Kendriya vidyalaya sangathan Career Articles

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Dr. Pradeep Nair

Political Communication is the web of human society. The structure of a political communication system with its more or less well defined channels is in a sense the skeleton of the social body which envelops it. The content of political communication is of course the very substance of human intercourse. The flow of political communication determines the direction and pace of dynamic social and political development. One can analyze the social and political process of a country in terms of the structure, content and flow of political communication activities prevailing in that country.

Scope and Areas of Work

     Political communication is the process by which a nation’s leadership, media and citizenry exchange and confer meaning upon messages that relate to the conduct of public policy. The distinguishing characteristic of political communication is that messages are concerned broadly with governance, or the conduct of public policy. It is commonly believed that political communication is concerned only with elections, but this is not so. Politics broadly defined, concerns the process by which society reaches consensus on policy issues. Thus political communication occurs when citizens, media and leaders ‘dialogue’ about issues of broad concern to elites or the public.

     Political communication is a multidisciplinary field of scholarly study. It has scope for the graduates from the fields of Communication, Political Science, Psychology, Sociology, Management and Philosophy.

     Students of political communication generally learn about the role of communication and media in shaping the public understanding of policy and governance issues. They learn media advocacy, the crafting of messages about political developments, and strategies for the promotion of political services.

     Communication is a key tool that political communicators use to understand political environment by focusing on each and every aspect of the political life of a nation.   In political sector communication is used to educate and train people to study and analyze the nature and state of specific structures which widely affect all the process of political communications in the society. In most studies of political development in developing countries, the prime approach was laid in terms of the broader concept of communication functions as an all pervading aspect of political life. The studies are mostly concerned with the understanding of the relationship between media institutions/channels and the patterns of political change basic to the problems of contemporary nation building.

     The scope of political communication is tremendous. It offers an excellent opportunity to communication scholars having a background in social sciences and humanities along with communication to study how governments in transitional societies can best manage the political communication activities and tools to facilitate political modernization.

     There is a peculiarly intimate relationship between the political and communication process. For within the domain of politics, communication has a fundamental function. Few people can observe at first hand the sequence of acts which constitute even a small segment of the political process; men must depend instead upon a communication/media system to provide them with a comprehension of the substance of politics at any particular time. A well planned political communication effort involves people and empowers people to take rational and informed policy decisions through appropriate knowledge, inculcates necessary skills and optimism, facilitates and stimulates pertinent action through changed mindsets and modified behaviours. In a country like India, where major part of the population still live in villages, and constraints like illiteracy and poverty still pose as a barrier to development, we need a number of communication channels to reach these masses that should be aware and be able to promote political developments in the form of good governance at individual and societal level.

Nature of the Job

     Having a Degree or Diploma in Communication/Media Studies along with a broad understanding of Political, Social, Cultural and Psychological system of a particular society/nation can offer you a range of communication activities to work as a link between government and public affairs ensuring that common people can get the best results of good governance.

     The common political communication practices provides you the opportunities to work in areas like profile enhancement programmes, media analysis, production of media materials, organizing and managing political conferences and events, speech and presentation writings and much more.

     All these practices are adopted by political communicators to voice themselves in their field and to play a key role in shaping the political environment to best advantage. Political communicator generally works closely with political workers to ensure that their case hits home with the people who matter most. It is the responsibility of political communicators to make sure that the publics should know the politics, policies, people and process that drive decisions which affects their day-to-day life.

     In advocacy role, political communicators advice political leaders on what to say, how to say, whom to say, and when to say. The practice of political communication also covers political monitoring, policy research and analysis, strategic and procedural advice and reputation management that is to make political leaders learn how to enhance their reputations and to build a strong relation with their community people.

     Political communicators also help in designing and strategizing political campaigning and coalition building. In today’s digital technology era, campaigning to influence political decisions is more demanding than ever before. The media is increasingly powerful in shaping political debate and those involved get their information from more diverse and sophisticated information sources. Therefore, political campaigns need to use a range of traditional and cutting-edge techniques in order to succeed.

     One having a good communication and management skills with a wide conceptual understanding of the correlation between politics and communication, can work with political communication consultancies to develop, organize and run political and policy campaign management plans for their clients.  Political communication consultancies are also developing practical and innovative electronic campaigning services including internet monitoring and rebuttal, running online press offices and viral marketing which further provides you an excellent opportunity to work as a political communicator with the cyber media.

Where to Study and the Eligibility

     Presently many departments of Communication of Indian Universities are offering Political Communication as one of their optional subjects at Post Graduate level. People trained in Journalism and Mass Communication with a degree in Political Science, Sociology, Psychology or Management can be easily recruited to work as a political communicator in diverse areas. The foremost requirement is a good understanding of political dimensions of development through the eyes of communication.

Where to Look for the Job

     Government political organizations, political agencies and departments, academic and research institutions, communication consultancies working in the field of political development, media organizations, non-government organizations working in governance sectors generally advertise their vacancies in newspapers. Websites of these organizations also give you the details of the jobs, eligibility and application procedure. You can work with these agencies as a political communication specialist, journalist, researcher and media consultant.


     The salary in political communication sectors depends on your qualification and experience, your expertise in policy and governance issues and on your communication skills. Having a degree or diploma in Communication Studies along with a good understanding of political development issues can help you to earn 20,000 to 25,000 at entry level positions. A Master’s or Doctoral degree in Communication Studies with a formal education/specialization in Social Sciences/Humanities is recommended for more opportunities.  Reputed Non Government Organizations and Communication Consultancies can offer good remuneration to political communication professionals for their different projects/programmes. International donors and government partners also offers good positions for people having a good understanding of cross-cutting support in policy and governance research. A strong leadership, team development and networking skills may promise you a high position in policy management and governance sector. 

Excelling your Skills

     As a political communicator one should have a good understanding of the effective communication to plan and create initiatives at all levels, from designing simple political messages for print or electronic media or for a website to strategize a complete political communication campaign. Political campaigns require research based communication strategies to design and deliver media messages to the intended audiences. As a political communicator one should have to learn to analyse the most manifest structural problems of attitudes and values in the total process of political change and nation building.

     As a Political Communicator, you need to have a deep conceptual understanding of macro analysis of objective social and economic problems and micro analysis of subjective psychological problems of a society to understand how a complete process of political modernization takes place in a country.  As a political communication expert you should know how political consensus has a relation to the deeply held attitudes and sentiments of individuals which are generally framed through their media exposures. A multiple approach to relate the development of political institutions with the organization of political articulation, expression of interests, formation of collective opinions and values to political consensus can help you to establish yourself as a political communication strategist.

(Dr. Pradeep Nair is presently working as a Research Scientist at Anwar Jamal Kidwai– Mass Communication Research Centre (MCRC), Jamia Millia Islamia (A Central University), Jamia Nagar, New Delhi – 110025  e-mail Id:,




V.K. Bharti

Print communication is one of the strongest and powerful media of mass communication which is growing very rapidly. Books, newspapers and magazines come to mind most often when people think about printed products. Everyone is familiar with such products. Print is power. According to famous saying “Book lives longer than author himself” and “Book is an indispensable document in its own field” also establishes the importance of print.

     The printed material either book, magazine or newspaper has a strong impact on society and plays a key role in nation building. We find the existence of print in every sphere of our life and it plays crucial role in educating the people and to provide them clear picture of what is going on in and around the world. The invention of movable type and printing press by Johannes Gutenberg has actually revolutionized print media. Gutenberg printed the first book on a printing press with movable type in 1453. This invention transformed the way the world received printed material.

     Printing is a part of the mass communication process. It involves several skills. Printing industry is an industry in which technical skills holds the prime importance. Each person engaged in performing typesetting, designing, pasting, plate making, image setting, camera work, printing and binding has a specific and specialized role to perform and contribute for the final output.

Career in Print Media      

     Print Media is one of the most flourishing sectors of the country. The young generation of today is seen choosing a career in print media as working in this sector gives promising opportunities to stride ahead very fast. But jobs in the print media also demand lot of hard work and patience. There is a huge opening for qualified printing professionals in India. Jobs for printing technologist are available in advertising agencies, newspapers/magazines, government presses, machine manufacturers, packaging industries, book printers and even more in private commercial press as technology consultant.

Opportunities are available in the area of:

  1. Publishing houses under central and State Govt.

  2. Printing Presses under Central and State govt.

  3. Commercial printing presses doing Offset, Flexography, Gravure and Screen printing

  4. Publishing houses in private sector

  5. Pre-press solution for printing Industry

  6. Designing and digital printing

  7. Security printing

  8. Software solution for print industry

  9. Electronic publishing

  10. Color management solution

  11. Packaging

  12. Print finishing and converting

  13. Machine manufacturing /service

  14. Marketing/management executive

  15. Research and development

  16. Total quality control

     The printing industry is the fast growing industry in India. There are thousands of quality printing houses in major metros in India. In addition to that, some govt. departments, engaged in publishing activities are Indian Council of Agricultural Research, Indian Council of Historical Research, Indian Council of Medical Research, Indian Council of Philosophical Research, Indira Gandhi National Open University, National Institute of Open Schooling, Lalit Kala Academi, National Book Trust, National Council of Educational Research and Training, National Institute of Science Communication & Information Resources, Publication Division, Sahitaya Akademi, Zoological Survey of India, Bureau of Indian Standard, Survey of India, All Universities, All State Textbook Corporations, Security Printing and Minting Corporation of India Ltd., Govt of India Presses, State Council of Educational Research and Training, Joint Cipher Bureau, Parliament of India, Offices of Registrar General of India, National Museaum, Directorate of Printing and Stationery etc.

     A Career in printing gives an opportunity to work on various positions like General Manager, Registrar, Director, Professor, Reader, Lecturer, Consultants, Head, Chief Production Officer, Production Officer, Asstt. Director (Production), Technical Officer, Printing Officer, Manager Printing, Supervisor, Publication Officer. Apart from these positions, there are many more positions.

     This sector has immense employment opportunities. A printing technologist can get job in newspapers, magazines and advertising agencies, government departments, banks and private publication houses. He can be in the marketing and sales department of companies, which supply raw materials for printing and photographic films.  Another option is teaching where jobs exist in schools, college and polytechnics offering vocational, diploma, degree and master degree courses. A print technologist in the production department of a newspaper or a magazine starts his career as Production supervisor and can go up to the level of General Manager.

     Students after successful completion of printing technology courses can get job in printing companies and media houses across countries.  Generally, the students are recruited through campus interviews by the major advertising agencies, newspapers/magazines, machine manufacturers, packaging industries. All leading publishers recruit students through campus interview. Some students get job in multi-national firm also. Reputed software companies also recruit printing technologists in various capacities. This is the only field where the demand is always more.

     The printing technology courses are offered in India at four levels i.e. diploma, degree, Masters degree and Ph.D. which are offered at university, institutes and polytechnic level. The eligibility for admission in Printing Technology Courses are given as under:



Admission Criteria




Diploma in Printing Technology

10th Pass with Mathematics and Technology Science


3 Years


B.Tech/B.E. in Printing Technology

12th Pass with Physics, mathematics as compulsory subject along with Chemistry, Computer Sc./Bio-tech./ biology subject and admission on the basis of merit of AIEEE or State level engineering competitive exam. OR diploma holders can get admission in 2nd year directly through LEET.


4 Year


M.Tech/M.E. in Printing Technology

55% marks in B.Tech/B.E in Ptg. Tech./Packaging Tech. and with valid GATE score or on the basis of merit of test conducted by the university


2 Year


Ph.D. in Printing Technology

As per ordinance of the universities


2-4 years

     Apart from the above, the Industrial Training Institutes (ITI’s) are offering certificate courses in the area of plate making, offset machine operation, screen printing, camera operation, desk top publishing and book binding. These courses are designed in a way that the students acquire adequate knowledge of theoretical and practical aspects to get job at shop floor level in the industry.

     Printing Technology Courses in India became popular towards the later half of the 20th century. With the advent of print media on a universal scale and innovations in printing technologies, this field of study has gained immense popularity among learners. Printing as a subject is huge and involves studying of different analogue and digital technologies.

     During their studies, students learn the detailed aspects of printing processes, printing material, pre-press technologies, binding and finishing techniques, business management, entrepreneurship development, cost estimation etc. The Bachelors and Masters programmes are of multi-disciplinary nature, covering subjects like; Mechanical, Information Technology, Electrical, Electronics, Computers, Chemical, Total Quality Management, Operation Management, Organization Behaviour, Project Management, Technology Management, Security Printing in addition to Physics and Chemistry.  Printing studies involve not only processes and technologies but also gives thorough knowledge about ink, paper and other consumables.

     Printing jobs extend over a number of sectors. Apart from offset printing, there are large number of printing houses engaged in screen printing, flexography and gravure printing. Qualified printing professionals are also given placements in printer manufacturing houses and consumable producing companies. Inks, toners, and print cartridges are some of the consumables extensively used in different printing processes.

     Categories of personnel with Diploma/Degree in Printing Technology are employed in various positions as given below. After getting initial orientation training to suit the specific needs of the employer, they will be able to fulfill the employer’s requirements.

-    Supervisory personnel at the middle-management level for shop floor supervision of large presses.

-    Works Managers, Production Manager and production executives for the modernized commercial presses, newspaper presses, Government presses, publishers and specialist printers.
-    Engineers for printing machinery manufacturer and printing materials manufacturer, both in the design office and factory shop-floor.
-    Maintenance engineers for implant maintenance in large printing establishments.
-    Sales/maintenance engineers for printing machinery manufacturers, and sales/marketing executives for modernized printing presses.
-    Faculty positions in diploma and Degree level printing institute’s courses in Printing Technology.
-    Production executives/managers, Co-coordinator in advertising agencies.
     The annual growth rate and the demand for degree holders for the next two decades is very promising.


     The job offers good remuneration in the production department of newspapers, publishing house, packaging, pre-press work, digital designing etc. A student with a diploma in Printing Technology may get a monthly salary of Rs. 15000-16000 per month in the beginning.  Similarly, a degree holder in Printing Technology may get a monthly salary of Rs. 20000-22000 per month in the beginning which is considered a good start.

     The colleges and institutions in India offer diploma, degree, master degree and PhD programmes in printing technology. The leading institutes in India conducting courses in printing technology are:

Institute offering Ph.D in Printing Technology

  1. Anna University, College of Engineering Guindy, Chennai-600025.

Institutes offering Masters degree in Printing Technology

1   Anna University, College of Engineering Guindy, Chennai-600025.

2   Guru Jambeshwar University of Science and Technology Hisar-125001, Haryana.
3   Jadavpur University, Faculty Of Engineering and Technology, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal.
4   Pune Vidyarthi Griha’s (PVG’s) College of Engineering and Technology, 44, Vidyanagari, Shivdarshan Parvati, Pune-411009, Maharashtra.

Universities offering degree in Printing Technology

1   Anna University, College of Engineering, Guindy, Chennai-600025

2   BMS College of Engineering, P.O. Box No. : 1908, Bull Temple Road, Basavanagudi, Bangalore - 560019.
3   Jadavpur University, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Raja S.C. Mullick Road, Kolkata-700032, West Bengal.
4   Guru Jambeshwar University of Science and Technology Hisar-125 001, Haryana.
5   Institute of Engineering and Technology, Calicut University Campus, Tenhipalam, Malapuram, Kerala.
6   JNTU College of Engineering, Kukatpally, Hyderabad-500872, Andhra Pradesh.
7   Pune Vidyarthi Griha’s (PVG’s) College of Engineering and Technology, 44, Vidyanagari, Shivdarshan Parvati, Pune-411009, Maharashtra.
8   Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra, Haryana.
9   Somany Institute of Technology And Management Rewari, Haryana.

Universities offering Diploma Printing Technology

1   NR Institute of Printing Technology, Teliar Ganj, Allahabad - 4, (UP).

2   Southern Regional Institute of Printing Technology, Adyar, Chennai - 600 113 (TN).
3   Western Regional Institute of Printing Technology, JJ School of Arts Campus, Opp VT Station Mumbai, Maharashtra.
4   Maharashtra Institute of Printing Technology, 1786, Sadashiv Peth, Pune, (Maharashtra).
5   Department of Printing Technology, Pusa Polytechnic, Pusa, New Delhi - 110 002.
6   Department of Printing Technology, Government Kalaniketan, Jabalpur (MP).
7   Department of Printing Technology, Govt Polytechnic, Gulzar Bagh, Patna -7, Bihar Department of Printing Technology, Govt. Polytechnic, Gandhi Nagar, Ahmedabad, Gujarat.
8   Department of Printing Technology, Institute of Printing Technology, Shoranur, Kerala.
9   Government Institute of Printing Technology, East Nehru Nagar, Secunderabad - 500 026 (U.P).
10 Institute of Printing Technology, Sivakasi - 626 123 (Tamil Nadu)
11 Times Institute of Printing Management Times of India Press, Opp. VT Station, Mumbai, Maharashtra.
12 Don Bosco School of Printing, Okhla Road, New Delhi - 110 025.
13 Government Institute of Printing Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka.
14 Salesian Institute of Graphic Arts, 22 A, Taylors Road, Chennai - 600 010, (TN).
15 Graphic Arts Technology & Education, 12 Shree Mills, Mumbai-Agra Road, Kurla, Mumbai - 400 070, Maharashtra.
16 Institute of Printing Technology, 87, Kamaraj Road, Sivakasi - 626 123 (TN).
17 Institute of Printing Technology, Chennai, (TN).
18 Institute of Printing Technology, Hyderabad, (AP).
19 School of Printing Technology, Bangalore, Karnataka.
20 Government Polytechnic College, Department of Printing Tech, Makhupura, Ajmer, Rajasthan.
21 The Regional Institute of Printing Technology, Jadavpur, Kolkata, West Bengal.

(The author is a Chief Production Officer in the Directorate of Knowledge Management in Agriculture, Indian council of Agricultural Research, Krishi Anusandhan Bhavan, Pusa, New Delhi-110012, e-mail:


Dr. Pradeep Nair

Advertising and publicity are the means of informing as well as influencing the general public to buy products or services through visual or oral messages. A product or service is advertised to create awareness in the minds of potential buyers. Some of the commonly used media for advertising and publicity are T.V., radio, websites, newspapers, magazines, bill-boards, hoardings etc. As a result of economic liberalization and the changing social trends advertising and publicity industry has shown rapid growth in the last decade.

     Advertising and publicity is one of the aspects of mass communication. Advertising and publicity is actually brand-building exercises through effective communication and is essentially a service industry. It helps to create demand, promote marketing system and boost economic growth. Thus advertising and publicity forms the basis of marketing. 

     Advertising and publicity plays a significant role in today’s highly competitive world. A career in dvertisement/publicity is quite glamorous and at the same time challenging with more and more agencies opening up every day. Whether its brands, companies, personalities or even voluntary or religious organizations, all of them use some form of advertising or publicity in order to be able to communicate with the target audience. The salary structure in advertising and publicity sector is quite high and if you have the knack for it one can reach the top. It is an ideal profession for a creative individual who can handle work-pressure.

The Scope

According to the Job Statistics, over 2,50,000 people are presently working in the advertising and publicity industry. This number is expected to grow due to two important trends. First is the mega merger among advertising/publicity agencies. This trend has been fueled by agencies’ desire to increase market share by offering more services such as sophisticated market research, media buying, and in-house production facilities to the clients. The second trend has been spurred by an increase in international businesses and global marketing. Advertising and publicity agencies are moving quickly to set-up international subsidiaries to assist clients who have gone global.

     So, today, the advertising and publicity industry has a more stable environment but a highly competitive market. The job projections for the year 2011-2012 suggest a growth of over 30% for marketing research analysts, advertising managers, and visual artists. Nevertheless, employers will continue to be highly selective. The most motivated, energetic, well-organized candidates with top-notch analytic and communication skills will land the best jobs.

Where to Study and the Eligibility

     Most advertising and publicity agencies recruit candidates with a formal management or advertising/mass communication qualification. Preference is given for MBA’s for posts in the market research, client servicing and media planning departments. In the creative department, on the other hand, a graduate with a command of the language of communication plus knowledge of designing packages like Photoshop, coral draw or fine arts is the requirement.

     There are also specialized courses in advertising/mass communication at diploma and post-graduation level for which the basic qualification is graduation. However, advertising is also offered as a subject for the graduate degree course in mass communication studies at certain institutions for which minimum qualification is 10+2. In addition there are also certificate courses for which 10+2 is enough.

     Basic qualities like creativity and flair for writing or ability to translate ideas into a visual format are required for making a successful career in this field. The aspirant should have an insight into the interests of people from all walks of life, ability to work as part of team, mental and physical toughness to be able to withstand high pressure and criticism, must be sociable and have calm temperament. Market and media researchers should have an analytical and logical brain. Those in creative field should possess artistic abilities to make the advertisements appealing to the masses.

     The list* of Indian Universities/Media institutes offering a Post-Graduate degree/diploma course in Advertising are as follows:

S. No.

Name of the University/Institute

Course Offered


Indian Institute of Mass Communication, New Delhi.

P.G. Diploma in Advertising & PR


Makhanlal Chaturvedi National University of Journalism, Bhopal.

M.A. in Advertising and Marketing Management


Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu

P.G. Diploma in Advertising & PR


Madurai Kamraj University, Tamil Nadu

Master of Advertising & PR


Punjabi University, Patiala

P.G. Diploma in Advertising & PR


Mudra Institute of Communication, Ahmedabad

P.G. Diploma in Advertising and Certificate courses in Advertising


Sri Venkateswara University, Tirupati

Master of Science in Advertising


Guru Jambheshwar University, Hisar

M.A. in Advertising


Bharatiya Vidya Bhawan, New Delhi

P.G. Diploma in Advertising


Lucknow University, Lucknow

P.G. Diploma in Advertising & PR




* The above list is indicative only.

Job Prospects & Career Options
     Career opportunities in advertising include openings in advertising and publicity agencies; advertising department in private or public sector companies; in advertising sections of newspapers, journals, magazines; commercial section of radio and television; market research organizations etc. One can also do freelancing.

     Advertising field offers a range of lucrative, interesting careers. The job in this field is categorized into two broad areas,Executive and Creative. Executive side includes Client Servicing, Market Research and Media Research. Creative side consists of copywriters, scriptwriters, visualizers, photographers and typographers.

  1. Executive Department

     The Executive Department understands client needs, finds new business and retains existing business, selects the appropriate media, analyses timing and placement of advertisements and negotiate the financial aspects of the deal. Creative department creates the advertisement copy. They verbalize and visualize the specific need of the client.

  1. Client Servicing

     The Client Servicing department is the link between the client and the agency. It is an important part of any advertising firm like what the heart is to the body. This department is responsible for meeting prospective clients and getting business for the company. It involves a study of the client, the product and the market; an analysis of consumer behaviour and marketing; knowledge of all available media and their cost effectiveness, and a strategic plan to be presented to the client. Those in client servicing must therefore interact with clients, gather information, oversee research where necessary, gauge consumer attitudes and on the basis of all these informations work with the various departments of the advertising agency to formulate the most appropriate and effective advertising strategy within the specified budget.

     To be an effective client-servicing person, the candidate has to have a thorough knowledge of the client’s business and also know his weak points so that, through advertising and communications, the gaps could be minimized.

     An Accounts Executive who works in the client servicing department takes care of all the monitory dealings. He/she should know the most effective way to advertise client’s product or service i.e. the media and their cost effectiveness. Account executives should also have an idea about market research and target audiences.

  1. Market Research

     Every good advertising plan, start with research. This is the department which surveys the market, analyses consumer behaviour about a product or service. The research people in an advertising agency are involved with collection of data- information about the consumer, the market, and existing competition and so on. The research studies provide basic information to the manufacturer, for planning a new product.

     If you are a graduate in Business Management or hold a degree in Statistics/Operations Research, you can go for market researching jobs in advertising and publicity industry.

C. Media Planning & Buying

     Responsibility of media planning department in an advertising and publicity agency starts at the point when the advertisement is complete. Media Department is responsible for the planning, scheduling, booking and purchase of space and time (in newspapers, magazines, radio and TV, and outdoor hoardings). The media department must therefore devise the most effective use for an advertising budget to effectively and economically transmit a campaign message to the target audience. This department consists of the following:

     i.   Media Planners: The people who decide the different media where the advertisements would be featured in order to get maximum viewership.
     ii. Media Buyer: The people who have to negotiate to buy space in the Press, or time on electronic media at the best rates for which he/she has to understand the buying as well as the latest selling trends.

2. Creative Department

     The Creative Department designs and conceptualizes the advertisement. This consists of copywriting department and art department. Copywriting department works on text for the ad and themes for campaign. Art department visualizes the campaign.

A.    Copywriters
     The Copywriter evolves a theme for the campaign and provides the text for the advertisements. He/she is responsible for making the advertisements look attractive and delivering the message to the point. Copywriters work out the campaign slogan, jingles, scripts and promotional literature of the product or service as well as proposals, concept notes and film treatments. They are also expected to edit all textual matter for factual, syntax and typesetting discrepancies before it goes into the production. In some agencies, specialists called Typographers are appointed for making the format of textual matter, the fonts, lettering etc.

     Copywriters need to have a flair for writing backed up by the knowledge of advertising and oral communication skills, to become successful. They also need to have skill in analyzing clients’ needs, and research skills for finding out about the products and services they are helping to sell. Problem-solving and time-management skills are important.

B.  Visualizers

     The Visualizers work on the visual concepts and decides how the advertisement shall eventually look. They do the overall layout of message including graphics, sketching etc. To be a visualizer, one must be artistic. A degree or diploma in Applied Arts or Fine Arts as well as the knowledge of designing software like Photoshop, Illustrator, Free Hand and Corel Draw etc. are often the required qualifications.

C.  Photographers
     To work in an advertising/publicity agency, the Photographers should have an idea about different shot angles, composition and lighting effects. Good technical ability and knowledge of advance camera techniques and lenses are essential.


     Job positions and earnings in an advertising and publicity agency vary with its size and turnover. Accredited agencies have a large set up while small agencies may have just a handful of employees looking after all the various jobs. The earnings range from Rs. 10,000 to 25,000 at initial level. Advertising people having a good deal of experience and creativity could earn more than any other profession.

The author is Research Scientist in Anwar Jamal Kidwai Mass Communication Research Centre, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi-110025, e-mail:;, 


- Khwaja Abdul Muntaqim

Legal profession is a fast growing profession. In these days of globalization and liberalization, it  is likely to get further momentum as more lawyers would be required to handle cases arising out of  international trade and as a result of growing importance of WTO.At present there are more than 5,00,000 advocates in India and the number is swelling with 15,000 new enrolments every year. Lawyers are held in high esteem in a civil society as they render valuable service to all segments of the society by getting their constitutional and legal rights enforced through courts-civil or criminal, at all levels of judiciary, that is, Trial Court, High Court, Supreme Court or  Quasi- Judicial Institutions. Persons holding law degree or other higher legal qualifications have ample employment opportunities in private as well as public sector .It is their choice whether they opt for service or prefer to practice as a lawyer.

Legal Practitioner / Advocate / Legal Advisor

  Lawyers can work as legal counsel and legal advisors for corporate sector, firms, organizations, legal persons, individuals and families. They can work as trustees of various trusts, as teachers, law reporters, company secretaries and so on.  Additional law qualification along with other degrees offers scope for a wide range of employment opportunities. One who desires to become an advocate and practice law as a profession in India must have obtained basic law degree. He/ she should get himself/herself enrolled  with  State Central Bar Council as per provisions contained in the Advocates Act, 1961. Besides, he/she is also required to qualify in the entry test recently introduced by Bar Council of India failing which no one shall be enrolled as an advocate. An application for admission as an advocate shall be made in the prescribed form to the State Bar Council within whose jurisdiction the applicant proposes to practice.

Government Service

      Persons possessing requisite qualifications are recruited for Indian legal service against various posts– Legal advisors in Department of Legal Affairs and Legislative Counsel in Legislative Department. These officers can reach the level of Secretary to the Government of India with the passage of time according to their suitability.Likewise,  Legislative Counsels are also appointed in official languages Wing of the Legislative Department for Hindi and Regional languages-(Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, Kannada ,Telugu, Malayalam, Marathi, Oriya, Punjabi, Tamil, Telugu and Urdu). At the state  level, too, officers with legal qualifications and professional qualifications are also appointed against similar posts. However, designations may vary from state to state. Besides, Law officers/ Legal advisors are appointed in almost all the ministries/departments/ undetakings of the Govt. of India and State Governments. All these posts are generally filled up by recruitment through UPSC and State Public Service Commissions on regular/ deputation basis. Basic qualification for all these posts is a degree in law, besides a degree in Arts/Science/Commerce etc. and professional experience as per the requirements of each post. In addition to that members of Law Commission, Govt. Advocates, public prosecutors, solicitors, Attorney General, Advocate general, Notaries and Oath Commissioners as also legal secretaries  in assemblies ,staff in higher/lower judiciary/Quasi-Judicial institutions, Judicial members in CAT, Income tax, Sales tax, Excise and other tribunals are also appointed as per rules as and when the vacancies occur. However, fresh Law Graduates are appointed against non-gazetted posts generally equivalent to the post of Assistant in the Secretariat, such as Legal Assistants, Legal/Judicial Translators etc.

      They are also recruited as commissioned officers in the legal branches of the Indian Army, Navy and Air force. They conduct courts of enquiry and court martial of erring service personnel as per law.


      In the Judiciary, the lowest judicial cadre posts of Magistrate/Munsif or Sub-Judge are filled up by recruitment through public service commissions or otherwise under the supervision of the High Court. Basic qualification for all these posts is  a degree in law(professional) , besides a degree in Arts / Science / Commerce etc. and the age limit  for all these posts is generally 35 years which is relaxable for special categories as per rules. A Magistrate presides over criminal court and a Munsif/Sub-judge deals with civil cases. These officers can become  District and Sessions  Judge  by promotion and can also be elevated to the office of a Judge of the High Court and the Supreme Court subject to their seniority and suitability. Earlier District and Sessions Judges were promoted from those in service/ selected from  amongst the practicing lawyers but now in most of the states they are being recruited through competitive examination conducted by State commissions / High Courts.


      Those with good academic record, particularly holding LL.M, Ph.D degrees or published work of a high standard, can take up jobs in any University or Institute offering law courses to students. There is wide scope for visiting professors as private universities are coming up in large number and they prefer such persons because of their eminence and acumen.

Writing/Editing Law Books/Journals/Reports

      If one is familiar with the complexities of law and the procedure and is in a position to understand the intricacies of case law and has a flair for writing he/she is fit to be an author of law books / legal commentaries and a proper person to bring out law reports, produce law journals, take up all other journalistic assignments and compile law lexicons.

Legal Outsourcing

      Legal Outsourcing refers to the practice of a law firm obtaining legal services from an outside law firm. This practice is, however, known as offshoring when the outsourced entity is based in another country. According to a report, India has huge potential in legal outsourcing, with the number of jobs in the field increasing to 79,000 by 2015, a study has said. The field of legal outsourcing was largely untapped.At present the number of jobs in legal outsourcing in India stood less than 12,000.The most important challenges to legal outsourcing included concerns about data security, conflict of interest rules, and the need for Indian lawyers to pass US bar examinations.


      As regards remuneration, it depends upon the field a law graduate chooses. If one gets a job in a Govt. department, or in public sector or in a university or in any other organization where govt. rules are applicable he/she will be entitled to get emoluments as per pay scales prescribed by the Government from time to time. After acceptance of recommendations of 6th Pay Commission, Govt. servants are getting handsome salary, say between Rs. 20,000 and one lakh and above depending on the designation and nature of job. Now multinational companies and law firms have also started campus selections and have been offering annual packages between three and four lakhs as per the standing of the company. However, those who start practice of their own have to struggle  in the early stage but their constant efforts may help them in reaching any heights and the sky is the limit. Besides, law reporters, legal journalists, authors, writers and editors associated with reputed publications as also free-lancers have good earning.   

Course Details

       One can either pursue a three-year law  course (LLB) after graduation in any discipline or a five-year course after twelfth standard examinations, leading to a B.A.;LLB (Hons) degree . Admission to LLB is generally based on percentage of marks scored at graduation level.  However, some Universities/ Institutions  like National Law Schools conduct entrance tests, too.  The B.A. LL.B programme usually covers practical training including court attendance, participation in mock court proceedings, seminars, symposiums, conferences on legal subjects / hands on training at legal aid centres and research projects. In addition to LLB degree, many universities and institutes also offer other diploma courses in several disciplines of law. P.G. Programme in law (LL.M) is of 2 years duration & eligibility is LLB degree. After completing LL.M Course, one can join Ph.D. LL.D degrees are also conferred on eminent scholars.

 Fields of Specialisation

  • Civil/Criminal Law

  • Constitutional Law

  • Administrative Law

  • Human Rights Law

  • Family Law

  • Taxation

  • Corporate Law

  • Business Law

  • International Law

  • Labour Law

  • Real Estate Law

  • Intellectual property /Patent Law

List of Central Universities/ Premier Institutions imparting legal education upto Postgraduate/Research level

1.   Aligarh Muslim University 

2.   Allahabad University
3.   Banaras Hindu University 
4.   University of Delhi  
5.   Jamia Millia Islamia
6.   National Law University, Delhi
7.   National Law School of India University, Bangalore
8.   National University of Advanced Legal Studies, Kochi
9.   National Law University, Orissa, Cuttack
10. National Law Institute University, Bhopal
11. National University of Juridical Sciences, Kolkata
12. Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia National Law University, Lucknow
13. National Law University, Jodhpur
14. Hidyatullah National Law University, Raipur
15. National University for Study and Research in Law, Ranchi
16. Chanakya National Law University, Patna
17. Gujarat National Law University, Gandhinagar
18. Nalsar University of Law, Hyderabad
19. Amity Law School & Institute of Advanced Legal Studies, Noida
20. Andhra Pradesh University of Law, Visakhapatnam
21. Dr.Ambedkar Law University, Chennai 
The above list is indicative only.

Some other State/Private Universities/Autonomous Institutions are also imparting legal education .

(The author is a Visiting Professor in Amity University Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and former Additional Legislative Counsel to the Govt. of India, Ministry of Law and Justice, having written several books on human rights issues).


Rahul Kumar Shukla

Communication, of late, has become an important area of studies. In the 21st century contemporary society is increasingly getting diverse and communication is getting more complex. It is because the world is in the making of a “global village”, predicted years ago. Today, it is not at all surprising to find a French buying Indian saris or German buying books on Indian Philosophy in a local market. Even Indian students, scholars, IT professionals and business wizards commute all across the world for their respective personal and professional needs. This has posed a great challenge for the researchers and educators as how to communicate effectively both in India and overseas. These educators and researchers are focusing their work and courses on the challenges of communicating in a diverse and often computer mediated society. Many scholars are also stressing on the role of communication in a civil and democratic society. 


            Communication is a skill, which involves systematic and continuous process of speaking, listening and understanding. Most people are born with the physical ability to talk, but we must learn to speak well and communicate effectively. Speaking, listening, and our ability to understand verbal and nonverbal cues are the skills we develop in various ways. We learn basic communication skills by observing other people and modeling our behaviours on what we see and perceive. We are also taught some communication skills directly through education. By bringing those skills into practice and getting them evaluated, we can hone them further.

            Contemporary students of communication draw on theories and practices common in the fields of anthropology, psychology, sociology, linguistics, semiotics, and rhetoric. Communication as a discipline now includes interpersonal communication; small-group communication; organisational communication; intercultural and international communication; public, mass, and media communication. The study of communication, therefore, considers how people communicate as individuals, in society and across cultures.

The Importance of Communication

    Today the success of any venture, whether taken individually or as an organization, hinges on the ability of communicating  effectively and clearly. Using the right tools to communicate the right message at the right time can salvage a crisis and motivate people to work towards success.

    It is important both to the individual and to modern organizations in the following ways:

Helping Individual

Effective communication skills can make a huge difference between being hired and fired. A well-organized job letter with a perfectly structured résumé followed by a convincing interview can get a good job for the recipient. Additionally, good communication skills advance the person socially, build self-confidence and enable him to help and lead others. It, sometimes, helps more than the core competence of a person to get a job.

Helping the Organization

    A good leader is the one who knows the art of conveying his message to the people and bringing them at consensus with logical arguments. This trait can only be developed when a leader has good communicative skills. By improving on the communicative skills, a leader can not only help himself but also the entire organization. The ability to receive, evaluate, use and pass on information gathered from within and outside the organization affects the effectiveness of an organization. A manager who relies on such abilities can make necessary and suitable decisions for the  growth and development of the organization.

The Basic forms of Communication:

    There are two major forms in which communication is categorized. They are:

The Nonverbal Communication

    The most basic form of communication is nonverbal communication which includes all the cues, gestures, vocal qualities, spatial relationships, attitude towards time and everything else that allow us to communicate without words. The non-verbal cues are used to express superiority, dependence, likes, dislikes, happiness, anger, frustration, confidence, respect, love and a host of other feelings and attitude. Paying proper attention to the following cues can make one an effective communicator:

•   Personal Appearance: It makes the first impact on the audience which includes dress, hair style and light makeup.

•   Posture: It refers to the way one stands, sits and walks. The movement of the body, the position of the hands and legs and other parts of the body reveal an individual’s personality whether he is vibrant, jittery, nervous, confident or self-assured. A good speaker stands tall. 

•   Walk Gracefully: Move legs freely from the hips, lift your feet from the floor and walk in a straight line. Avoid a stride and tiny steps.

•   Gestures: A well-timed gesture drives the point home. All the verbal communication is accompanied by gestures such as shrugging of the shoulders, flourishing of the hands, movement of the head etc. These gestures enhance the impact and add greater value to what is being said.

•   Facial Expressions: Of all the parts of the body, face is extremely expressive. A smile (friendliness), a frown (discontent), raising the eyebrows (disbelief), or tightening the jaw muscles (antagonism) can add to the meaning conveyed through verbal means.

•   Eye Contact: Eye contact is a means of gaining feedback, enabling the speaker to alter, adjust and reframe his message. A better eye contact leads to communication that is more effective.

•   Space and Distancing: It differs from culture to culture. In formal gatherings, it may be ranging from 4-12 feet.

•   Chronemics: Chronemics is the study of how human beings utilize time while communicating. It is also an important feature of communication. People judge a person based on how much importance he attaches to time. Time reflects one’s sincerity and punctuality.

•   Silence: Many scholars treat silence as a part of non-verbal communication. Here the receiver has to decide what the sender wants to convey through silence based on the context and situation. Understanding the sense of silence can help the participant to know the state of mind of a sender. It could be a great help while communicating across cultures.

Verbal Communication  

    Although we can be expressive through non-verbal cues, yet it has its own limitations. If one has to discuss the past events, ideas or abstractions, one needs symbols that stand for one’s thoughts. Verbal communication consists of words arranged in meaningful patterns. To express thoughts, words are arranged according to the rules of grammar with various parts of speech arranged in different sequence. To be successful, a person requires to have integrated four skills of verbal communication-reading, writing, listening and speaking. These abilities are, of course, not inborn but can be cultivated by hard work and little focus.

•   Reading Skills: It requires simple changes in the approach to master talent. To be a better writer and communicator, one needs to spend enough time on reading. It also keeps a person updated with all the current information.  To develop the habit of reading, one should start with the books of one’s own interest. They can be comic books, storybooks, novels, inspirational and motivational books, biographies, poetry etc. Even reading newspapers, especially editorials, can help in improving one’s reading skills.

•   Writing Skills: It is a major vehicle to convey accurate information while maintaining records. It is considered as the most reliable form of communication. To improve on better writing skills, a person should use short and simple sentences. Be clear and precise in information while avoiding wordiness and figurative language. The whole writing should have coherent ideas and should be revised before the final submission. 

•   Listening Skills: Listening is the most frequent, perhaps the most important of all the four skills. It can improve one’s understanding and help to enhance one’s personality. A person can improve on listening by motivating himself to listen for his betterment. A person should be objective while listening and should not bring his conflicting thoughts into it. Good use of thinking and listening ratio should be maintained and finally listening should be well practiced. Sometimes listening in second language is difficult for the listener, in that condition a person should try to watch movies, listen to songs and TV channels in the language one wants to improve.

•   Speaking Skills: Expressing and sharing ideas has become very important in today’s techno-global era. People with poor speaking skills and strong skills of their core competencies do not get good jobs. To develop good speaking skills, one should start with a simple mechanical process of reading loudly a piece of writing which can help the person to create a right tone for the language of learning. Then the person can form small group to discuss about their daily chores in the same language. In this way, the group members can help each other and learn together. Additionally, they can give small talks and presentations in the language on learning to show their understanding and creative use of the language. What a person should avoid is the cramming of sentences by heart, as it is not at all helpful in improving on the speaking skills. Moreover, a person should take complete freedom in the beginning and speak without hesitation. 

(To be concluded)

The author is a Research Scholar at the Dept. of English, University of Lucknow, Lucknow.


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