutor

Qualifications and experience of the tutor

Previous results of his/her students

Contact address/phone number


Type of accommodation, No. of rooms/floor

Whether it’s independent or an apartment

Price expected/negotiable

Location-where it is

Area : in sq. meters/yards

Name of the development authority

Whom and when to contact

Contact address/phone number



They are designed for commercial purposes.

Require more space, hence are costly. Must be attractive as they with visuals, catchy phrases and slogans.


Must be attractive-with a catchy caption, heading or sub-headings.

Figurative language. (alliteration and metaphors especially)

Proportionate spacing of fonts with different sizes.

Usually attractive with catchy slogans, punch lines, witty Expressions, pictures or sketches.

Special offers or discount, if any.

Details of the product or event given in a clear, precise way.

Give name, contact number and address of the advertiser

Present the matter in a box.

Commercial Advertisements-Sample

Draft attractive Commercial Advertisement inviting customers to a leading resort called ‘FORT RESORT AND FARMS’ to organize weddings, parties and other events.













CALL US AT – 060-5467834/568/769


Note- You can use Match Stick figures and rough sketches for illustration. Do not spend much time on illustration. Written language and expressions will only help you score better.
Exercise for Practice (Advertisement)

1- M/s Blue Towers, a readymade jeans company is launching their 2011 range of jeans for men and women. Prepare a beautiful advertisement.

2- M/s Leather Shoes have brought a new range of formal shoes for men. Prepare a suitable advertisement for the range.

3- M/s Metro Shirts have introduced their new summer range of men’s shirts and T-shirts. Prepare an attractive advertisement for the range.

4- M/s Pen India has brought out a new gel pen in many colors. Prepare an eye catching advertisement for the pen, giving all relevant details.

5- Draft an advertisement announcing the launch of special health drink by Health Care Private Ltd., highlighting its nutritive value.

6- You are working for an advertising agency. Draft an attractive advertisement for the company called Modern Machines which is launching washing machines. (Word limit: 50 words)

7- You have recently started a Yoga Centre for school children. Draft an advertisement to be published in a local daily about it, giving all relevant details.

8- You want to dispose off your car, as you are going abroad. You are Harish of No. 10, Kailash Ganj and Lucknow. Draft an advertisement to be published in the daily, ‘The Hindustan times’, under classified Columns.

9- You have recently started a Centre for Personality Development for school children. Draft an advertisement to be published in a local daily about it , giving all relevant details.

10- You are Manisha. You have started hobby classes for children of 6 to 12 years. Prepare a suitable advertisement giving all the required details.. (50 words)
Posters: (4Marks -50 Words)

A POSTER is a large notice announcing or advertising something. It generally creates social awareness about any problem or needs .It also conveys a social message in an eye catching way.

It must capture the reader’s attention and motivate him/her to read on.

Main Features of a Poster:

Layout: A creative title in the form of a slogan or rhyming words for example :- Speed thrills but kills, Pollution needs a Solution,Green is Clean

You can use Match Stick figures for illustration.

Proper spacing and proportionate headings and illustrations.

Date, time and venue must be mentioned in case of an event.

A poster displays a message, or an appeal to create awareness.

The content should be organized in an appropriate style.

Use appropriate expressions and correct language.

Theme should be clear.

The poster should be creative and related to the content and theme should not be vague.

Do not spend much time on illustration. Written language and expressions will only help you score better.

Name of the issuing authority or the organizers is a must.

Making scheme

Content - 2.5Marks

Expression - 1.5Marks

Question-On behalf of Department of Environment, Bangalore Administration, draft a Poster on the detrimental consequences of burning leaves and garbage upon the environment and also issuing a warning of the punishment to those indulging in the same.




Emits toxic and harmful fumes!

It increases suspended particle matter (SPM) in the air and pollutes it!

Produces carbon-di-oxide causing greenhouse effect!

Disturbs the natural climate of the planet.

Leads to cough, eye irritation and respiratory disorders!

Municipal Corporation Bangalore has banned the burning of leaves and garbage.

Any Violation depending on the scale is punishable with imprisonment for a term extending to five years and fine up to one lakh rupees






1- Recent rains have caused havoc in some parts of our country. You are Surya, a member of the social service organization, SEVA MANDIR, Bangalore. Draft a poster requesting people to help the rain and flood affected families physically and economically.

2- A ‘Check Vehicular Pollution’ campaign is being organized in your city. Draft a poster to be used in the campaign.

3- Water is precious and each one of us must stop wastage. Prepare a poster in not more than 50 words, for creating that awareness.

4- Draft a poster announcing a ‘Book Week’ being organized by the Cultural Society, Ahmedabad.

5- Your school is planning a campaign in support of eye donation to mobilize the students and society. Design a poster to be displayed in different areas of the locality surrounding your school highlighting the need for eye donation and eye banks.

6- Prepare a poster to bring about awareness against the hazards of reckless use of plastics.
4. Invitations and Replies: (50 Words 4 Marks)

No man is an island. Man is a social animal. We need to be with people. This is the reason why solitary confinement is the worst form of punishment one can experience. So, we celebrate many occasions together. To invite someone for an occasion we use the written form-INVITATION.

Invitations are generally printed cards through which we invite our guests on some auspicious occasion like wedding, birthday, wedding anniversary, house warming, inauguration of a shop/factory etc.

Invitations are of two types: (a) Formal (b) Informal. They can be printed on cards or can be drafted in the form of letters.


An invitation is complete information. It answers the questions: who, whom, when, where, what time and for what. The important components of an invitation therefore are:-

The occasion

Name(s) of the invitee(s)

Name(s) of the host(s)

Date, time and venue

Name(s) of the chief guest or special invitees , in case of an official invitation

In case of formal invitations, each of the following is written in a separate line with fonts of varying sizes.

Names of the hosts

Names of the invitee (in case of a formal letter of invitation))

Formal phrase of invitation , for example :-

Request the pleasure of your benign presence/company.

Seek your auspicious presence.

Solicit your gracious presence on the auspicious occasion

The date, time and venue of the event.

The occasion/reason of the invitation.


Meant for a lot of invitees

These are written in the third person.

In case a VIP is invited as the chief guest the name of the VIP must appear prominently.

Name of the invitee is not to be included. The addressee’s address is to be written only on the envelope.

Simple Present Tense is to be used.

The date of writing is not to be given.

There is no signature of the host.

The abbreviation RSVP (French : repondez s’il vous plait ) i.e. ‘please reply’ is written below on the left with name(s) , address and phone number of the host(s)

Put the invitation into a box

Do not exceed 50 words

Meant for an individual (a formal letter of invitation)

Include the name of the invitee

These are to be written on run-on lines. The sentence is not broken into different words/phrases.

Other details are similar to the mass-scale invitations


Your father, Mr. Raj Kumar Gupta , residing at K-18 ,13th Cross Malleswaram, Bangalore wants to celebrate the success of your brother Rohith’s clearing the IIT-JEE Entrance Examination and securing admission in IIT Powai ,Mumbai. He wants you to draft a formal invitation for him on his behalf. Draft the invitation for him in not more than 50 words.

Mrs. And Mr. Raj Kumar Gupta

Seek your auspicious presence at the

Grand Celebration Party

of their son Rohit’s successfully passing the



8.00 p.m.


1st July , 2011



84-Dr. Raj Kumar, Road, Rajaji Nagar


Compliments from Friends and Relatives


k-18, 13th Cross ,Malleswaram



Kamala Nehru School


July 10, 2011
Mr. K.J. Singh


Police Lines


Invitation---Annual Day Function

It gives us immense pleasure to inform you that we are celebrating our school’s Annual Day function on July 10, 2011 at 5.30 p.m. in the Activity Hall of the school. We shall consider it a great honor if you could grace the occasion and preside over the function as the Chief Guest and give away the prizes.

Yours faithfully





* Written in a letter form, in informal format. Such letters are very persuasive in nature

* Written in the first person

* Salutation is ‘dear + name’

* Complimentary close ‘yours sincerely’

* Date of writing the invitation is given

* The sender’s address appears on the left hand side

* Various tenses used to suit the sense.

Value Points:

Format - 1 Mark

Content Relevance - name of the person(s) who is inviting; the invitee, date, day, chief, guest place Occasion etc. - 1.5 marks

Expression - Grammatical accuracy, Language – 1.5 marks


Replies - Accepting or Declining

Formal - follow a set formula

- formal words — kind invitation’, ‘great pleasure’, ‘regret’ etc.

- Use the third person (‘they’) instead of first person (‘I’, we’)

- The address of the writer and the date to be written.

Informal - Accepting and declining

- Like an ordinary letter

-do not use any formal expressions but use informal words and expressions

- use the first person (‘I’, ‘We’)


Look at the following series of invitations (formal & informal) and their replies. The occasion is the same but the style is different.


Mrs. Malathi & Mr. Venkatesh

request the pleasure of your company at dinner

On the occasion of their

50th Wedding Anniversary

At 8 p.m. on Tuesday ,12th July 2011


Hotel LEELA PALACE, Bangalore

RSVP: 12,Margosa Road, Malleswaram, Bangalore



7th July 2011

Mrs. and Mr. Naidu were pleased to receive the invitation for dinner on the occasion of the 50th Wedding Anniversary of Mrs. and Mr. Venkatesh, and confirm their participation in the function.

Best wishes



7th July 2011

Mrs. And Mr. Naidu thank Mrs. And Mr. Venkatesh for the invitation for dinner on the occasion of their 50th Wedding Anniversary on 12th July, 2011 at Hotel Leela Palace. However, they express their inability to be present on the occasion due to a prior engagement.

Best wishes,



1.Your school is organizing the prestigious KVS National Level Social Science Exhibition in its premises. Draft an invitation in not more than 50 words giving all essential details.

2.You are Dharma raj, son of Ramesh Patnaik, Bannerghatta , Bangalore. Your father wants you to draft a formal invitation to be sent on the occasion of your sister, Sheela’s marriage. Prepare the invitation.

3.You are Mohan/Molly. You have been invited by Rotary Club to act as one of the judges for an Elocution Competition for students of classes XI and XII. But due to a previous engagement you cannot accept this invitation. Write a formal reply to the President of the Club regretting your inability to accept the invitation.

4.You are Aakash/Varsha. You have been invited to attend the wedding of your friend’s sister during the summer vacation. Respond to the invitation informally accepting it.

5.You have opened a restaurant in Uppal Road, Hyderabad. Draft an invitation for the inauguration of the same, specifying the chief guest and other important details like date, time and venue. Do not exceed 50 words.

6.Your school is organizing a Book Fair on its sprawling play-ground. Draft an invitation giving all the details including the chief guest.
This question includes the following long answer questions:

Letter writing based on verbal or visual stimulus

Letter types include

Business or official letters (for making enquiries, registering complaints, asking for and giving information,

placing orders and sending replies)

Letters to the editor (giving suggestions or opinion on issues of public interest

Application for a job
The most common form of written communication is the letter. Letters should have a format that goes with the latest conventions.

Letter types include

Informal Letters-These are letters written to close associates.

Formal Letters include-

(a) business or official letters (for making enquiries, registering complaints, asking for and giving information, placing orders and sending replies;

(b) Letters to the editor (giving suggestions on an issue);

(c) Application for a job.

FORMAT- 1 marks.

Proper Layout – Sender’s address, Date, Receiver’s address, Subject, Salutation, Complimentary close.

Relevant ideas to be presented in a coherent way.

Use connectors appropriately, indent the paragraphs.

There should be minimum three paragraphs.


Grammatical accuracy, spellings-1 Marks.

Coherence, relevance of ideas and style- 1 Marks.
Important points to remember while drafting letters:

Write the letter in the full block format (i.e. to the left)

State your reason for writing in the first paragraph and stay on track.

Always include specifics that will help ease the recipient’s task. For instance, if you are writing to a bank, mention your account number.

If you refer to other correspondence, quote date of the letter/s reference numbers, file numbers, order numbers, cheque number with date. Include copies whenever possible.

Gently and respectfully direct the recipient’s course of action.

It may be strongly worded but always be courteous and use polite language and pleasant tone.

Self introduction should be avoided.

Informal expressions, greetings or contracted forms of words should not be used.

The language should be simple, straight forward and to the point.

Leave a line/ additional space between paragraphs since no indentation is followed.

Open punctuation to be followed. ( No punctuation marks to be used)

Do not mix up the old format and new format.

In letters to the editor – Do not ask the editor to solve the problems.

In job application letters Curriculum-vitae (CV) /Bio-data/ Resume/ should be written. It should not be included in the body of the letter but after the complimentary close as enclosure.

In the Letter to the Editor use ‘yours truly’ as the complimentary close.


Sender's Address.


Address of the











Signatory è

Format of letter

Sample Letters

You are Sidhi/ Sanjay of U-03 G Block Kasturi Nagar Mysore-37.Write a letter to the Director NGO Bird Links Society, Bangalore expressing your concern about the decrease in the number of the birds in Delhi.

House No- U/03

G Block

Kasturi Nagar

Mysore -37

30 June 2011

The Director

NGO Bird Links Society




SUBJECT: Diminishing number of birds
With deep regret I wish to bring to your kind notice the decrease in the population of birds in Mysore. Mysore is known to have more than 500 species of birds but many of them are on the verge of extinction.
According to the reports from the recent seminar held on Conservation of Birds, there was a time, when a number of birds would flock to the banks of river Kaveri, Bandipur wild life sanctuary and forested canopy in Mysore. These numbers have come crashing down in the recent years.
The main reasons are rampant construction of buildings, bridges and flyovers, cutting of forests and of course environmental pollution. Many species have become endangered. It is time the people of Mysore were made aware of this grave situation by conducting seminars and workshops.

The locals should be given incentives for preserving the birds. Sanction for the construction of buildings, malls, bridges and so on should be given only after proper evaluation of the environmental impact of those constructions over the life of species there. Let’s not forget that birds are an important link in the food chain.

I request the government, environmentalists and the society to show their concern before it is too late.

Yours faithfully

(Sidhi Sharma)

Sample Letter No-2

You are Suresh/Sarika Jain of No-20 Jawahar Nagar,Jaipur. Two months ago you bought a desert cooler from M/s Cool Home Coolers Jaipur. Now you discover that it is not working properly. Write a letter to the Manager Customer Care complaining about the malfunctioning of the unit and asking them to repair and if needed to replace it against warranty.

20 Jawahar Nagar


24 June 2011

M/s Cool Home Cooler


SUBJECT: Complaint about the desert cooler

Refer Cash Memo No DC-98765 dated 17.4.2011
I wish to bring it to your notice that I purchased a ‘Cooler Home’ desert cooler from you on 17 April, 2011 (Vide Cash Memo No DC-98765, dated 17.04.2011). The cooler did function well in the beginning for one and a half months and then it has started giving problems. The problems are - water leakage, heavy noise while working and high consumption of power.
I, therefore, request you to get the set repaired by a technician. In case it is irreparable, kindly replace it with a new one as it carries a warranty period of three years.
Yours faithfully


1. You are Manas/ Manasi at the Press Apartments of Sunder Nagar, Bihar. The main road leading to this colony has three man holes causing frequent accidents at night. There are no street lights on the main road. Write a letter to the Editor of the Times of India drawing attention of the government to this problem of the residents.

2. Write a letter to the Editor of a national daily inviting the attention of the authorities towards the increasing Environmental pollution in your city.

3. You are Vishal / Veena, a student of class XII of 10, Green Park, New Delhi is interested in learning languages. You come across an advertisement in The Times of India issued by The Institute of Foreign languages, New Delhi about the certificate course in Japanese offered by them. You decide to write a letter to the Director of the Institute seeking more information about the course duration, working hours, fee structure, etc. Write the letter.

4. As Mr. R. Singh, Head of the Department of Chemistry, Cambridge High School, Pune, you had placed an order with Messrs. Scientific Equipments, Dadar, Mumbai for test tubes and jar for the lab. When the parcel was received you observed that markings on the test tubes were not clear and some of the jars were damaged. Write a letter of complaint seeking immediate replacement.

5. You are the Manager of Fitness Club of Gandhi Road, Ernakulam. Write a letter to Messrs. Pioneer Sports Co, Kochi, placing an order for a minimum of 4 fitness equipments with details.
This question will have two composition type question based on visual or verbal input. The composition may be descriptive or argumentative in nature.

1. Article

2. Debate

3. Speech

4. factual description

5. Report writing


Writing an article is an art. The dictionary defines an article as a piece of writing about a particular subject in a newspaper or magazine. An article is an expression of one’s thought on an issue or a subject logically and coherently written in meaningful paragraphs.


Give a title that catches the attention of the reader.

Begin with a striking opening sentence which addresses the readers and gets them interested in the topic.

Present a strong argument for your ideas supporting it with evidences or elaboration.

Use linking devices (however, therefore, although, even though, in order to…) to make the composition appear a whole.

Introduce a new point at the beginning of an each paragraph that follows, to strengthen your ideas.

Develop your ideas as much as you can to make them interesting and substantial.

Conclude with your strongest point.

Use passive voice, humor, emotive language, rhetorical questions to provide a specific effect.
Split up of marks

Total marks: 10

Format (title + writer’s name): 1mark

Content (logical organization, relevance): 4 marks

Expression (Accuracy – 2 ½ + fluency – 2 ½ ): 5 marks

You are Vikranth / Vinitha, a freelance writer much concerned about the discriminatory treatment of women in the Indian society. Write an article in 150 – 200 words throwing light on this problem and giving suggestions for putting an end to it. (10 marks)

It is a pity that in a country where women are said to be worshipped, there is a widespread discrimination of them even before they are born. Certain brutal practices like the female feticide throw light on our attitude. The girl child is considered to be a liability and doesn’t enjoy the privileges of a boy. She is denied the advantage of proper education. The dowry system haunts parents and the harassment she is subjected to at the in-laws often force her to commit suicide.

Even in enlightened homes, the woman has to live her life under surveillance, if not in strict ‘purdah’. Working women are physically and verbally abused, denied opportunities of growth and subjected to discrimination.

Education can empower women to fight for their rights. It is also the responsibility of the educated society to work for the cause of women. Let she not be worshipped but let her live a wholesome life.

Questions for practice

1.Write an article in about 200 words for your school magazine on ‘Films and their influence on school-going children’. You are Manpreeth / Manjula, a student of class XII A.

2.You are Rohit / Kamal. You attended a seminar on Yoga, a way of life. Write an article in about 150 – 200 words on the contribution of yoga in leading a healthy and peaceful life.

In today’s world, letter-writing has lost its charm. People and the youth in particular rely more on mobiles and computers to communicate. Write an article on the present trend in about 150 to 200 words. You are Kiran / Karthik.

3.Recently you visited your ancestral home in a village in Gujarat. You were elated and strongly felt the necessity to hold on to the roots of our modern life, which lie in our villages. Write an article for your school magazine. You are Chetna / Chirag, Cultural Secretary of your school.

4.With rising number of people in almost all the big cities of the country, the rate of crime has also increased proportionately. The police needs to be trained in new methodology of combating the crime besides changing the mindset. Write an article in 150 – 200 words on the role of police in maintaining law and order in the metropolitan cities. You are Ravi/ Ravina.

5.The invention of mobile phone h it can be a blessing but if misused it can prove to be a curse. Write an article in about 150 – 200 words on this invention. You are Karthik / Karishma.


Debate is a contest between two speakers or two groups of speakers to show their skills and abilities in an argument over a topic. One group speaks in favour of the motion and other against the motion.

General points to be considered while writing a Debate.

  • Debate should always have a good introduction to grab the audience’s attention and garner interest in the topic.

  • Prepare the debate properly by considering both positive and negative aspects of the topic.

  • Take your information and outline the main points that you are goin to write.

  • Some examples can be added in support of your view.

Sample Debate

Write separate debates in 150 words both for and against the motion. The topic of the debate is “The Right to Education Act is a Realistic and Achievable Goal that will change the Face of Education in India” .You are Rahul/Harshita.


For The Motion

Formal address

Worthy chairperson, secretary and dear students

For the motion
oday I, Rahul, stand before you to speak for the motion on ‘the right to education Act (RTE)

Is a realistic and achievable goal that will change the face of education in India’.

Arguments for the motion
submit that the RTE makes it obligatory on the state to guarantee the right to education and ensure compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education by every child of 6-14years. I feel very strongly that the three basic goals of RTE will greatly benefit the children coming from poor and marginalized families. These are

(a) Bringing poor children to school,

(b) Ensuring that all schools meet specified norms ,and

(c) Enduring that all children receive quality schooling.

In my opinion, education and literacy are the keys to many problems facing the people. I would like to draw your attention to the fact that today the condition on the education front is not like what it was when India got get independence.


eeing all this, I strongly feel that, with the passage of time, RTE will change the face of India

Formal Thanks

Thank you!

Against The Motion

Worthy chairperson, secretary and dear students

Today I, Harshita, stand before to speak against the motion ‘the right to education in a realistic and achievable goal that will change the face of education in India’. There is no denying the fact that our country has taken some very bold strides in spreading education. But we have to go along to fully change the face of education in our country.

Arguments against the motion

would like to draw your attention to the wide gap between what is shown to us through various media and data what is the ground reality. We still see dropout from school searching for trinkets in heaps of garbage. There are villages where there are no school, no teachers and nothing worth the name called ‘a school’.


don’t think RTE will succeed in its mission unless we change our work culture and recognize the reality behind facts and figures. I, therefore oppose the motion.

Thank you

Formal Address

Against the motion

Formal Thanks

Q1. You are Sameer/Saira. Write separate debates both for and against the motion. Each of not more than 200 words on the topic ‘Entrance tests are the right method for selecting student for undergraduate courses’.

Q2. In an inter school debate competition, you have to speak on the motion, “Safety of women working in night shifts is inadequate”. You have to speak for the motion. Draft a debate speech accordingly.

Q3. Draft a debate on the motion “The government is not protecting primary school children for contamination of midday meals given in schools.” You have to speak against the motion.

Q4 Your school is organizing an inter house debate competition on the topic “ National security cannot be considered as an excuse for damaging the environment.” Write your views in favour of or against the motion in about 200 words

Q5. Write your opinion in the form of a debate on the topic “Corporal punishment in school promotes well disciplined students”. Your answer should be in about 200 words.


A SPEECH is a formal talk that a person delivers to an audience. It must have the capacity to keep the audience spellbound with proper choice of words, expressions and examples. At the same time care should be taken not to deviate from the main subject. You must keep in mind that it is a speech and you need to begin the draft with addressing your audience. The conclusion should be with a sentence thanking your audience for their patient listening. Writing a speech needn’t be a nail biting experience! Before you go further you need to know-

WHO you are writing your speech for (the audience)

WHAT your speech is going to be about (its topic)—the main points in order of importance with supporting research.

Follow the system of CODER for writing your speech

C- Collect the ideas.

O-Organize them in a logical manner

D-Develop the points into paragraphs

E-Edit the speech

R-Revise and rewrite it

Brainstorm to start planning your speech

On a piece of paper write these headings with enough space between them for notes:






WHO is this speech for?

WHAT am I going to tell them that are relevant and interesting?

HOW long is the speech expected to be?

WHERE is the speech going to happen? (Hall, outdoors, stadium, morning assembly…)

NOTE – It is important to note that the written speech should consist of small sentences having not more than 10 to 12 words in a sentence.

OK. You’ve got all the notes ready; so let’s mix and match and re-write until the outline is clear. After you’ve completed this part of planning your speech you’ll be ready to do any RESEARCH required and then you’re on to the task of WRITING your speech.


Greet your audience and introduce the topic you are speaking on.

The introduction part of the speech is the most important part. It is this part which decides the fate of the speech.

Do not give a separate title for the speech. Keep in mind as already stated the occasion of the speech and the nature of the audience.

The introduction should not be very lengthy. The main topic should be taken up as quickly as possible. Use concrete terms and tangible examples. Avoid abstract phrases which are quite vague. Use simple and familiar language.

The effects, such as raising one’s voice, giving stress to certain words, pausing for a short time etc. can be represented in a written speech by using such techniques as increasing the size of the letters of the sentence to be stressed, or using all capitals for a particular word to be emphasized, leaving a few dots (….) after a question to indicate a pause.

The conclusion plays a very important role in the success of a speech. Here we should remember Shakespeare’s advice that brevity is the soul of wit. Give your own conclusion on the topic in a telling manner.

A powerful quotation or lines from a beautiful poem which can summarize your view point can also be used.

Marking scheme is the same as for the article.

Say/Write ‘Thank you’ at the end of your speech.


You are a student volunteer of National Literacy Mission (NLM) wing of your school involved in the Adult Literacy Campaign: “Each one, Teach One”. Write out the speech you would be delivering at each place of your visit. Do not exceed 200 words.


Dear Friends

Good morning to you all

We have all assembled here for a noble cause—a mission to eradicate illiteracy. It is the dream of the National Literacy Mission to educate all the Indians. We would work together for an India where EACH PERSON IS LITERATE. Most of the learners are adults who have a rich experience of life. Therefore, the learning strategies that will be adopted in our programme will be exploratory and interactive. We have to teach as well as learn. We must keep in mind certain important factors……… their experience, wisdom and maturity while discussing any topic. We should encourage them to talk and express their views in a frank and fair manner.

We should always keep in mind the OBJECTIVES set for the adult illiterates. We have to make them literates. Inculcate in them a love for reading, writing and arithmetic. Let them do simple calculations and exult at the right calculations. Health awareness and job related problems are the next in order. IT IS ONLY AFTER A STRONG BRIDGE OF CONFIDENCE IS BUILT that we would be able to create in them awareness about civil rights, duties, privileges and obligations. When they become confident of their powers, we must create in them social awareness. Issues like environmental pollution, population control and employment generation can then be discussed…..In short let’s all resolve to make sincere efforts to achieve these goals.

Thank you.

Questions for practice:

Q.1.-Water is very precious. Some scientists even go to the extent of saying that the Third World War may be fought on the issue of water. Write a speech in 150-200 words expressing your views to be delivered in the morning assembly in your school.

Q.2.-“To use the latest technology the right way, is in the hands of the youth today.” Write a speech 150-200 words discouraging the misuse of technological products like cell phones, computers etc and highlighting the need to use them to promote harmony and goodwill in the society.

Q.3.-“Our Good Earth”, an environmental awareness magazine has launched a marathon 'Clean Your City’ campaign. As an active participant write a speech to be read out in the morning assembly urging students to participate in the campaign in 150-200 words.

Q.4.-As a concerned citizen, you are worried about the harmful effects of the insanitary conditions in your town. Write a short speech on the necessity of sanitation, to be given at the morning assembly in your school.

Factual description is a description of place, person, process and object.

Description of a place / building includes the location, surroundings, interiors, purpose etc.

Description of a person includes appearance, mannerisms, dress, gait and any other particular information to be given may be relevant to the description.

Description of an object incorporates appearance, its parts, its function or purpose, advantages and any other detail relevant to the description.

Collect details of description and logically write them in a paragraph.

Provide a suitable title.

Include external features, finer or internal details, how the object functions and its operation.

Use appropriate connectors while describing a process. Use words like ‘first’ and ‘second’.

Use the passive voice unless the active voice is desirable (e.g. in a piece which describes how to bake a cake)

Split up of marks

Total marks: 10,

Title: 1, Content: 4, Expression: Accuracy – 2 ½ + Fluency – 2 ½ : 5



A hospital is a place where the sick or the wounded come for treatment. They are attended to by qualified doctors, nurses and other medical staff. The different wings of the hospital are called wards. People suffering from different diseases are admitted there and treated. The victims of accidents are admitted in the casualty ward. People having ear, nose and throat trouble are treated in the E.N.T. ward. Similarly there is an ICCU ward for very seriously afflicted heart patients, Paediatric Ward for children below 12 years of age, Orthopaedic wards for patients with broken bones and Neurology and Psychiatry wards for patients suffering from mental ailments. There are special wards for women, children and separate wards for burns, eyes, physiotherapy etc. The general ward of a hospital is generally overcrowded. Hundreds of patients suffering from different diseases are admitted here but not every patient who comes to the hospital is admitted. Thousands of patients visit the Out Patient Department for consultation, diagnosis and treatment of their diseases. Doctors and nurses visit the patients at regular intervals. Food and ‘other things are also provided to the patients. There are private. rooms for those who can afford.

Facilities for X-ray, E.C.G., Oxygen gas equipment, Blood Bank and Diagnostic laboratory also exist in good hospitals. But no hospital can be good without good doctors and nurses who are expected to be professionally oriented and kind and sympathetic to the patients. To a common man, hospital is a dreadful place full of stench, sickness and sufferings — a place he would never like to visit.


A rickshaw-puller is a common sight in India. He can be seen standing at public places like bus stands, railway stations and road crossings waiting for passengers. A,rickshaw-puller appears miserable and weak. He is not treated well by the general public and is generally overworked and underpaid. He is generally hated, humiliated by everyone. This makes the rickshaw-puller sometimes pay them in the same coin. He also behaves with them rudely and harshly. The life of the rickshaw puller is very hard. He works from morning till evening and even at night. He carries passengers and loads from one place to another. The poor rickshaw-puller has. to submit to the dictates of his passengers as well as the hafta realising mafia and greedy policemen.

A few rickshaw-pullers fall into bad habits. They waste their hard earned money in drinking, drugs and gambling. They should be saved from this evil and something must be done to improve their lot.



For getting reservation for a train journey, go to the railway station and see the reservation clerk to make sure whether berths are available on the train you intend to travel by on a particular date. If the seats are available, fill up the application form giving personal and travel details and hand it over to the reservation clerk.

The number and name of the train, the journey date, the destination, the names of the persons going on the journey with their age and sex are to be filled in the specified columns on the form. The reservation clerk checks the form, collects the money, makes entries in the computers and issues the ticket.

There are many computerized reservation centres in cities. Tickets can be booked 30 days in advance at any counter for any train and destination. Now tickets can be booked and printed at home thanks to the e-ticketing facility of Indian Railways. It is sad that many touts fleece innocent passengers with the active connivance of booking staff and police.


1- Describe your ideal house and its location giving reasons for your choices.

2- Write a description of a person who has had an important influence on your life.

3- Describe a party you've attended recently.

4- Describe your favorite meal or dish. What ingredients are needed and how is it prepared?

5- Write a description of your bedroom, its furniture and contents.

6- You are Kiran Yadav of Sarvodaya Vidyalaya, Jamnagar, Gujarat and your school has recently built a well-planned auditorium to hold academic and cultural programmes. The Editor of your school magazine has asked you to write a factual description of the auditorium for the school magazine "Write Kiran 's description in your own words.


A report is a brief account of an event that has already taken place. A Report helps in recording events of importance that occurs in our day to day life. A report attempts to present the first hand information of an incident or event. A report of an event presents a record of events that took place. A report on an event includes one’s ideas, opinions and impressions on the event.


Mention the place, date, time and other relevant facts about the event.

Include information collected from people around or affected by the event.

Write the name of the reporter.

Provide a suitable title/heading.

Write in past tense.

Write in reported speech and use passive form of expression.

Develop ideas (causes, reasons, consequences, opinions) logically.

Write in a less formal and more descriptive manner while writing a report for a school magazine.

Present your ideas and impressions to make the report interesting.

Split up of marks

Total marks: 10

Title + Reporter’s name: 1 mark

Content: 4 marks

Expression (Accuracy 2 ½ + fluency 2 ½): 5


You are Roshan /Roshini, Secretary of Cultural club, Hyderabad Public School, Hyderabad. As a member of N.G.C. (National Green Corps), write a report, in 125 – 150 words for your school magazine. (10 marks)


The cultural club of our school in association with National Green Corps organized many activities during the year 2010 for the cause of greener environment in and around the school. A seminar in the month of February was held for students on the need to save environment. In April, the Vanamahotsav week was observed, which was inaugurated with a tree plantation drive. 500 saplings were planted in the colonies in and around the school.

Several inter-house competitions including poster-making and drawing were conducted which witnessed a huge participation. Students volunteered to clean the surroundings. Pamphlets were distributed among the public to promote cleanliness and hygiene.

A rally was organized in September to create awareness among the public to stop the use of plastic bags and to replace it with eco-friendly products. The various purposeful activities conducted during the year were well received and were to a great extent effective in creating awareness among the people.


Secretary, Cultural Club

Questions for Practice
1. You are Brinda/ Bharath. You worked as a volunteer in the Literacy campaign organized in your city. Write a report for the school magazine in about 125 words on the effectiveness of the programme highlighting the methods used and the role played by government and non government agencies.

2. Your school observed Library week. As a head boy/ head girl of your school write a report on it to be published in your school magazine (125 words)

3. You are Poorva / Partha, Cultural Secretary of your school, D.B. Senior Secondary School, Ambur. A week-long Music and Dance festival was organised by your school. Write a report in about 125 words for your school magazine.

4. The Debating Society of your school has recently held a workshop on ‘Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation’ (CCE) introduced for the students for class X in all schools. The students discussed the assessment made by the school on the basis of their participation in various activities and the system of grading. Write a report in 100 – 125 words for your school magazine. You are Parveen / Payal , Secretary of the Society.

5. You visited a Job Fair organized by Ability Foundation at Chennai recently. You were impressed to see that nearly 55 companies from various sectors such as Information Technology, Telecommunication, and Electronics etc. offered jobs to the final year students of colleges. As a reporter of ‘The Deccan Times’ Chennai prepare a report in 100 -125 words. You are Peeyush / Priya.
From poetry section two types of question will come:

  • VSAQ: based on extracts from the poem to test comprehension and appreciation (1m each)

  • SAQ: short answer questions to test local and global comprehension of the poem (3m)




  • The poets driving from her parents home to Cochin by car, her mother by her side—sleeping –open mouthed very pale, colorless and frail-like a dead body indicating that her end was near.

  • The poet looks at her and feels intense pain and agony to realize that soon death will cast her mother from her.

  • Tries to divert her mind, looks outside at the young trees and happy children bursting out of their homes in a playful mood (a contrasting image)

  • After the security check at the airport looked again at her mother’s face—pale and cold.

  • “Familiar ache-My childhood fear” –the poet has always had a very intimate and close relationship with her mother and she has always felt the fear of being separated from her mother hence it is familiar.

  • The poet reassures her mother that they will meet again


1.“Driving from my parent’s home to Cochin last Friday

Morning, I saw my mother, beside me, doze,

open mouthed, her face ashen like that

Of a corpse and realized with pain

That she thought away.”

a) Where was the poet coming from? Where was she going?

The poet had gone to her parents’ home to visit them. She was now going to Cochin airport.

b) How does the poet describe her mother?

The poet describes her mother as old, pale, cold and senile. As she dozed off beside her, the mother looked almost like a corpse, for her face was colorless and seemed to have lost the fervor of life.

c) Who does ‘she’ refer to in the last line? What thoughts had she driven away?

‘She’ here refers to the poet. The thought of her mother’s approaching death which she wanted to put it away.

2.“ and looked but soon

put that thought away, and looked out at young

trees sprinting, the merry children spilling

out of their homes”

a) What was the poet ‘looking’ at? What did she notice?

The poet was looking at her mother. She noticed the mother’s ashen and almost lifeless face distraught with pain.

b) What thought did she try to drive away?

She tried to drive away the thought of her mother’s approaching death.

c) Why did the poet start ’looking out’? What does her gesture suggest?

The poet started looking out of the window because she wanted to drive away the pain and agony she experienced on seeing her aged mother. She wanted to drive away her helplessness in the wake of her mother’s ageing and approaching death.

d) What did the poet see from the window of the car?

The poet saw young trees running past her car and merry children sprinting out of their homes to play.

e) What did the images of ‘young trees’ and ‘merry children’ symbolize?

Trees and children symbolize the spring of life, its strength, vigour and happiness which contrasts with the lifelessness and helplessness that sets in with age.

3. “ but after the airport’s

security check, standing a few yards

away, I looked again at her, wan, pale

as a late winter’s moon”

a) Where was the poet standing?

The poet was at the Cochin airport waiting to board the plane after the security check.

b) Who does ‘her’ here to? How did she look like?

’Her’ here refers to the poet’s mother. She was an aged lady and hence looked pale, cold like a corpse and colourless.

c) Why does the narrator ‘look at her again’?

The narrator looked at her mother once again for the last time before she left to reassure herself about the well being of her mother. She had tried to drive away the pain she had felt on seeing her weak and aged mother. One last time she looked at her to wish her goodbye.

d) Explain: ’wan, pale as a late winter’s moon’.

In this simile, the poet compares the mother’s pale and withered face with the winter’s moon. The moon seems to lose its brightness in the winter season as it is veiled behind fog and mist. The mother’s face also seemed to have lost its radiance which was now misted by age. Winter symbolizes death and the waning moon symbolizes decay.

4. “ and felt that old

familiar ache, my childhood’s fear,

but all I said was, see you soon, Amma,

all I did was smile and smile and smile.”

a) What ‘familiar ache’ did the poet feel?

The ‘familiar ache’ refers to the poet’s fear of losing her mother and the realization that she has not cared and cannot care for her ageing mother. It is an ache of helplessness. It is also a fear of separation from the mother or the mother’s death.

b) What could have been the poet’s childhood fears?

I think the poet’s childhood fear was that she would lose her mother or be separated from her and that death would consume her mother.

c) Did the poet share her thoughts with her mother?

The poet did not share her fears and agony with her mother. She only bid good bye to her with the hope of seeing her soon.

d) Why do you think, the poet did not share her thoughts with her mother?

I think the poet did not share her thoughts with her mother because they were caused by her fear of the unknown. Sharing them with the mother would have worried the frail old woman to death.

e) Why did the poet only ‘smile’?

The poet only smiled to hide her guilt, anxiety and fear of the unknown. Also, she wanted to bid a cheerful farewell to her mother before boarding the flight.


1. What is the kind of pain and ache that the poet feels?

When the poet looks at her mother’s face she found that it had become pale and withered. She realized that her mother was at the edge of her life and her end was near. The thought that her mother would be soon separated from her caused unbearable pain and ache in the poet’s heart.

2 What does the poet do to shrug off the painful thought of her mother’s approaching end?

To get rid of painful thought her mother‘s nearing the poet looked out to see the sprinting tree and the happy children, bursting out of their house.

3. Why does the poet draw the image of sprinting trees and merry children?

Sprinting trees and merry children bursting out from the doors suggest fresh life and warm energy. The poet draws this image to strikes a scene of contrast with the pale, dull and withered face of the mother. Here the curtain is falling and the life coming to an end and there the curtain is rising and fresh life is beginning and bubbling with energy and vitality.

4. Why have the trees been described as sprinting?

The poet was driving in a car along with her mother. Her movement created the visionary, illusion of the trees outside appeared to be sprinting past.

5. Why has the mother been compared to the late winter’s moon?

The late winter moon lacks luster. The mothers face was pale and withered. Moreover, the late winter moon suggests the end of season and mother too is nearing the end of her life, therefore the poet compares her with the late winter’s moon.

6. What is the ‘familiar ache’?

The fear of losing her mother has tortured the poet from her very childhood because she had been intimately bound up with her. Therefore this ache is familiar to her; it is known to her.

7. What do the parting words of the poet and her smile signify?

The parting words of the poet reflect the poet’s pain. But she puts on a smile on her face to mask her pain and to give hope, happiness and reassurance to her mother.



  • In this poem the poet focuses on the theme of social injustice and inequalities.

  • He presents the pathetic and miserable picture of the elementary classroom in a slum.

  • These children have pale and lifeless faces.

  • They are like rootless weeds which are uncared and unwanted with their disorderly hair torn around their faces.

  • They are depressed and oppressed with the burdens of life and keep their heads down. They have stunted growth.

  • They inherit the diseases of their father.

  • Some of them do have dreams. A sweet young boy is sitting at the back of the dim classroom. He is dreaming of a squirrel’s game in the trees and probably other interesting things.

  • The walls are dirty and creamy and on them are hung the donations given by the rich and also Shakespeare’s portrait.

  • A civilized dome found in the cities and Tyrolese valleys with beautiful flowers are also put up.

  • The map on the wall shows the children, the beautiful world outside; but for these children of the slum it is meaningless.

  • The children studying in these schools do not have the means to go and explore the world. For them what they see through their classroom windows, the narrow street and the lead sky is the world.

  • Shakespeare is wicked for them as he has written only about the rich, beautiful world tempting them to steal.

  • The map is of no interest to them because it does not reflect the world they live in-cramped and dark lanes.

  • Their lives start in darkness and ends in utter darkness.

  • They are undernourished and their poverty has distorted their vision as they spend their whole time in foggy slums.

  • The poet feels that the map which shows beautiful and exotic places should be replaced with slums as it is not the world they live in.

  • Unless the governor inspector and visitor play a vital role in bringing about a change, their lives will remain in dark.

  • The slum children will be able to peep through the window only when the gap between the two worlds is bridged.

  • They should break the barriers till they come out of the dirty surroundings and their world should be extended into the green fields, golden sands and bright world.

  • They should have the freedom of expression and their outlook be broadened.

  • For, only the educated and learned people can create history whose language has strength and power.


1. “Unless, governor, inspector, visitor,

This map becomes their window and these windows

That shut upon their lives like catacombs.”

(a) Why does the poet invoke ‘governor, ‘inspector’ and ‘visitor’?

The poet invokes the ‘governor, ‘inspector’ and ‘visitor’ because they are the powerful people who can bring about a drastic change in the miserable lives of the slum children. They can remove the social injustice and class inequalities.

(b) What does ‘this map’ refer to? How can it become ‘their window’?

This map refers to the beautiful world of the rich. Their window refers to holes and the stinking slums of the unfortunate children of the slum. This can become their window only when the difference between the two worlds is abridged.

(c) What have ‘these windows’ done to their lives?

These windows have cramped their lives, stunted their physical and mental growth shutting them inside filthy and dingy holes.

(d) What do you understand by catacombs?

Catacombs are long underground graves. Here they stand for the dirty slums which block their progress.

(e) Which literary device has been used? Explain.

Simile has been used to describe the oppressive effect of the surroundings on their pathetic lives. The simile is: ‘these windows that shut upon their lives like catacombs.’

Answer the following in 30-40 words.

1. What is the theme of the poem?

This poem deals with the theme of social injustice and class inequalities. The poet presents it by talking of two different and incompatible worlds. The world of the rich and the civilized has nothing to do with the world of the narrow lanes and cramped holes. This gap can be bridged by the authorities.

2. So blot their maps with slums as big as doom’. What does the poet want to convey?

The poet is angry at the social equalities in the world. There are two worlds – the dirty slums and the prosperous and the beautiful world of the rich. The poet wants the map of the world should also have blots of slums as big as the ‘doom’. In reality he wants the gap to be reduced.

3. ‘History is theirs whose language is the sun’. Explain.

This statement means that those who have the power and confidence in speech to influence others create history. One can make a mark only if one can outshine others. Education only can give them power and strength like the sun which will bring about a change in the lives of the people.


A. Read the stanza and answer the questions that follows:

1. ”Surely, Shakespeare is wicked, the map a bad example,

With ships and sun and love tempting them to steal-

For lives that turn in their cramped holes

From fog to endless nights.”

i) Name the poem and the poet

ii) Why has Shakespeare been described as wicked?

iii) Why is the map a bad example?

iv) What tempts them to steal?

v) How do the children continue to live?

vi) Explain: ‘From fog to endless night.’

. Read the stanza and answer the questions that follows:
“The stunted, unlucky heir

Of twisted bones, reciting a father gnarled disease

His lesson from his desk. At the back of the dim class

One unnoted , sweet and young. His eyes live in a dream

Of squirrels game, in tree room, other than this.”

a) Who is being referred to in the first two lines?

b) Explain ‘father’s gnarled disease’.

c) Who sit at the back of the class? How is he different from others?

d) Explain his eyes live in a dream?

e) What is the comparison drawn with squirrels game?


1. What is that these children inherit from their parents? What does it signify?

2. How has the poet described the colour of the wall and why?

3. The poet presents two different worlds. What are they?

4. What picture of the slum children does the poet draw?

5. Where does the poet see hope and relief?

6. What does the poet mean by saying, ‘Let their tongue run naked into books’?

7. Describe some poetic devices used in the poem. Give examples.

8. Explain ‘Open handed map, awarding the world its world’.




  • The poet talks about the need of silence and quiet introspection and the importance of quietude and calmness. He also talks about creating a feeling of mutual understanding among human beings.

  • The poet asks us to keep still and count up to twelve. He also asks us to sit still. For a moment we should not speak any language. We should not move our arms so much.

  • It will be a moment of complete silence without rush or worry. This would be an exotic moment.

  • Then a sudden strangeness will prevail which we will all enjoy. It will be bliss.

  • The fisherman would not harm the whales on the cold sea. Even the man gathering salt would stop working and look at his hurt hands and reflect at the pain and harm his strenuous task has caused him.

  • All kinds of wars must be stopped at once. The green wars against the environment, wars with poisonous gases, firearms, must be stopped at once.

  • People who are all the time preparing for wars leaving no survivors behind ought to find time to wear clothes and walk around with their brothers strengthening the message of peace and brotherhood.

  • At the same time the poet cautions not to confuse stillness with total inactivity. Life is an ongoing process and should not be associated with death. It is to be lived with positive attitude.

  • He does not want us to ruminate over death.

  • But he feels that if for once we do not focus ourselves single-mindedly to keep our lives moving but do some introspection or spend some time in silence doing nothing, we can understand ourselves better and escape from the threatening calls of death.

  • The earth can teach us a lesson how everything comes to a dead end and comes to life again.

  • In the same manner a quiet introspection can bring all evil thoughts to an end and bring in a new life of peace and tranquility.

  • Now the poet will count up to twelve and they should keep quiet and he will go.


    1. Read the stanza and answer the questions that follows:

1. “Fishermen in the cold sea

Would not harm whales

And the m an gathering salt

Would look at his hurt hands.”

a) What is ‘fisherman’ symbolic of?

The fisherman symbolizes man’s indiscriminate exploitation of nature for his vested interests.

b) What will happen when fishermen do not harm whales?

The whales will be no longer on the verge of extinction.

c) What has happened to the man gathering salt? What must he do?

The man gathering salt has injured his hands. He must take care of his hurt hands.

d) What would happen in this moment of silence?

He will become conscious of the harm causing to others and to themselves.

e) What image does the poet create in the last line?

He creates the image of incessant suffering. In his effort to add comforts to his life he has paid no heed to the pain that caused him.

    1. Read the stanza and answer the questions that follows:

” Perhaps the earth can teach us

As when everything seems dead

And later prove to be alive

Now I’ll count up to twelve

And you keep quiet and I will go.”

a) Who can teach us?

The earth can teach us.

b) What does earth teach us?

The Earth can teach us how new life emerges from the ashes of the dead remains. Likewise quiet introspection will enable us to live a life of peace and tranquility.

c) Why does the speaker count up to twelve?

It is a part of an exercise in meditation. All distractions and digressions are washed away and man is in a moment of bliss.

d) Explain-‘you keep quiet and I will go’?

The poet wants all to keep quiet and experience the moment of peace. He will go and pass on the message to another group of people.

Short Answer Questions

1. Why does Pablo Naruda urge us to keep still?

Stillness is necessary for reflection and quiet introspection. We can hear the voice of our conscience and thus withdraw ourselves from undesirable actions.

2. ’Under the apparent stillness there is life’. Justify.

The poet does not want to equate stillness with total inactivity. Under the apparent stillness there is life. We can learn it from the earth when everything seems dead, the earth still remains alive. The life on earth goes on under the apparent stillness.

3. Why do men become sad? How can this sadness be overcome?

Men fail to understand themselves. They are always threatening themselves with death. When they do not understand themselves they become sad. A long silence might interrupt this sadness and make them good.


. “What I want should not be confused

With total inactivity

Life is what it is about

I want no truck with death.”

1. Name the poem and the poet?

2. What is the desire of the poet?

3. What does ‘total inactivity’ imply?

4. Why does the poet say that he does not want his wish to be confused with total inactivity?

5. Explain-‘I want no truck with death’.


  1. Why shouldn’t we speak any language and move our arms so much?

  2. How does the poet distinguish ‘stillness’ from ‘total inactivity’? Explain.

  3. “I want no truck with death.” Explain.

  4. What are the various wars mentioned? What is the result of these wars?

  5. What would be the result of quietude?



  • The Poet, John Keats says that beautiful things will never become ‘nothing’ as they will continue to hold us in their spell and sooth our soul.

  • Every beautiful thing is like a band that ties us to this earth as it makes us want to live and enjoy these things of beauty.

  • And these things of beauty, according to the poet, are the things that give hope to human beings and make them want to live, in spite of all the sorrow, ill-health and unpleasant experiences that we face on earth.

  • Some of the beautiful things on this earth that have such an effect on us are the sun, the moon, trees, streams, flowers, forests, beautiful monuments that we have erected for the dead, all the lovely tales that we have heard or read.

  • Finally he compares all these beautiful things to immortal drink or nectar given to us by gods or gifts of God. Thus he states his firm belief in the Divine.

Solved Questions

“Such the sun, the moon,

Trees old and young, sprouting a shady boon

For simple sheep; and such are daffodils

With the green world they live in; and clear rills

That for themselves a cooling covert make

‘gainst the hot season.”

a)What proves a blessing for the sheep?

Trees, young and old provide a green covering which proves to be a blessing for the sheep.

  1. Where do daffodils bloom?

Daffodils bloom among the green surroundings.

  1. What prove to be pleasant shelters in summer?

The small streams with clear water prove to be cooling, pleasant shelters in summer.

  1. Name the objects of beauty referred to here.

  2. The sun, the moon, trees, daffodils and streams of clear water are the objects of beauty mentioned here .


a) what according to Keats are the things that cause suffering and pain?

Answer: The poet says that a scarcity of good-natured people or in other words the wicked people outnumber the good people. And the source of all our sorrows is either ill-health or another human being.

b)What makes human beings love life in spite of all the suffering?

Answer: The poet says that the beautiful things on earth lifts the pall off our spirits and make life worth living. Each beautiful thing is like a link that forms a chain or wreath that binds us to this earth.

c)Why does the poet say ‘mighty dead’?

Answer: Monuments are erected in memory of people who were mighty or great when they lived. Physically mighty as in mighty warriors or mentally might as in great poets, writers or philosophers. Their tombs provide inspiration for the living through their beauty just as their works continue to do.

Questions for practice:

  1. “A thing of beauty is a joy forever

Its loveliness increases, it will never

Pass into nothingness; but will keep

a bower quiet for us, and a sleep

full of sweet dreams, and health, and quiet breathing

Therefore, on every morrow, are we wreathing

A flowery band to bind us to the earth.”

a. What is the special virtue of a beautiful thing?

b. How does it bless us?

c. Explain the expression “A bower quiet for us”.

d. What do we do everyday?

  1. “the mid forest brake,

rich with a sprinkling of fair musk-rose blooms;

and such too is the grandeur of the dooms

who have imagined for the mighty dead;

All lovely tales that we have heard or read;

An endless fountain of immortal drink,

Pouring unto us from the heaven’s brink.”

  1. What do you mean by ‘brake’? Where does it grow? What makes it all the more beautiful?

  2. What do you mean by ‘the grandeur of the dooms’?

  3. “All lovely tales that we have heard or read” Explain

  4. What is the source of the beauty of nature? What is its effect on us?

  1. “Some shape of beauty moves away the pall

from our dark spirits. Such the sun, the moon,

trees old, and young, sprouting a shady boon

for simple sheep; and such are daffodils

with green world they live in; and clear rills

that for themselves a cooling covert make

‘gainst the hot season; the mid forest brake

Rich with a sprinkling of fair musk-rose blooms”

  1. What removes the pall from our dark spirits?

  2. What sprouts a shady boon for sheep and how?

  3. How do ‘daffodils’ and rills enrich the environment?

  4. What makes the mid-forest brake rich?

Short answer Questions

  1. How do we wreathe a flowery band?

  2. Why do human beings suffer or what depresses the human soul?

  3. What does Keats mean by the ‘grandeur of doom’?

  4. Mention 4 things of beauty listed in the poem?

  5. How do we bind ourselves to the earth every morning?

  6. Why and how is ‘grandeur’ associated with the mighty dead?

  7. What is the source of the ‘endless fountain’ and what is its effect?

  8. What is the message of the poem?



  • The poet is a feminist and she addresses the difficulties of a married woman.

  • She spends good amount of time in embroidering panel of tigers prancing across the screen.

  • The tigers are fearless creatures pacing elegantly and majestically. They symbolize the spirit of freedom. Aunt is a victim of male chauvinism (male domination).

  • Aunt Jennifer is so oppressed and terrified that she finds it hard to pull the needle.

  • The “weight of Uncle’s wedding band “expresses how victimized and oppressed she is. It implies that aunt Jennifer has to work hard to meet his expectation.

  • She spends her life in fear but she embroiders on the panel the fearless tigers to express her secret longing for a life of freedom and confidence.

  • Even her death does not end the problem and torture which a married woman experiences..


1.”Aunt Jennifer’s tigers prance across a screen,

Bright topaz denizens of a world of green.

They do not fear the men beneath the tree:

They pace in sleek chivalric certainty.”

a) What does the expression ‘Aunt Jennifer’s tigers imply?

Aunt Jennifer was embroidering a panel of prancing tigers. The poet refers to the tigers as Aunt Jennifer’s tigers because they are her creation, her work of art.

b) What does prancing tigers symbolize?

Prancing tigers are a symbol of the spirit of freedom within Aunt Jennifer which remains subdued. They also symbolize her fear of her male counterpart.

c) Why are they referred to as ‘denizens of a world of green’?

The tigers are the dwellers of the green forest so they are referred to as denizens.

d) What qualities of the ‘tigers’ are highlighted here?

Fearlessness and ferocity of the tigers are highlighted here. Aunt Jennifer’s nervousness and timidity are in sharp contrast to wild ferocity of the tigers who are not afraid of hunting men. Unlike Aunt Jennifer, the tigers fear nothing.

e) Explain; “They pace in sleek chivalric certainty”.

The movement of the tigers are sleek, stealthy, sure, majestic and elegant. They are sure of their purpose. Gallant and confident, they move ahead fearlessly undeterred by any obstacles or hindrances.

2.”Aunt Jennifer’s fingers fluttering through her wool

Find even the ivory needle hard to pull.

The massive weight of Uncle’s wedding band

Sits heavily upon Aunt Jennifer’s hand.”

a) Why do Aunt Jennifer’s fingers flutter through her wool?

Aunt Jennifer lives in constant fear of her husband. She feels so nervous and terrified that her hands shake and flutter when she sits down to knit.

b) Why does she find it hard to pull the ivory needle?

Due to constant fear that she confronts has become a nervous wreck. She finds it difficult to pull the ivory needle through the tapestry more because of mental suppression than because of physical weakness.

c) Explain: ‘massive weight of Uncle’s wedding band’.

The expression is symbolic of male authority and power. Matrimony binds the woman physically as well as mentally. Likewise Aunt Jennifer is trapped in gender oppression and feels herself burdened by the authority of her husband.

d) How is Aunt Jennifer affected by the ‘weight of matrimony’?

Aunt Jennifer cannot do things freely, she tries to come up to the expectation of her husband, she seems to have lost her identity. The freedom that she dreams of through her art is itself symbolic of her oppressed self

3.”When Aunt is dead, her terrified hands will lie

Still ringed with ordeals she was mastered by.

The tigers in the panel that she made

Will go on prancing, proud and unafraid.”

a) What is Aunt Jennifer’s death symbolic of?

Aunt Jennifer’s death is symbolic of her complete submission to her suppression.

b) Explain: “terrified hands”.

Aunt Jennifer is terrified by her dominating husband and hence her hands are shivering.

c) What does ‘ringed with ordeals’ imply?

Aunt Jennifer has been so victimized in her life that even after death she remains trapped in the struggles of the spirit. Though we do not know what terrors Aunt Jennifer had to live with relatives did, we find her a victim of gender injustice and oppression.

d) Is the society in any way affected by Aunt Jennifer’s death?

Since the society is male dominated, it shows no concern for Aunt’s suffering, even her death. The loss of her freedom is her individual loss. The society is not affected by it and the state of women still remains the same.

e) Explain: “the tigers in the panel….will go on prancing, proud and unafraid”.

The expression is symbolic of the dispassionate and unconcerned attitude of the male towards the desire for freedom among women. Even after her death, the social milieu remains unaffected, arrogant and ferocious.


1. How do the tigers made by Aunt Jennifer look like?

The tigers, made by Aunt Jennifer on the screen, are jumping and playing about without any fear of the men beneath the tree. They walk in elegance and style displaying the spirit of courage, fearlessness, strength and confidence.

2. What do the tigers made by the Aunt symbolize?

The tigers made by Aunt Jennifer symbolize the spirit of courage, strength and fearlessness Aunt Jennifer, a victim of male oppression, expresses her crushed feelings in the form of art. So, the tigers are symbolic of the fear of male domination with which Aunt Jennifer suffers.

3. Why do you think Aunt Jennifer’s hands are fluttering through her wool? Why is she finding the needle so hard to pull?

Aunt Jennifer is victimized by the overbearing and dominant nature of her husband. Her life has become a torture due to her suppression by her atrocious husband. The fear of her authoritative husband has gone so deep into her being that she seems to have lost all strength and energy. Thus her hands shake and flutter so much that she is not even able to pull the needle through the tapestry.

4. What do you understand by “massive weight of uncle’s wedding band”?

Generally ‘wedding band’ is a symbol of joy and happiness. But in case of Aunt Jennifer, it has become a symbol of torture and oppression. Her relationship with her authoritative husband has become a painful burden to carry. Her ‘wedding band’ has brought her a world of pain, misery and torture. She has lost her freedom and entered a world of humiliation and oppression.

5. Explain ’her terrified hands will lie, still ringed with the ordeals she was mastered by’.

These lines convey Aunt’s complete submission to the oppressive authority of her husband. The fear of her husband has gone so deep into her being that even death cannot liberate her from the chains of her mental suppression. Memories of her husband’s tortures and atrocities which bent her into a humiliating slavery will continue to haunt her even after her death.

6. Explain ‘The tigers in the panel------------proud and unafraid.’

Here the tigers symbolize the unquestioned authority of man enjoyed by him over his woman counterpart. The lines suggest the dispassionate and unconcerned attitude of the male towards the desire for freedom among women. Here, Aunt Jennifer tries to find an escape in her art but ends up portraying an image of her own suppression. While woman can never free herself from the oppressive authority of her male counterpart, the male, on the other hand will go on enjoying his authoritative arrogance and ferocity without any fear of regrets.


THE LAST LESSON by Alphonse Daudet


  • Franz is afraid of going to school as he has not learnt participles.

  • He wants to enjoy beauty of nature. The bright sunshine, the birds chirruping in the woods, Prussian soldiers drilling but resisted.

  • Bulletin board: all bad news, lost battles, the drafts and orders of the commanding officers: wondered what it could be now

  • The changes he noticed in the school.

  • Instead of noisy classrooms everything was as quiet as Sunday morning

  • The teacher does not scold him and told him very kindly to go to his seat

  • The teacher dressed in his Sunday best.

  • Villagers occupying the last benches- To pay tribute to M. Hamel for his 40 yrs of sincere service and also to express their solidarity with France.

  • M. Hamel making the announcement that that would be the last French lesson; realizes that, that was what was put up on the bulletin board.

  • Franz realizes that he does not know his own mother tongue

  • Regretted why he had not taken his lessons seriously.

  • Also realizes the reason why teacher was dressed in his Sunday best and villagers sitting at the back.

  • M. Hamel realizes that all three, he himself, the children and the parents are to be blamed for losing respect and regard for the mother tongue.

  • Always keep the mother tongue close to your heart as it is the key to the prison of slavery.

  • Atmosphere in class: teacher teaching sincerely and patiently, students and others studying with utmost sincerity.

  • Franz wonders sarcastically if Prussians could force pigeons to coo in German.

  • M. Hamel overcome with emotions could not speak and wrote on the black board “Long Live France”.



1. What was the narrator’s greatest fear as he moved towards the school?

Franz had started late for school and thus was afraid of being scolded . His fear gripped him further for he was also unprepared. He had not learnt his lesson regarding the rules of participles and thus dreaded the teacher’s anger.

2. What was more tempting to Franz rather than going to school?

The weather was pleasant, warm and bright. The chirruping birds were inviting him, the soldiers drilling in the field were also outdoors and Franz was not prepared with participles.

3. What was the news which was put up on the bulletin board?

For the last two years all bad news – the lost battles, the orders of the commanding officer was displayed on the notice board. That day, the news that only German would be taught in school of Alsace and Lorraine was displayed on the notice-board which made the crowd gather there to read the news.

4. What was so unusual about the school on that day?

Usually there would be a great bustle of opening and closing of the desk, lesson repeated loudly and the teacher’s ruler rapping on the table but that day was very calm and quiet like Sunday morning. The back benches which were usually empty were occupied by the village people and M. Hamel wore his special dress and was pacing up and down with a ruler under his arm.

5. Why were the villagers seated on the back benches?

All the village elders were seated on the back benches as a tribute to the teacher who had put in 40 years of sincere service. It was also their way of expressing regret for not learning their mother tongue when they had the chance. They were also expressing their patriotism and solidarity with France

6. Franz didn’t learn French whom did M. Hamel blame?

M. Hamel didn’t blame Franz for not learning but his parents who were not anxious to have him learn. Instead they wanted him to work on a farm or at the mill to earn money.

Even M. Hamel was also to be blamed for sending him to water the flowers instead of learning and when he wanted to go fishing he declared holiday.

7. What did M. Hamel say about French language?

He said that it is the most beautiful language in the world- the clearest, the most logical. He requested them to guard it so that they can be united and fight back for their freedom.

8. What happened when the church clock struck 12?

The moment the church clock struck 12 the Prussian army came to take over and M. Hamel stood up, wanted to tell something but his voice was chocked. He gathered his strength and wrote on the black board as large as he could – ‘Vive La France’ and dismissed the school.


1. Justify the title of the story “The Last Lesson”.

Value Points

People always feel there is plenty of time to learn—so also in Alsace—now no time—parents not keen—preferred children , work in farms, mill—Franz looked opportunity to escape school—never serious—receive orders from Berlin—people realize importance of their language—attend the last lesson by M. Hamel.



1. Why did Franz not want to go to school?

2. Why didn’t M. Hamel punish Franz even though he was late?

3. Mention the three changes that Franz noticed in the school?

4. What announcement did M. Hamel make and what was its impact?

5. What do you think was written on the bulletin board?

6. Why did M. Hamel say about knowing one’s language is a key to prison?

7. Whom did Mr. Hamel blame for not learning the French?

8. What changes have taken place in the school in the last forty years?

9. What did he mean by “Viva La France”?


1. Write a note on the character of M. Hamel as a teacher?

2. Do you think the story touches upon the brutalities of war? Comment.

3. What thunderbolt did the narrator receive on reaching the school? How was he affected by it?

4. At the end of the last lesson M. Hamel wrote, ‘Viva La France’ on the board in bold letters. Why do you think he wrote that and how did he expect the people of Alsace –Lorraine to keep their identity intact?




  • The author examines and analyses the impoverished conditions and traditions that condemn children to a life of exploitation these children are denied an education and forced into hardships early in their lives.

  • The writer encounters Saheb - a rag picker whose parents have left behind the life of poverty in Dhaka to earn a living in Delhi.

  • His family like many other families of rag pickers lives in Seemapuri. They do not have other identification other than a ration card.

  • The children do not go to school and they are excited at the prospect of finding a coin or even a ten rupee note for rummaging in the garbage.

  • It is the only way of earning the life they live in impoverished conditions but are resigned to their fate.

  • The writer is pained to see Saheb, a rag picker whose name means the ruler of earth, lose the spark of childhood and roams barefooted with his friends.

  • From morning to noon the author encounters him in a tea stall and is paid Rs. 800 He sadly realizes that he is no longer his own master and this loss of identity weighs heavily on his tender shoulders.

  • The author then tells about another victim, Mukesh who wants to be a motor mechanic.

  • Hailing from Firozabad, the centre of India’s bangle making and glass blowing industry, he has always worked in the glass making industry.

  • His family like the others there do not know that it is illegal for children to work in such close proximity to furnaces, in such high temperatures.

  • They are exposed to various health hazards like losing their eyesight as they work in abysmal conditions, in dark and dingy cells.

  • Mukesh’s father is blind as were his father and grandfather before him.

  • They lead a hand to mouth existence as they are caught in the vicious web of the money lenders, middlemen, police and the traditions

  • So burdened are the bangle makers of Firozabad that they have lost their ability to dream unlike Mukesh who dreams of driving a car.



  1. What does Saheb do for living? Why?

Saheb is a rag picker. His family has left the life of poverty behind in Dhaka in to pursue their dream of finding a better life. The children like him have no access to Education and are forced into rag picking

  1. “Saheb is no longer his own master”, says the writer. What does she mean?

The writer means that having accepted the job with the tea-stall, Saheb has lost the independence that he enjoyed as a rag picker, even though he was poor. Although he will now be able to supplement the family income, it will be at the cost of his freedom, which is difficult, binding and unfair for someone so young.

  1. Why did people migrate from the village in Dhaka to Delhi ?

Better education, job opportunities and living conditions.

  1. What trade does the family of Mukesh follow? Why does the writer feel that it will be difficult for Mukesh to break away from this tradition?

Engaged in bangle making-difficult to break away from this trade. He belongs to the caste of bangle makers His family is caught in the web of sohukars, the middlemen, policemen, politicians and bureaucrats, from which there is no escape.

  1. What does garbage symbolize for the adults and children?

Adults –means of earning a livelihood.

Children –wrapped in wonder, magical


  1. ‘Lost Spring’, is a sad commentary on the political system of our country that condemns thousands of people to a life of abject poverty. Comment.

Saheb, optimistic and enthusiastic—prospect of finding gold in garbage—likes going to school but no opportunity—freedom and joy of childhood to burdens of job at tea-stall.

Mukesh, born at Firozabad (bangle maker)—works under inhuman condition—dark room, hot furnaces—caught in web of poverty—vicious circle of sahukars, policemen, politicians, bureaucrates and moneylenders—resigned to fate—unaware of child labour act—stifiled initiation and hope—lose eyesight before becoming adults.



  1. Describe Seemapuri.

  2. Where has Saheb come from and why?

  3. Describe the living conditions of bangle makers?

  4. “Promises made to poor children are never kept. “Explain with examples from the lesson.

  5. Mention the hazards of working in the bangle industry.

  6. Do you think Mukesh will realize his dream of becoming a car mechanic?

  7. ‘His dreams loom like a mirage’. Whose dreams are being referred to and why are they compared to a mirage?

  8. ‘Together they have imposed the baggage on the child that he cannot put down.’ Who do ‘they’ refer to? What is the ‘baggage’ and why can the child not get rid of it?

  9. What was Saheb’s full name? How is it ironical?


1. Like all children of his age, Saheb also had many hopes and dreams. Do you think children like Saheb are able to fulfil their dreams?

2. Politicians exploit all people and situations to their own benefit. Comment, keeping in views the situation of refugees in Seemapuri.

3. Saheb wants to blossom and bloom but is nipped in the bud. Elaborate.

4. ‘Saheb and Mukesh are brothers in penury and suffering.’ Discuss.



In this essay William O. Douglas talks about his fear of water and how he finally overcomes it by his courage, determination, handwork, strong will power, perseverance and the desire to learn. If these are practiced we can definitely achieve success in all our endeavors.


  • William O. Douglas had a desire to learn swimming since childhood.

  • At the age of three or four, he was knocked down and buried by a wave at a beach in California.

  • He developed a great aversion to water.

  • At the age of ten or eleven he decided to learn to swim with water wings at the Y.M.C.A pool since it was safe at the shallow end.

  • A misadventure:- while sitting alone and waiting for others to come at the Y.M.C.A pool, a big boy came and threw Douglas into deep end of the pool.

  • Douglas swallowed water and went straight down to the bottom of the pool.

  • While going down he planned to make a big jump upwards but came up slowly.

  • Stark terror seized him.

  • Tried to shout but could not……

  • As he went down the pool second time, he tried to jump upwards but it was a waste of energy.

  • Terror held him deeper and deeper.

  • During the third trial he sucked water instead of air.

  • Light was going out and there was no more panic.

  • So he ceased all efforts and he became unconscious.

  • He crossed to oblivion.

  • When revived he found himself vomiting beside the pool.

  • He was in grip of fear of water and it deprived him of the joys of canoeing, boating swimming and fishing.

  • Hired an instructor to learn swimming.

  • The instructor taught him swimming piece by piece.

  • He went to different lakes to swim and found tiny vestiges of fear still gripped him.

  • He challenged the fear and swam.

  • Swimming up and down the Warm Lake he finally overcame his fear of water.

  • He realized that in death there is peace and there is terror only in fear of death.

  • Will to live is stronger than fear of death.



1. Why was the YMCA pool considered safer when compared to the Yakima River?

Yakima River was very deep, treacherous and there were many cases of drowning but the YMCA pool only two or three feet deep at the shallow end: and while it was nine feet at the deep end. So YMCA pool was considered safer when compared to the Yakima River.

2. When did his aversion to water begin?

His aversion to water began when he was 3 -4 years old when his father took him to California beach. There the waves knocked him down swept over him.

3. What was the misadventure that happened one day?

William Douglas had just learnt swimming. One day, an eighteen year old big bruiser picked him up and tossed him into the nine feet deep end of the YMCA pool. He hit the water surface in a sitting position. He swallowed water and went at once to the bottom. He nearly died in this misadventure.

4. What strategy did he remember as he went down the water?

To hit the bottom and spring/jump upwards, bob to the surface

–like a cork and come out.

5. What effect did the drowning in the YMCA pool have on the Douglas?

-weak and trembling

- haunting fear

- deprived of the joy of canoeing, boating and swimming.

6. What method did he adopt to overcome terror?

- Rigorous training (breathing moving of legs ,etc )

- went to lake Wentworth and swam for two miles.


  1. How did the misadventure in YMCA pool affect Douglas? How did he overcome it?

-was ten or eleven decided-learn-swim

-an older boy pushed –almost drowned

-haunting fear gripped him

-could not enjoy any water sports

-finally decided to hire an instructor

-seven months –instructor –made a swimmer

-released the instructor

-vestiges remained

-swam in Lake Wentworth

-challenged the terror

-swam across Warm lake

-shouted with joy-conquered the fear of water

-there is terror only in the fear of death and peace in death.

- the will to live became stronger.



  1. Why did mother warn Douglas against River Yakima?

  2. What impact did the incident at California beach have on him?

  3. What made him decide that the instructor’s role in teaching him swimming was over?

  4. Why did Douglas go to Lake Wentworth in New Hampshire? How did he make his terror flee?

  5. What larger meaning did the experience have on him?

  6. How did he interpret Roosevelt’s saying?


1. What is the ‘misadventure’ that William Douglas speaks about? What were the series of emotions fears experienced when he was thrown into the pool? What plans did he make to come to the surface?

2. How did the instructor build a swimmer out of Douglas?

3. Why does Douglas as an adult recount a childhood experience of terror and his conquering of it? What larger meaning does he draw from his experience?

4. Comment on the appropriateness of the title.

INDIGO by Louis Fischer


  • Raj Kumar Shukla- A poor sharecropper from Champaran wishing to meet Gandhiji.

  • Raj Kumar Shukla – illiterate but resolute, hence followed Gandhiji to Lucknow, Cawnpore, Ahmedabad, Calcutta, Patna, Muzzafarpur and then Camparan.

  • Servants at Rajendra Prasad’s residence thought Gandhiji to be an untouchable.

  • Gandhiji considered as an untouchable because of simple living style and wearing, due to the company of Raj Kumar Shukla.

  • Decided to go to Muzzafarpur first to get detailed information about Champaran sharecropper.

  • Sent telegram to J B Kriplani & stayed in Prof Malkani’s home –a government servant.

  • Indians afraid of showing sympathy to the supporters of home rule.

  • The news of Gandhiji’s arrival spread –sharecroppers gathered in large number to meet their champion.

  • Gandhiji chided the Muzzafarpur lawyer for taking high fee.

  • Champaran district was divided into estate owned by English people, Indians only tenant farmers.

  • Landlords compelled tenants to plant 15% of their land with indigo and surrender their entire harvest as rent.

  • In the meantime Germany had developed synthetic indigo –British landlords freed the Indian farmers from the 15% arrangement but asked them to pay compensation.

  • Many signed, some resisted engaged lawyers, landlords hired thugs.

  • Gandhiji reached Champaran –visited the secretary of the British landlord association to get the facts but denied as he was an outsider.

  • Gandhiji went to the British Official Commissioner who asked him to leave Tirhut , Gandhiji disobeyed, went to Motihari the capital of Champaran where a vast multitude greeted him, continued his investigations.

  • Visited maltreated villagers, stopped by the police superintendent but disobeyed the order.

  • Motihari black with peasants spontaneous demonstrations, Gandhiji released without bail Civil Disobedience triumphed.

  • Gandhiji agreed to 25% refund by the landowners, it symbolised the surrender of the prestige.

  • Gandhiji worked hard towards social economic reforms, elevated their distress aided by his wife, Mahadev Desai, Narhari Parikh.

  • Gandhiji taught a lesson of self reliance by not seeking help of an English man Mr. Andrews.



1. Who is Rajkumar Shukla? Give a pen sketch of him.

--Rajkumar is a sharecropper from Champaran. He was poor and emaciated.

2. Describe the efforts made by Shukla for bringing Gandhiji to Champaran.

---He is very resolute. He followed Gandhiji to Cawnpore, Ahmedabad, Calcutta, Patna and then to Champaran.

3. What strategy Gandhiji followed in removing the problems of sharecroppers?

----Gandhiji discussed the problems with lawyers. He disregarded British order of eviction. He insisted peasants to removed their fear

4. Why did Gandhiji feel that it was useless for the peasants to go to law courts?

----The peasants are crushed and fear stricken. The lawyers charged high fee.

5. Why did the British landlords free the sharecropper from growing Indigo? What did they want instead?

----The British came to know that synthetic indigo was developed in Germany and the 15% of land was released and in return the peasants were asked to pay compensation for release from the agreement.

6. Why did Gandhiji agree for the 25% refund by the British landlords?

----Gandhiji agreed for 25% refund because the amount was not important but the landlord’s prestige was surrendered.

7. Describe the social economic reforms introduced by Gandhiji in Champaran villages?

------Gandhiji opened primary schools in six villages. He also engaged a doctor.

8. What was the important lesson taught by Gandhiji to his disciples ?

-----Gandhiji taught rules of personal hygiene and cleanliness. He also taught the -Champarans to win freedom independently without any support of British.


1. Why did Gandiji consider freedom from fear more important than legal injustice for the poor peasants of Champaran?

Value Points

British ruthless exploitation—farmers fight through lawyers—battles were inconclusive—terror-stricken—Gandhiji’s declaration—no need of law court –overcome terror—be bold and courageous.



1. What made Gandhiji urge the departure of the British?

2. Give a brief account of the reception that Gandhiji got in MOthihar.

3. What made Mahatma Gandhi declare ‘the battle of Champaran is won’?

4. How did Gandhiji keep a distant watch on the Ashram?


1. Why did Gandhiji’s casual visit to Champaran get extended to over a year?

2. How did civil disobedience triumph?

3. What idea do you form about the Britishers from the chapter “Indigo”?

4. How did the peasants learn courage?

The Rat Trap by Selma Lagerlof


  • The peddler was a vagabond who sold rattraps with a little thievery on the side to make both ends meet. Had no worldly possession to call his own, not even a name.

  • It amused him to think of the world as a rattrap and all the material possessions as bait as the world, he felt was never kind to him. Moreover, he prided himself in the fact that he was out of it.

  • Takes shelter at a crofter’s cottage. The crofter welcomed him, gave him diner, shared his pipe, played mjolis with him also confided in him about his income and showed him where he put it.

  • Next morning, the Peddler steals the money and takes the back roads to keep away from people and gets lost in the jungle at night. While he wanders in the forest he realizes that he has also got caught in the rattrap and that the money was the bait.

  • Finally reaches Ramsjo ironworks, where he takes shelter for the night. The blacksmith and his assistant ignore him but the master mistakes him to be an old acquaintance and invites him home. Though the Peddler does not correct the ironmaster, hoping to get some money out of him, he declines his invitation.

  • The ironmaster then sends his daughter who persuades him to go home with her. She notices his uncouth appearance and thinks that either he has stolen something or he has escaped from jail.

  • The Peddler is scrubbed, bathed, given a haircut, a shave and a suit of old clothes of the ironmaster. In the morning light, the iron master realizes he is mistaken and that he is not the Captain. He wants to call the Sheriff. The peddler is agitated and breaks out that the world is rattrap and he too is sure to be caught in it. The ironmaster is amused but orders him out. The compassionate Edla convinces her father that he should spend the Christmas day with him.

  • The Peddler spends the whole of Christmas Eve eating and sleeping. The next day at church, Edla and her father come to know that the Peddler is a thief who stole thirty kroners from the poor crofter.

  • -Back home, they found a letter addressed to Edla, signed as Captain Von Stahl and a rattrap as a gift from the crofter. In the rattrap were the three ten kroner notes of the crofter.



  1. Why did the Peddler choose to go through the forest?

After stealing the thirty kroners from the crofter, the Peddler knew that he would be caught and put in prison if he continued to walk by the man road. So he chose the back roads that went through the forest.

  1. Why did the Peddler not reveal his true identity when the ironmaster mistakes him to be the Captain?

The Peddler thought that the ironmaster might take pity on him give him some money if he thought he was an old acquaintance. So he keeps quiet and allows the iron master to presume he was the captain.

  1. Why did it please the tramp to compare the world to a rattrap?

The world was not very kind to the tramp and so it gave him great pleasure to think of it as a rattrap.

  1. Why did the tramp sign the letter as Captain Von Stahl?

The tramp, though illiterate and a thief, found himself raised to a captain through Edla’s kindness and compassion. He got a chance to redeem himself and hence he signs the letter as Captain Von Stahl.


1. Both the Crofter and Edla Willmanson were kind and hospitable to the Tramp. But he repays crofters Kindness by stealing his money while Edla is able to transform him to a better human being. Why?

Value Points:

Crofter very hospitable. Welcomes him with a smile - gives him supper and shares his tobacco. Tells him about income-shows him the money - very trusting and friendly.

Stealing a way of life for the tramp-no twinge of conscience while stealing-But later he realizes that he who prided himself in not being caught in the rattrap was caught in it by stealing – feels depressed.

Edla’s kindness and hospitality awakens his conscience-Realises that there is a way out of the trap- Returns the money through Edla- His redemption –gift to Edla.


  1. “The world was a rattrap and the peddler himself became a victim of it”. Elucidate.

  2. The rattrap exemplifies the truth that essential goodness of human can be awakened through understanding and love. Discuss

  3. The story focuses on human loneliness and the need to bond with others. Explain.



  • The lesson explores the theme of adolescent fantasies and hero worship.

  • Sophie and Jansie are both in the last year of high school and both knew that they were destined to work in the biscuit factory as they belong to a working class family.

  • Yet, Sophie, always dreams of big and beautiful things, glamour and glory.

  • Her ambitions are not rooted in reality i.e., have no relation with the harsh realities of life.

  • In contrast is Jansie, Sophie’s friend, a realistic and practical girl.

  • Sophie lives in male-dominated family where her mother was only a shadow. The men were football fans and the conversations around the dinner table were about Danny Casey, their Hero.

  • Sophie wants some attention from her father and brother and telling them that she met Casey, was her way of drawing their attention towards her.

  • But she carries her fantasies too far when she starts to live them.



  1. What does Sophie dream of doing after she passes out of school? Why do you call it a dream, and not a plan?

Sophie dreams of big and beautiful things, glamour and glory. She is not practical in her thinking and has no concrete plans to make her dreams real.

  1. Compare and contrast the characters of Sophie and Jansie. Sophie was a dreamer. She was not ready to accept the fact that she would be working in a biscuit factory after her high school. But the tragedy was that she carries her fantasies too far when she started living in them, whereas her friend Jansie was practical and down-to-earth. She firmly anchored her friend Sophie to reality whenever she spoke of her dreams.

  2. Sophie is a typical adolescent hero-worshipper who carries her fantasizing too far .Comment.

Yes, Sophie is a typical adolescent who worships Danny Casey, the football star. She fantasizes about meeting him and taking his autograph which is quite normal for an adolescent. But she crosses the border of normalcy when she tell her family that she actually met him and that he wants to take her on a date. And then she actually goes to the place and literally waits for him to appear which is abnormal.


  1. Sophie has no touch with reality; Janise’s feet are, however, firmly planted on the ground. Discuss.

Value Points:

Both school going girls and intimate friends – both belong to lower middle class family – but different from each other. Different approach to life - one a romantic, habitual dreamer and an escapist. Sophie dreams of things beyond her reach – Jansie has a practical approach to life - discourages her friend’s wild dreams – gossipy.



  1. “Sophie’s dreams and disappointments are all in her mind “.justify this statement.

  2. Describe Sophie’s meeting with Danny Casey.

  3. What was Sophie’s father’s reaction when Geoff told him about Sophie meeting Casey?

  4. When did Sophie actually see Danny Casey?

  5. Why was Sophie jealous of Geoff’s silence?


  1. Why did Sophie like her brother Geoff more than any other person? From her perspective, what did he symbolize?

  2. Give a brief character sketch of Sophie’s father. What kind of a relationship did they share?

  3. The story “Going Places” draws a beautiful contrast between ‘fact’ and ‘fiction’. Comment.




  • The Maharaja Sir Jilani Jung Jung Bhadur was called “Tiger King”.

  • When he was just 10 days old he asked intelligent questions to the astrologers and was told that he would be killed by a tiger. He uttered “Let tigers beware!”

  • No other miracle took place, the child grew like any other Royal child drinking white cow’s milk, taught by an English tutor, looked after by an English nanny and watched English films.

  • When he was 20, he was crowned as king. It was then the prediction of his death by the tiger reached the Maharaja’s ear and he in turn to safe guard himself killed a tiger and being thrilled he told the astrologer who replied that he can kill 99 tigers but should be careful with the 100th.

  • From then on he started killing tiger and none was allowed to hunt tigers. A high-ranking British officer visited the state that was fond of hunting tiger and his wish was declined.

  • The officer requested for getting a photograph with a tiger killed by Maharaja and this request was rejected.

  • So to please the officer’s wife he sent 50 diamond rings expecting that she would take 1 or 2 instead she kept all the rings costing 3 lakh rupees and sent ‘thanks’ to the Maharaja. But his state was secured.

  • In 10 years he killed 70 tiger and didn’t find any in Pratibandapuram so he decided to marry a girl from royal state which had more tigers to complete his target.

  • Whenever he visited his in-laws he killed 5-6 tigers. So he killed 99 tigers and was feverishly anxious to kill the 100th but couldn’t find.

  • News about the presence of a tiger near a village proved disappointing.

  • Now the Dewan was warned of his danger so he visited ‘People’s Park in Madras’ and brought an old tiger and placed it in the forest and informed the Maharaja.

  • The Maharaja took great care and shot the tiger and left the place with great triumph.

  • The bullet did not hit the tiger but out of fear the tiger had collapsed. Now the staff killed the tiger and brought it in grand procession.

  • It was the 3rd birthday of the Maharaja’s son and he wanted to buy a present from the toyshop. He bought a wooden tiger which was poorly carved.

  • While the Maharaja was playing with the prince a tiny sliver of the wooden tiger pierced his right hand which later on caused his death. Thus the hundredth tiger takes his final revenge upon the “Tiger King”.

Question and Answer:

1. What was the miracle that took place in the royal palace?

When the Maharaja was a 10 day old infant spoke and asked intelligent questions about his death. After knowing that he would be killed by a tiger he uttered saying “Let tigers beware.”

2. How was the Tiger King brought up?

As a child the Tiger King was brought up by an English nanny and tutored in English by an Englishman. He was given the milk of an English cow. Like many other Indian crown princes he watched only English movies.

3. What did the State astrologer say he would do ‘if the hundredth tiger were also killed’?

The State astrologer was so sure of his prediction that he announced that he would cut off his ceremonial tuft, crop his hair short and become an insurance agent in case the king was able to kill the 100th tiger, too. He was sure that the Maharaja’s death would be caused by the 100th tiger.

4. What did the high-ranking British officer wish to do? Was his wish fulfilled?

The high-ranking British officer wanted to kill a tiger. When he was denied the permission for hunting, he sent a word to the king that he would be happy if he was allowed to get photographed with the dead body of a tiger killed by the king. However, his wish remained unfulfilled.

5. How did the Maharaja manage to save his throne?

The Maharaja had annoyed the visiting senior British officer over the issue of tiger-hunting and ‘stood in danger of losing his kingdom itself’. So, the Maharaja and the Dewan decided to placate and pacify the officer through bribe by sending gifts of expensive diamond rings to the ‘duraisani”, the wife of the British officer. Thus he managed to save his throne.

6. How did the ‘duraisani’ behave on receiving the gifts?

Some fifty samples of expensive diamond rings were sent to the duraisani and it was expected that she would select on or two and return the rest. But the lady proved to be greedy as she retained all of them and merely sent a letter of thanks.

7. Why did the Maharaja’s tiger killing mission come to a sudden still?

Within ten years Maharaja’s tiger hunting had resulted in the killing of seventy tigers. However his tiger killing mission came to a sudden standstill because the tiger population became extinct in the forest of Pratibandapuram.

8. Why did the Maharaja suddenly decide to marry? Whom did he wish to marry?

The Maharaja suddenly decided to marry because firstly, he was of marriageable age and secondly, he wanted to kill thirty more tigers in his father-in-law’s state in order to complete the tally of hundred tigers .For this reason he wished to marry a girl in the royal family of a state with a large tiger population.

9. Why did Maharaja order the dewan to double the tax?

The Maharaja called the dewan and ordered him to immediately double the tax of the villagers who had informed him of a tiger in the forest because despite his best efforts he was unable to locate the beast. This infuriated the Maharaja.

10. What did the Maharaja buy as a birthday gift for his son?

The Maharaja wished to give his son a very special gift on his birthday and he bought a wooden toy tiger as a perfect birthday gift for his son.

11. How did the king’s arm become seriously infected?

The king’s arm had got infected from a prick caused by one of the slivers on the wooden tiger. In one day, the infection got flared in the Maharaja’s right hand and in four days it developed into a suppurating sore which spread all over the arm. Though he was operated yet he died.

Long answer type question

1. How did the Tiger King meet his end? What is ironical about his death?

The wooden toy tiger the king had got as a birthday present for his son had been carved by an unskilled carpenter. It had a rough surface with tiny slivers of wood standing up like quills all over it. One of those slivers pierced the Maharaja’s right hand and although the king pulled it, his arm got infected. In four days, it developed into a suppurating sore and spread all over the arm. The king died while being operated upon.

The king’s death is ironical but not surprising for the reader who is, in fact, looking forward to it. Having ‘killed’ the 100th tiger, the king is jubilant for he has fulfilled his vow and disproved the prediction of the royal astrologer. He is now at ease for he thinks he cannot die of a tiger’s attack. No wonder, he orders the ‘dead’ tiger to be taken in a procession through the town and gets a tomb erected over it. All this while he does not know that the 100th victim was not killed by him but by other hunters. That is indeed quite ironical. Death is lurking around him and the king is unaware of it. Again, it is ironical that a king who has killed 100 tigers and is bold and fearless dies of a mere ‘sliver’ on the body of a wooden tiger. Thus, ironically death does come to him from a tiger.

Unsolved Question

1. How did the Maharaja kill the hundredth tiger?

2. The title of the Maharaja reflected grandeur but his death was an anticlimax. Justify.

3. How did the Tiger King meet his end? What is ironical about his death?

4. What idea do you form about the ruling Indian class during the pre-partition days from the king’s encounter with shopkeeper?

5. What idea do you form about the married life of the king?




  • Dr. Sadao, a Japanese surgeon finds a wounded American soldier on the beach near his house.

  • He is unable to throw him back though he was his enemy as he was a doctor and his first duty was to save a life.

  • Hana, his wife, though initially reluctant because it was dangerous for all including the children to keep the enemy in the house, joins her husband in operating and nursing the enemy soldier back to health, even though the servants desert the house.

  • Hana assists Dr. Sadao in operating the soldier in spite of her physical discomfort and hesitation.

  • Though it was war time and all hands were needed at the front, the General did not send Sadao with the troops as he is an expert surgeon and the General needed him.

  • Sadao tells him about the enemy soldier but he does not take any action as he is self-absorbed and forgets his promise that he would send his private assassins to kill the enemy and remove his body.

  • Taking advantage of the general’s self-absorption Sadao decides to save the soldiers life. After the soldier is out of danger Dr. Sadao helps him to escape from his house to safety.



1 Why did the General overlook the matter of the enemy soldier?

The General had an attack and according to Dr. Sadao he could not survive the second attack. So if Dr. Sadao was arrested, no other doctor was capable of performing the operation. So for furthering his selfish needs he overlooked the matter and promises to send his assassins. But he was so self-absorbed, he forgot about it.

2. Why was Dr. Sadao not sent with the troops?

The General thought that Dr. Sadao is indispensable to his life and can save anyone as he is very skilled. He also does not trust anyone except Dr. Sadao. So he was not sent with troops.

3. How was the plan of the prisoner’s escape executed in the story?

The prisoner was successful in his escape only because of the right guidance and help from Dr. Sadao. He provided him his boat, gave his food, made him wear Japanese cloths and also helped him in comfortable sail to a nearby island.

4. Why did the servants leave Dr. Sadao’s house?

They were not in favour of keeping the American prisoner hidden in the house. They also did not want Dr. Sadao to save his life as he was the enemy. Also, if the police come to know of it, all their lives would be in danger. So they left the house.

5. Who was the white man whom Dr. Sadao and Hana found?

The white man was an American soldier as evident from his clothes. They guess that he was a prisoner of war from his cap that said ‘Navy Seals’

6. ‘‘But Sadao searching the spot of black in the twilight sea that night, had his reward’’. What was the reward?

The “reward” was the escape of the enemy. Dr. Sadao searched the spot of black in the twilight sea that night to see if the man was still there but there was no light. Obviously the man had gone. The escape of the prisoner was his reward.

7 What message does “The Enemy” give?

This is a great lesson in humanism. Dr. Sadao by nursing his country’s enemy proves true to his professional ethics.


1. How did Dr. Sadao rise above narrow prejudices of race & country to human being in need?

Suggested Answer / Value Points

Dr. Sadao- a renowned Japanese surgeon- believed in professional loyalty & human kindness- saw an American wounded soldier in a terrible condition on beach in front of his house-took him his house with the help of his wife Hana-successfully removed the bullet-nursed him back to his life-thus rose above racialism.

As a patriot, reported the prisoner’s presence at his house to the Army General. The general decided to have him killed-he grew vestless to see him & finally decided to help him to escape form his house-gave him boats & instructed him how he could safely escape.

2. Do you think the doctor’s final solution to the problem was the best possible one in the circumstances?

Suggested Answer / Value Points

It is the best possible option-general had promised him that he would get the soldier quietly killed through his private assassins-but he forgot to get rid of- Dr. Sadao could do nothing-he wanted to get rid of the wounded soldier-as the servants had left the house-and news could be spread-so he devised his own plan to get the soldier off to the nearby island-managed his boat for the soldier and instructed him. The white soldier took leave of him and followed his instruction and managed to escape safely. Thus all this proves that that was the only way out for Dr. Sadao to the problem.

3. There are moments in life when we have to make hard choice between our role as private individuals and as citizens with a sense of national loyalty. Discuss with reference to the Enemy.

Suggested Answer / Value Points-

Dr. Sadao encounters with the dilemma-to live as private individual whose and moral ethical responsibility is to save the soldier. So as a doctor and as an individual his first job is to save the man-takes ethical responsibility, he risks his life, fame and social status- takes him to his house and makes efforts to save him.

But his other side-sense of patriotism and nationalism also involves a report to police, takes the general in confidence, and plans to get the enemy soldier killed but later on helps the soldier in escaping. Thus Dr. Sadao’s personality is displayed as patriotic citizen.


Gist of the Lesson

  • The chapter captures a very sensitive reaction of a small girl to an important aspect of the story that her father narrates to her.

  • The story reveals the worldview of a little child to a difficult moral question that shows her mental or psychological richness.

  • Jo is a little girl of four years. She is engaged in a story session with her father.

  • Jack, the father used to tell her a story every evening and especially for Saturday naps.

  • Jo feels herself involved with the characters and the happenings.

  • The story always had an animal with a problem. The old owl advises him to visit the wizard who would solve the problem.

  • Skunk’s problem- he smelt bad, visited the wizard who changed it to the smell of roses.

  • Skunk’s mother was unhappy with it and took him back to the wizard. She hit the wizard and asked him to restore the original smell. She wanted her son to keep his identity of a skunk and wanted his friends to accept him for himself. So the wizard changes him back to smell like a skunk.

  • After hearing the story of Roger Skunk Jo was not happy with the ending.

  • She wants her father to change the ending. She wants the wizard to hit the mother back and let Roger be which her father was not ready to do to establish his authority. This raises a difficult moral question whether parents possess the right to impose their will on their children.

  • Her father finds it difficult to answer her question.



1. How did the wizard help Roger Skunk?

The wizard was moved by Roger Skunk’s story. On finding his magic wand - chanted some magic words & granted that Roger should smell like roses.

2. How did Roger Skunk’s Mommy react when he went home smelling of roses?

Roger Skunk began to smell like roses. Mommy asked about the smell - Roger Skunk replied that the wizard had made him smell like that mother did not like that and asked Roger to come with her.

3. How did the Skunk’s mother get him his old smell back?

Mother was furious to learn about the wizard who changed the original smell. She immediately visited the wizard and hit him on his head and asked him to restore the original smell.

4. Who is Jo? How has she changed in the past two years? How did Jo behave in ‘reality phase’?

Jo is Jack’s 4 year old daughter. She was no more a patient listener. She did not take things for granted and tried to see things in her own way.

5. How does Jo want the story to end and why?

Jo understood Roger Skunk’s need to enjoy the company of his friends; therefore wanted that the wizard should take Roger’s side.


1. Why an adult’s perspective of life is different from that of a child’s as given in the story?

Suggested Value points

An adult’s perceptive on life is always different - maturity of a person becomes his barometer to judge right & wrong. For him/her everything that occurs has a message. In the story, Jack at no level accepts Jo’s worldview that wizard should hit Mommy.

On the other hand - a child’s perceptive is limited to his activities - child’s perceptive completely different - they love ‘action’ more than thought - so does Jo in the story - she would delight in hearing the story of Roger Skunk’s Mommy being hit by the wizard.



1. What different queries does the Secretary of the Examinations Board make from the Governor before conducting the examination for Evans and why?

2. Who do you think made a call regarding a correction in the question paper? What did it really want to convey?

3. Who is Carter? What does the Governor want him to go and why?

4. How did the Governor manage to reach Evans in the hotel?


1. What is Jack’s way of telling stories? Why is it appealing?

2. What does Jack want to convey through the story of Roger Skunk?

3. How is Jack’s childhood interwoven in the story of the stinky skunk?

4. How does Jack assert his authority as a father over his daughter?

5. What part of the story did Jack himself enjoy the most? Why?



  • The play depicts beautifully yet grimly the sad world of the physically impaired.

  • It is not the actual pain or inconvenience caused by a physical impairment that trouble a disabled man but the attitude of the people around him.

  • Two physically impaired people, Mr. Lamb with a tin leg and Derry with a burnt face, strike a band of friendship.

  • Derry is described as a young boy shy, withdrawn and defiant.

  • People tell him inspiring stories to console him, no one will ever kiss him except his mother that too on the other side of his face

  • Mentions about a woman telling that only a mother can love such a face.

  • Mr. Lamb revives the almost dead feelings of Derry towards life.

  • He motivates him to think positively about life, changes his mind set about people and things.

  • How a man locked himself as he was scared-a picture fell off the wall and got killed.

  • Everything appears to be the same but is different- Ex. of bees. And weeds

  • The gate of the garden is always open.

  • Derry is inspired and promises to come back.

  • Derry’s mother stops him but he is adamant saying if he does not go now it would be never.

  • When he comes back he sees lamb lying on the ground

  • It is ironical that when he searches a new foothold to live happily, he finds Mr. Lamb dead.

  • In this way the play depicts the heart rendering life of physically disabled people with their loneliness, aloofness and alienation.

  • But at the same time it is almost a true account of the people who don’t let a person live happily.


Q1. Who is Derry? What self-opinion does he hold?

Suggested Answer / Value Points-

Derek, also called Derry was a young boy of 14. He was a quiet, shy and defiant boy. One side of his face was totally burnt by acid. He was a victim of inferiority complex.

Q2. How does Lamb try to remove the baseless fears of Derry?

Suggested Answer / Value Points-

Mr. Lamb influences Derry by his optimistic philosophy. He advised him not to give attention on other’s comments, try to be internally pure and strong and eliminate the negativity of life.

Q3. What did Derry’s mothers think of Mr. Lamb?


Why did Derry’s mother stop him, going to Mr. Lamb?

Suggested Answer / Value Points-

Derry’s mother does not hold a good opinion about Mr. Lamb. She has heard many things about the old man, therefore stops Derry to visit Mr. Lamb.

Q5. Why does Derry go back to Mr. Lamb in the end?

Suggested Answer / Value Points-

Actually Mr. Lamb has taught Derry, the most important lesson of life. He advises him not to care about the comments made by others. He now no longer cares about his burned face or looks. He is more concerned what he thinks and feels what he wants to hear and see. He knows if does not go back, he will never go back. Therefore he returns back.

Q6. Comment on the moral value of the play?

Suggested Answer / Value Points-

The moral of the play is very loud and clear. The physically disabled should focus on the brighter side of life and not to brood over the shortcomings. The society should accept them as they are and expand their social interactions .in this way they can fight out the loneliness, depression and disappointment.

Q7. Mr. Lamb says to Derry; ‘it’s all relative, beauty and the beast’, what essentially does he mean by that?

Suggested Answer / Value Points-

Mr. Lamb tells Derry that it all depends upon people’s individual perceptions. A thing is a beauty for one while that beauty may be a beast for others.

Extra questions for practice

1. What is the attitude of Mr. Lamb to the small boy who comes to the garden?

2.”I’m not afraid. People are afraid of me,” says Derry. What do people think on seeing his face? How do they react then?

3. Why does Lamb’s argument fail to console Derry?

4. What makes Derry think that the old man is always alone and miserable?

What does he tell the old man?

5. What argument does Derry give to convince his mother why he wants to go the old man’s garden?

6. Comment on the ending of the play.


Q1. The actual pain or inconvenience caused by a physical impairment is often much less than the sense of alienation felt by the person with disabilities. What is the kind of behavior that the person expects from others?

Suggested Answer / Value Points-

Actual pain or inconvenience caused by physical impairment is often less than the sense of alienation felt by the person with disabilities

– Physical disabilities

– caused pain once in life time

– But after it this physical disability – set chain for other actions – caused mental agony –

-called Lamely lamb, mothers were afraid of sending the children because of his tin leg.

-Derry -burnt face –everyone pities him-only a mother could love that face

-Both Mr. Lamb and Derry have been the victims of verbal atrocities –

-Mr. Lamb takes comments lightly –

-But Derry does not have the attitude like Mr. Lamb –

-Attitude of the people needs to be changed

-Do not want sympathy but accept them as they are

-Wounds get healed –but bitter comments never forgotten leaves a scar


1. What is the theme of the play? How has it been worked out?

2. Compare and contrast the characters of Mr. Lamb and Derry.

3. What is the bond that unites old Mr. Lamb and Derry the young boy? How does the old man inspire the small boy?

4. Comment on the appropriateness of the title.



  • Evans a kleptomaniac was imprisoned thrice and all the time escaped from the prison. Now he was in the prison for the 4th time and all of a sudden developed curiosity to appear in O-level German Examination which also was an effort to break the prison.

  • The Governor takes utmost care to see that he would not be fooled. Every care was taken to make Evans prepare for the exam.

  • He was tutored by a German tutor for 6 months. The day before the exam the tutor wishes good luck but makes it clear that he had hardly any ‘chance of getting through.’ But Evans gives an ironical twist to the tutor’s observation by saying “I may surprise everybody.”

  • On the day of the exam Jackson and Stephens visited Evans cell and took away everything that may help him injure himself. Evans was insisted to take away the hat but he refused saying that it was lucky charm.

  • Evans cell was bugged so that the Governor could himself listen to each and every conversation in the cell. The invigilator Rev. S. McLeery too was searched and left him to complete the task. Stephen sitting outside the cell every now and then peeped into the cell.

  • The exam went on smoothly. Stephen escorted the invigilator to the main gate and took a look into Evans cell and found the invigilator (actually Evans) wounded, informed the Governor. The latter was to be hospitalized but informed that he was alright and asked them to follow Evans. Thus he escaped the prison.

  • When the invigilator was not found in the hospital they went to the residence of Rev. S. McLeery only to find him ’bound and gagged in his study in Broad Street”. He has been there, since 8.15 a.m. Now everything was clear to the Governor.

  • Evan escaped the prison the 4th time. But by taking the hint from the question paper the Governor reached the hotel where Evans was and captured him and came to know how he planned his escape and said that his game was over. Evans surrenders himself to the Governor.

  • The Governor tells Evan they would meet soon.

  • The moment they are rid of the Governor, the so called prison officer-a friend of Evans-unlocks the handcuffs and asks the driver to move fast and Evans tells him to turn to Newbury. Evans, thus, has the last laugh.



1. What kind of a person was Evans?

Evans was a ‘Kleptomaniac’ and had broken jail thrice. He was a master planner and was very sociable. He knew how to keep intimate contacts with people. In the words of the Governor, he was a pleasant sort of chap with no record of violence.

2. Do you think Evans’ statement, ‘I may surprise everybody,” has some special significance?

Evans seems to be telling his teacher that he may surprise everybody by doing well in the exam, but in reality it is a forewarning that he is going to jolt everybody by his master-minded perfect escape-plan.

3. Who were the two visitors Evans received in the morning of the day of his exam?

The two visitors --Mr. Jackson, the senior prison officer of the prison’s D Wing-- man called Stephens, who had been only recently recruited.

4. What made Evans clip his hair short?

Evans’ escape prison-- duplicate McLeery (invigilate during the O-level German exam) had short hair. In order to give a practical shape to their plan Evans’ hair had to look like McLeery’s, hence Evans clipped them short.

5. Why did the Governor instruct Jackson to search McLeery?

The Governor asked Jackson to search McLeery, the invigilator, just in case he has brought something unwittingly which might prove to be a weapon that Evans could use and try escaping from prison.

6 .Why did Evans drape a blanket round his shoulder? What did Stephens think about it?

In between intervals of Stephens’ peeping into the cell, Evans was changing into the Parson’s dress to look like McLeery. So, in order to conceal his effort to keep them in place, Evans draped a blanket round his shoulder. Stephens was misled into believing that Evans was feeling cold.

7. In spite of strict vigilance, how did Evans’ friend manage to give the material for disguise in the cell?

Despite all vigilance, Evans’ friend disguised as McLeery, the invigilator, managed to smuggle the disguised material into the cell. He came wearing two parson’s dresses with black fronts and collars. Apart from it he also brought an extra pair of spectacles. All this was passed on to Evans when Stephens’ vigilant eyes were away from the peep-hole.


1. What were the precautions taken for the smooth conduct of the examination?

Since Evans had already escaped from the jail on three earlier occasions, there was always a lurking fear that he might make another attempt to escape. Therefore all possible precautions were taken to see that the O-level German examination arranged in the prison did not provide him with any means of escape. The Governor personally monitored all security arrangements and heavily guarded the Recreation Block from where he expected the prisoner to make another break. Evans cell was thoroughly checked by Jackson to ward off the possibility of the presence of an incriminating material which might hamper the smooth conduct of the examination. His nail-scissors, nail-file and razor were taken away; and to keep a strict watch on the activities of the cell during the examination, the Governor got it bugged. A police officer Stephens was posted to keep a constant vigil on his activities. The invigilator, too was frisked to make sure that he carried no objectionable material with him.



1. What different queries does the Secretary of the Examinations Board make from the Governor before conducting the examination for Evans and why?

2. Who do you think made a call regarding a correction in the question paper? What did it really want to convey?

3. Who is Carter? What does the Governor want him to go and why?

4. How did the Governor manage to reach Evans in the hotel?


1. What impression do you form of ‘Evans the Break’?

2. Comment on the ending of the play ‘Evan Tries An O-Level.

3. How far do you agree with the observation: “He was just another good-for-a-giggle, gullible governor that was all”?

4. Do you think the title ‘Evans Tries an O-Level’ is appropriate? Give reasons in support of your answer.




  • The first part deals with the account of Simmons, An American Indian, who fought against the prejudices of the society against American Indians.

  • She describes her experiences on her first day at the Carlisle Indian School.

  • The customs and rules of the place were strange and new to her.

  • She was forced to wear clothes that were considered undignified in her culture

  • At breakfast, she was embarrassed as she did not know the routine of the place.

  • When she comes to know that they were planning to cut her hair, she protests by hiding under the bed, even though she knew it was futile. In her culture, it was the cowards whose hair was shingled.

  • She felt like an animal driven by a herder.


  • The second part is an excerpt from the autobiography ‘Karukku’ by Bama – a Tamil Dalit.

  • She was in her third grade when she becomes aware of the indignities that the lower caste people face.

  • She happens to see an elderly person from her community abase himself in front of a higher caste person as he was not supposed to touch the food that he was ordered to fetch for the landlord.

  • Later, her brother explains to her that the incident was not at all funny as she initially thought, but very pathetic. The people from the lower caste were treated as untouchables.

  • She was deeply saddened and decided to study hard to overcome discrimination.

Short Answer Questions with Sample Answers

  1. What were the indignities that the new girls were subjected to at Carlisle Indian School?

The girls were scrutinized thoroughly and supervised by a grey-haired woman. They were made to wear tight fitting immodest clothes and stiff shoes. During breakfast a systematic and regimental discipline was observed. The girls with long hair had to get them shingled and they had to submit to the authorities who were strong, unfeeling and cruel.

  1. On learning that her long hair would be cut the author decided to struggle first. What does this tell us about the author?

The author knows that she could never prevail against the authorities, yet she struggles against the injustice. Her mother had told her that only cowards had their hair shingled and she firmly believed that she was not one. To prove her point as well as raise her voice against the indignity, she struggles.

  1. Why did Bama take half hour to an hour to cover the distance to her home that would normally take only ten minutes?

Bama would dawdle along, watching all the entertaining novelties and oddities in the streets. She would gaze at the shops and the bazaar enjoying the street scenes and so she would take at least an hour to reach home.

  1. What was the incident that made Bama laugh as well as feel so provoked and angry?

Bama saw an elderly man of her street carrying a packet of ‘Vadais’ by the strings and walking gingerly, holding the parcel away from his body. Bama found his manner of carrying the parcel very funny. But her brother explains to her the higher caste people believed that if the lower caste people touched the parcel it would be polluted. That’s why the elder was carrying it in that manner. This provokes and angers Bama.

Long Answer Questions:

  1. Had Bama not been guided properly by her elder brother regarding untouchability, she would have grown up into a complex-torn woman. Do you agree? Justify.

Value points:

Annan an understanding and considerate elder brother – guides her properly – explains the social stigma of untouchability – Elder carrying Vadai not comical but pathetic – victim of social prejudice – Bama angry and provoked – Frustration might have lead to open and futile revolt – Timely advice of Annan guides her in right direction – He believe that people of their community should study and outshine others to earn respect of society. Bama follows his timely advice and grows up to be a balanced and well respected individual of the society.

Short Answer Questions for Practice:

  1. Zitkala-Sa’s friend Judewin tells her that it is better to submit to authority. What kind of a person do you think Judewin was?

  2. Why did Zitkala-Sa start crying in the dining hall?

  3. Why does the author feel ‘Spirit tore itself in struggling for its lost freedom, all was useless