Kathmandu: December 1982

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been declining to an astonishing extent. Fertile lands have been expropriated from toiling peasants and allotted to the birtaowners and other landowners who dance to the tune of the Rana rulers. The condition of the country is now so pitiable that nearly 75 percent of the total population of the hill region finds it hard even to make both ends meet. The condition of the people of the Tarai region is even worse. Because of backwardness in both the agricultural and industrial fields, over 10,000 Nepalis daily leave for India in search of food. The major portion of the country's wealth has become the fief of the Rana rulers. As a result economically the country has now two classes: the ruling class, which owns vast wealth, and the poor subjects, who are plundered daily.
The Rana regime spends as little of the national revenue as possible on administration, and deposits the money thus saved with foreign banks in the name of the Rana Prime Minister. Government servants are paid nominal salaries. This is the main cause of the bribery rempant in government offices. The position of armymen is even more pitiable. It is almost impossible for them to get two square meals a day. The Rana Prime Ministers increase their bank balances even at the expense of their own civil employees and armymen. It is estimated that they save over Rs 25 million every year. During the past century, Nepal's Prime Ministers have accumulated at least Rs 1,000 million in foreign banks with the intention of never bringing it back to the country. Who can ever forget this heinous crime of exploiting the blood and sweat of the Nepali people? The foundation of the present Rana regime is injustice, and its real strength lies in repression. It is, therefore, no wonder that this regime should carry on the policy of keeping the countrymen impotent. People can be educated only when there are so many schools and collages as possible. But the first target of the rulers of this country has been the field of education. It is a great pity that only eight high schools have so far been opened in Primary schools (Pathshalas) are almost non-existent. The country has only one collages, the Tri-Chandra Colleage. The ruling class regards any expenditure on education as a misuse of its own property. That is why Nepal remains the most backward country in the world in the field of education. When the poor countrymen seek to open new schools with their own money, they incur the wrath of the rulers. Whereas other countries and government make constant efforts to educate their peoples, the government of our country is following an anti-people policy in the belief that it can partetuate its despotic rule over the countrymen only by keeping them ignorant.
The goal of the Nepali Congress is clear. It wants to establish a government responsible to the people under the constitutional leadersip of His Majesty. The despotic Rana regime has deprived His Majesty, like other people, of personal freedom, thereby deying him his rights. We want to maintain
His Majesty in the supreme post of Chief of the State by releasing him from such a restricated life. It should, however, be mentioned that we shall provide His Majesty only with those rights that a consititutional ruler shold have, so that His Majesty too may not become despotic and autocratic in the future. The government will function in his name under laws framed by the representatives of the people. The reins of state power will be in the hands of persons elected by the people. His Majesty will form a Council of Ministes from among elected representatives of the people, and rule the country under its control. We are not in favor of an absolute monarchy. A responsible government is our basic demand. The rule of a government responsible to the people should justify all its actions before the people. If people do not like its program, the government can be ousted immediately. Once a responsible government is established, the rulers will not be able to act in the arbitrary manner, and the government will be compelled to function according to the will of the people. Even if the government is run in the name of the King, all laws and regulations will be framed by the representatives of the people. The functions of the Council of Ministers will only be to enforce those laws and regulations. People will have the right to like or dislike the Council of Ministers. In Short, responsible government means that all rights are vested in the people.
Once the present regime is put to an end, the Nepali Congress will convene an assembly or conference of the representatives of the people elected through adult franchise. This assembly or conference will be given the full responsibility of framing a constitution or rules regarding the functioning of the state.
All this sheds light on the political aspects of the objectives of the Nepali congress. We shall now explain other aspects also.
As mentioned above, the Nepali Congress will not be satisfied with political reforms alone. It will also make efforts for the economic unliftment of the people by introducing economic reforms in Nepal. From the economic point of view, the existing social structure is highly inequaitable. The entire strength of the society has been undermined by the gulf between the rich and the poor. The society envisioned by the Nepali Congress will have no place for exploitation. That is to say, the rich will not be able to exploit the poor on the strength of their wealth. The Nepali Congress expects to reconstruct the entire society on the basis of equality to reconstruct and justice. Keeping in mind the history of many democratic countries, the Nepali Congress has come to the conclusion that it is baseless to talk only about democracy. The real interests of the people cannot be served by political change alone. It is true that hollow slogans of democracy may stand sweet to the Nepalis, who have been oppressed by the despotic
regime, and any idea of compromise in regard to democracy will have no interest for us. but the history of democratic countries has taught us that so long as the society is not restructured on an equitable basis, its all-round development is impossible. If economic exploitation persists, even when democracy is established, happiness and prosperity of the people will be undermined. The Nepali Congress, therefore, regards democracy based on political as well as economic equality as its ideal. For example, 5 percent of the total population control the major portion of the nation's economic resources, whereas 95 percent are landless. The Nepali Congress consideres this situation unjust and strongly opposes it. In its opinion, land should be equitably redistributed. As agriculture is the basis of Nepal's economy, equitable distribution of land will mean the biggest economic revolution for Nepal. The Nepali Congress calls on the Nepali people for such a revolution. It believes that existing land system is the primary reason for the poverty of the Nepali people, and so should be changed as early as possible. The Nepali Congress wants that the lands of jimidars and birtaonwers should be redistributed to hard working peasants, and workers. The economic condition of the people of Nepal is connected with land, and the Nepali Congress, as the representative of the entire Nepali people, considers itself a friend and sole representative of the toiling peasants and agricultural laborers.
Large mills and factories have not been developed in Nepal. The Nepali Congress has made its policy inthis field quite clear. Vested interests have not yet emerged in/_established in the near future, the government will have to undertake due responsibility for industrial development. The Nepali Congress believes that after a peple's government is established, the government will industrialize the country under a comprehensive program. The Nepali Congress will provide for equitable wages to workers employed in factories or elsewhere. It is not necessary to mention here that the Nepali Congress, which is struglling for democracy, will allow full freedom to all categories of workers to establish their own organaziation or unions on the basis of democratic principles. /_this field in Nepal. when a government of the

people is

In today;s scientific age, all nations of te world are tied together by bonds of mutual relations. Therefore, the foreign policy of the nation is considered to be of special importance. The Nepali Congress consideres itself to be a stanch protector of the full independence and sovereignty of Nepal. safeguarding the independence and sovereignty of Nepal, it supports measures to establish diplomatic relations with other nations of the world. Nepal has traditional religious, cultural, political and economic relations with India. Accordingly, we wish all possible prosperity to India and desire to maintain close relations with that country. Nepal will never with ill of India. Due to geographical proximity, it will never be beneficial to
have any conflict between these two nations. We can never think that India, which is going to be imdependent in the near future, will even wish ill of Nepal. Unless there is a threat to the independence and prestige of Nepal, or the interests of the nation are likely to be undermined in any way the Nepali Congress will accept in their original form all treaties signed by the present despotic regime with India. Alternatively, the democratic government to be established in the future will conclude new treaties with the interests of both Nepal and India in mind.
In constrast to ther nations, Nepal has special intimacy with India. Therefore, relations between democratic Nepal and other nations will be consistent with the interests of India. Nepal has traditional friendship with China also. People's aspirations have explored in the recent Chinese revolution. The Nepali Congress has friendly feelings for the newly-formed Chinese government.
The Nepali Congress does nto support any type of foreign, military or economic interference in Nepal. the present despotic regime, with the objective of sustaining itself in power, has welcomed foreign forces, and has followed the policy of getting maximum assistance from them. The Nepali Congress strongly opposes interference by foreign forces in Nepal.
In the opinion of the Nepali Congress, Nepal must obtain the memebership of the United Nations. We support the view that Nepal should be included in any international organization formed with the objective of establishing peace in the world. World peace will be the basis of our entire foreign policy.
Nepal has special strategic importance in Asia. Therefore, we bear a great responsibility towards the liberation movements of Asian countries. We strongly oppose foreign rule in Asain countries. We sincerely hope that foreign dominaion, intereference and feudalism will come to an end, and democracy be established, in all Asian countries.
Royal Order Regarding Reprots From

Districts, A.D. 1837
The following royal order was sent to all district administrators and other officers on Ashadh Badi 5, 1894 soon after Prime Minister Bhimsen Thapa was removed from his post:
''So far, you have not been submitting reports to us regarding different matters, both small and big, as well as news and other information. In the future, submit such reports in writing to us regularly.''
This order was sent to the following administrators:

1. Chautariya Jan Shah, Silgadi.

2. Kaji Narsing Thapa, do.

3. Captain Kanak Simha Pande, Dadeldhura.

4. Captain Ranamardan Shah, Mallas (?)

5. Subba Chaturbhuj Malla, Jhulaghat.

6. Captain Gajaraj Karki, Dullu.

7. Sardar Badriban Shahi, Dailekh.

8. Captain Gaja Kesar Khatri, Jumla.

9. Lt. Nar Bahadur Pande, Pyuthan.

10. Captain Sher Bikram Simha Thapa, Palpa.

11. Sardar Prahlad Thapa, Palpa.

12. Captain Bhawan Simha Khatri, Chisapani.

13. Lt. Ranabir Mahat, Makwanpur.

14. Captain Bakhtwar Bhandari, Dhankuta.

15. Lt. Hemadal Thapa, Sindhuli.

16. Lt. Dalasur Thapa and Sobha Simha Thapa, Ilam.

17. Sardar Balabhanjan Pande, Jaleshwer Kachahari.

18. Subba Kulananda Jha.

19. Wakil Lokaraman Padhya, Calcutta.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 26, pp. 655-56.
Land Grants of 1874 Vikrama

(Continued from the November 1982 issue)

Royal order for demarcation of the boundaries of the following birta grants were issed on the following dates:
(1) 20 muris of rice lands and a homestead at Jhiltung in Dhading granted as sankalpa birta to Govinda Pandit on Marga Sudi 13, 1873 during the funeral ceremony of King Girban; Bhadra Badi 7, 1874.
(2) 100 bighas granted by the third Queen-Mother at Aryaghat on the Bagmati river hear the Pashupati temple on Ashadh Badi 2, 1861, and 100 bighas granted during the funeral ceremony of King Rana Bahadur Shah on Jestha Badi 4, 1863, as sankalpa birta ot Balabhadra Pandit, in Parwanipur mouja of Tokani Parganna and Sakhwa mouja of Sidhmas Parganna in Bara-Parsa; Bhadra Badi 1, 1874.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 28, pp. 357-58.

(3) 2 khets of rice lands and a homestead in Patan granted as sankalpa birta to Indirananda Bhaju and Vimalananda Bhaju by the Senior Queen at Aryaghat on Poush Sudi 9, 1873 during the funeral ceremony of King Girban; Bhadra Badi 1, 1874.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 28, p. 359).
(4) 12 khets (1,200 muris) of rice lands were granted as sankalpa birta as follows to Purohit Yadunath Pandit Arjyal on Marga Sudi 1, 1874, the first anniversary of King Girban's death:
(a) 10 khets granted by King Rajendra.

(b) 2 khets granted as by the Senior Queen.

(5) 5 khets granted as sankalpa birta on the first anniversary of the death of the Junior Queen on Poush Badi 12, 1874 by King Rajendra, and 1 khet by the Senior Queen.
(6) (a) 1 khet granted as sankalpa birta during King Rajendra's birthday on Marga Sudi 15,

(b) do. during the tuladan ceremony the same day.

(7) 40 muris of rice lands granted as sankapla birta by King Rajendra during a solar eclipse on Sunday, Kartik Badi 30, 1874 to Haradatta Jha and Shankha Narayan Tewari.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 28, pp. 360-61.
(8) During the convergence of five planets of Jestha Sudi 2, 1874, King Rajendra made a sankapla birta grant of 20 muris of rice lands and a homestead at Katuwalguan to Ramachandra Padhya Arjyal. Marga Sudi 11, 1874.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 28, p. 362.
(9) Marga Sudi 11, 1874; King Shiva Shah of Kaski had granted 180 muris of rice lands as guthi to Gangarama Vairagi Siddhi at Ramaghat. Subsequently, Gangarama died, and the lands were washed away by floods. During the reign of King Siddhi Narayan Shah, 80 muris of rice lands had been given in replacement. After the Gorkhali conquests, the lands were given away as jagir to the army, but the guthi was restored during the revenue settlement of Vikrama 1852, and confirmed through royal order on Marga Sudi 11, 1874.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 28, p. 363.
(10) During a solar eclipse on Friday, Jestha Badi 30, 1874, King Rajendra had made a ritual grant of 40 muris of rice lands and a homestead as guthi to Tulsi Ram Padhya for the maintenance of a roadside shelter (Pouwa) at Chakhawa. A royal order was accordingly issued on Marga Sudi 11, 1874.
(11) Marga Badi 11, 1874: 20 muris of rice lands and a homestead at Ruping (Nuwakot) had been granted as sankapla birta to Bise Padhya Bagle during the convergence of five planets on Saturday, Aswin Badi 20, 1873.
(12) Poush Badi 14, 1874: 20 muris of rice lands and a homestead in Bhadgaun had been granted as sankalpa birta to Sribhakta Arjyal by the Senior Queen-Mother at Aryaghat on Marga Sudi 1, 1873 (on the death of King Girban).
(13) On the first anniversary of King Girban's death (Marga Sudi 1, 1874), King Rajendra granted 60 muris of rice lands, and the Queen granted 40 muris, along with homesteads at Machhegaun in Kathmandu as sankalpa birta to Khardar Indibar. A royal order for demarcating the boundaries was issued on Poush Sudi 3, 1874.
(14) 20 muris of rice-lands and a homestead at Pinda had been granted as sankapla birta to Trilichana Padhya Nepal on Marga Sudi 1, 1873 (on King Girban's death). A royal order for demarcating the boundaries was issued on Poush Sudi 10, 1874.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 28, pp. 364-70.


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