Kathmandu: December 1982



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7. One Aida group inhabiting Idavrita or Kashmir was known as Khasa. The original meaning of the term as King or Kashatriya (warrior). The term Khasa also gave its name to Kashmir. Aidas who migrated to the plains attained a civilized status because of their skills and brawn. Eventually, they relegated their Khasa brethren in the mountains to a lower status. For this reason, Khasa is a derogatory term in the Nepali language. However, Khasas were wise and brave. In circa 200 B. C., one group of this community migrated to the far-west and set up their own Kingdom in modern Iran, displacing the Sami community. The ruled with great glory or five centuries (1776-1180 B.C.). In Iran too they spoke the Arya language and worshipped such Vedic gods as Indra, Varuna, and Mitra, as well as Ice Goddess (Himadevi) named Sivaya Shimaliya.
164.
8. At about the same time, another khasa group crossed the Sutlej river and moved toward the east. This wave of migration continued for thousants of years. These Khasas moved along the hill region, rather than toward the Himalayans or the Tarai. They took great care to ensure that there was no admixture of Mongolian communities they came across on their way as Dom and other untouchable groups. Eventually, these Khasa's reached the valleyt of the Bheri river. Some freedom-loving Mongolian groups then shifted to the Tarai region and joined the Tharus, while others crossed over the Himalayan region and maintained a separate existence. Chief among the latter is the Sauko community of Nepal. at Sakhik-Lekh the Khasas encountered Magars. Unable to overcome the Magars, the Khasas stopped their mogration in the valley of the Bheri river.
These Khasas remained farmers. Millet (kodo) had been cultivated from ancient times to the hill regions they conquered. The Khasas introduced new crops such as barley, wheat, and sesame. It was at the time of their eastword migration that the use of iron became known in the world. The Khasas used iron for the first time for agricultural purposes in the Himalayan region. They worshipped Vadic gods, but did not observe caste distinctions such as Brahman, Kshatriya, and Vaishya. Because they had left their original home before the alphabet was invented, they suffered as gradual decline. They followed a republican (Lokhabhar) system of government. Polygamy and Polyandry were common, and were additional factors in the decline of this community.
9. During the time when the Khasas were suffering a decline in the hill region between the Sutlej and the Bheri, the Aida and Manawa Aryas of the plains advanced toward the Koshi region in the east. They established new Kingdoms in the extensive Aryavarta plains and achieved gradual progress. Intoxicated by power and health, the Aryas fought in the civil war between Yuthisthera and Suyodhana at Kurukshestra (circa 1425 B.C.). That war witnessed the end of the nomadic life of the Aryas and they started reclaiming forests in the areas they had occupied. Old royal dynasties became weak and were supplanted by new ones. New Kingdoms and republics thus emerged. By circa 600 B.C., the states of Anga, Vriji, Malla, and Koshala, east to west, had been established in the territories comprising modern Nepal. Anga was a kingdom. After the end of the Janaka dynasty of Videha, that Kingdom and the Licchavis was bounded by the Gandaki river in the west. Farther western was the Malla republic. The territories comprising modern Oudh formed the old Kingdom of Koshala, while the Magadh Kingdom of the Aidas continued in southern Bihar. There were two other small republics of Mallas and Shakyas between the Malla republic and the Kingdom of Koshala.

165.
10. The Aryas of Aryavarta followed the Vedic religion before the Kurukshetra war. They worshipped Indra, Varuna, and other gods as presiding deities of natural forces so as to derive benefits from such forces, and offered foodstuffs to these gods through fire. This ritual was known as yagnya or gaya. After the Kurukshetra war, prime importance was given as yagnyas, and the gods began to be regarded as subservient to these rituals. Because yagnyas became progressively more ornate and complex, a group of rishis and munis started opposing such rituals, and, instead, explored the Brahma-Vidya. Many Kshatriya Kings followed in their footsteps. The Janaka royal dynasty of Videha became well-known among the Bramhavadis. These Brahmavadis eventually introduced the idea of monotheism, but many atheistic groups also emerged. Yet another group followed the path of puring the soul through penance and attaining salvation (moksha). This religious ferment continued for nearly 800 years. After the Buddha propgated the Buddhist relgion, some of these sects disappeared, while others changed their form.


The territories of the Shakya republic comprised modern Butwal and other areas to the west. The capital was possibly located in Kapilavastu. Siddhartha was the son of Shuddhodana, elective King of that republic. In 624 B.C., his queen gave birth to Siddhartha in a village called Rumin in Butwal while coming back home from her parent' house. From his very childhood, human suffering caused grief to Siddhartha. At the age of 28 years, he renounced the worldly life in search of the true path to rid mankind of death and other sufferings. He practised penance for six years in a forest and then attained enlightenment and was known as the Buddha. Because he belonged to the Gautama clan, he became famouse by the name of Gautam Buddha. He first preached his new path at Kashi and was able to gather a few adherents. Buddha was an atheist. He was opposed to yagnyas and penance. The gist of his teaching was good conduct. He preached this message for 45 years in some areas of what was known Bihar and Oudh to princes and paupers alike. He used to teach people of all castes, irrespective of sex, hence thousands of people became his followers. Gautama Buddha died in 544 B.C. at the age of 80 years. His disciples continued to preach his message, which eventually assumed the form of the great Buddhist religion.
11. The Shisunaga dynasty emerged in the Kingdom of Magadh circa 700 B.C. The fifth King of that dynasty, Bimbisara, and his son, Ajatashatru, were contemporaries of Gautam Buddha. Both of them revered him. Bimbisara conquered the Kingdom of Anga and annexed it to Magadh. The ancient Kings used to retain defeated royal dynasties as vassals. Bimbisara, however, removed the royal dynasty or leaders of the republic and expanded the territories of his own Kingdom. Ajantashatru instigated dissensions between the Vijis of Videha and the Licchavis and annexed the Vriji republic (circa 540 B.C.) His successors continued that policy and gradually incorporated the Kingdoms of Awadha and the Ganga-Jamuna region into the
166.

Magadh Kingdom. In circa 366 B.C., the Shishunaga dynasty was removed by Mahapadmananda, who then founded a new royal dynasty. The new dynasty, however, lasted only two generations. Mahapadmananda uprooted the remaining Kingdoms and created the very powerful Magadh empire comprising the territories of the modern United Provinces, Rajputana, Malwa, Bihar, and Orissa. This was the first empire of northern India. Before the new empire had been fully established, during the time of the last Shishunaga Kings, the first Kingdom of Nepal was founded, thereby taking the beginning of Nepali history.

End of Chapter III.

Land Grants of 1874 Vikrama

(Continued from the October 1982 issue)


Ashadh Badi 11, 1874

On Magh Badi 30, 1874, King Rajendra made a ritual gift (sankalpa) of 50 muris of rice-lands, along with a homestead, to Dineshwara Adhikari in Patan on the occasion of a solar eclipse. A royal order was demarcating the boundaries of these lands was issued on Ashadh Badio 11, 1874.


Regmi Research Collection, vol. 28, p. 332.
The same day, royal orderes were issued for demarcating the boundaries of the following ritual land grants made on the death of King Girban of Marga Sudi 1, 1873:-
(1) 20 muris of rice lands and a homesteadin Bhadgaun to Sribhakta Aryal.

(2) do to Udayananda Neopane in Bhadgaun.


Ibidu, pp. 334-35.
Ashadh Badi 11, 1874

(1) On Chaitra badi 7, 1868, King Girban had made a ritual land grant (sankalpa) of 100 muris of rice lands and a homestead in Kathmandu to Lokanatha Pande on the occasion of the consecration of a bridge on the Bagmati river.


167.
(2) Ritual land grants had been made to Shankha Narayan Tiwari on the following occasions:
(a) 40 muris of rice lands during a solar eclipse on Magh Badi 30, 1869.

(b) 10 muris of rice lands during a lunar eclipse on Marga Sudi 15, 1872.

(c) 20 muris of rice lands during a lunar eclipse on Marga Sudi 15, 1873.
Each of these grants included a homestead as well.
The total area of rice lands thus granted as sankalpa-birta was 70 muris. Of this, 58 muris had been allotted in Kartik 1873. A royal order for demarcating the boundaries of the remaining 12 muris was issued on Ashadh Badi 11, 1874.
Ibid, pp. 335-36.
Ashadh Badi 12, 1874

A guthi land grant of 40 muris of rice lands, along with a homestead, and the area around a roadside shelter at Chakhewa, was made to Tulasiram Upadhya on the occasion of a solar eclipse on Jestha Badi 30, 1874.


Ibidu, p. 337.
Ashadh Sudi 4, 1874

In the Vikrama year 1846, King Ran Bahadur Shah had appointed Dalabhanjan Pande's father (Jagajit Pande), as Subba of Makwanpur. He had granted four moujas in Matiwan Parganna of Bara-Parsa, then under the administrative control of the Subba of Makwanpur, under bekh-buniyad tenure. The royal order confirming the grant was subsequently lost, hence a new royal order was issued on Ashadh Badi 4, 1874 in the name of Dalabhanjan Pande.


Ibid, p. 337.
Ashadh Sudi 4, 1874

Three ropanies of pakho land at Athbis in Bisankhu was granted as birta to Sarup Bista, who held the office of Kote, to extend his homestead.



Ibid, p. 338.
168.
Ashadh Sudi 5, 1874

Royal orders for the demarcation of the boundaries of sankalpa birta grants makde on Marga Badi 1, 1873 on the occasion of the death of King Girban:-


(1) 50 muris of rice lands and a homestead to Laxmi Nath Bhattarai, a priest. He later preferred to receive 40 muris out of his 60-muri jagir holding at Bhimdhunga.

(2) 20 muris of rice lands and a homestead to Shamgadhar Padhya Dhakal


Similar royal orders were issued in that day for demarcating the boundaries of the following birta grants also:-
(1) 40 muris of rice lands and a homestead granted as sankalpa birta to Balakrishna Padhya Devkota on Marga Badi 13, 1873 for taking the ashes of King Girban to Kashi.
(2) 20 muris of rice lands and a homestead at Deopatan granted as sankalpa-birta to Jayanarayan Padhya on the same occasion.
(3) The following sanklpa birtas granted to Tikaram Pandit on the following occasions:-
(a) 20 muris of rice lands granted on Chaitra Badi 9, 1862 on the occasion of the congregation of four planets.
(b) 20 muris of rice lands and homestead granted on Marga Sudi 1, 1873.
Ibid, pp. 340-43.
Ashadh Sudi 5, 1874

1 khet (100 muris) of rice lands and a homestead in Deupur (Kabhrepalanchok) were granted as sankalpa birta to Rama Chandra Ghodasaini by King Girban on the occasion of a lunar eclipse on Marga Sudi 15, 1872.


Regmi Research Collection, vol. 28, p. 343.
Ashadh Badi 4, 1874

(a) 20 muris of rice lands and a homestead in Deopatan were granted as sankalpa birta to Mahadeva Jha on Marga Sudi 1, 1873 (when King Girban died).


Ibid, p. 344.
169.
(b) On the same day, 20 muris of rice lands and a homestead in Deopatan were granted as sankalpa birta to Maheshwar Aryal.
Ibid, p. 347.
Shrawan Badi 12, 1874

(a) 30 muris of rice lands and a homestead in Pharping were granted as sankalpa birta to Purushottam Pandit on Marga Sudi 13, 1873 (13th day after the death of King Girban).


Ibid, p. 345.
(b) On the same day, 100 muris of rice lands and a homestead in Pharping were granted as sankalpa birta to Ekasurya Vaidya.
Shrawan Badi 30, 1874

On Baisakh Sudi 7, 1864, the death anniversary of King Ran Bahadur Shah, 167 bighas of cultivated lands and 334 to Guruju… this order was issued for allotting these lands in Rautahat.


Ibid, p. 348.
Shrawan Sudi 9, 1874

Separate royal orders were issued to demarcate the boundaries of the following sankalpa birta grants:


(1) 40 muris of rice lands a homestead in Deopatan granted by King Girban to Khardar Balabhadra Pandit on Marga Sudi 1, 1873.
(2) 50 muris of rice lands and a homestead near the Bagmati river in Kathmandu granted by King Rajendra to Ramakanta Pandit on the thirteenth day of the death of King Girban on Marga Sudi 13, 1873.
(3) 20 muris of rice lands and a homestead in Patan granted by the eldest royal consort (Jetha Nani Sahab) to Laxman Padhya Silwal on Poush Badi 9, 1873.
(4) 30 muris of rice lands and a homestead in Patan granted by the eldest royal consort to Paramasukha Dube who was employed to carry the ashes of King Girban for immersion. The grant was made at Aryatirtha (on the banks of the Bagmati river near the Pashupatinath temple) on Poush Badi 9, 1873.
170.
(5) 30 muris of rice lands granted by the Senior Queen to Sadu Padhya Sapkota on Marga Badi 1, 1873, and 20 muris and a homestead granted on Marga Sudi 1, 1873, at the end of the obsequies performed for King Girban. The lands and homestead were located in Patan.
(6) One khet of rice lands and a homestead in Patan granted by the Senior Queen to Nilagrivananda on Marga Sudi 15, 1862 on the completion of a religious ceremony (Purashcharana) at the Pachali-Bhairava temple in Kathmandu.
Ibid, pp. 349-52.
Shrawan Sudi 15, 1874

Separate royal orders were issued to demarcate the boundaries of the following birta grants:

(1) A house at Yangal in Kathmandu, granted as birta to Vishnumaya Brahmani by the Queen Grandmother on Magh Sudi 11, 1873.
(2) A house at Yethha Tol in Kathmandu (previously occupied by Hussain Bux), granted as Char-birta by the Queen Grandmother to Gauridatta Mishra, a physician, on the completion of the funeral ceremonies of King Girban on Marga Sudi 13, 1873.
(3) 30 muris of rice lands had been granted as sankalpa birta on Marga Sudi 13, 1873 to Laxminath Bhattarai by the Queen Grandmother, and 20 muris, along with a homestead, by the Queenmother, on Marga Sudi 1, 1873. These lands homesteads were located at Bhimdhunga in Kathmandu.
Ibid, pp. 352-56.
Bhadra Badi 9, 1874

Royal order for the demarcation of a birta grant of 8 muris of rice lands a homestead in Pharping granted by King Rajendra to Eksurya Vaidya as sankalpa birta on the occasion of the convergence of the planets on Aswin Badi 30, 1873.


Ibid, p. 356.

(To be Continued)

*****************
171.
The Nature of Jagir Obligations
Obligation to Maintain Troops and Cannons

Jagir assignments to high-ranking Jagirdars during the early years of the nineteenth century involved the obligation to maintin the prescribed number of facilities and military equipment, and also to impress the compulsory labor of the jagir tenants to transport military supplies during war. In addition, they were required ''to remain in constant attendance during war or hunting expeditions, as well as during parades or toher special occasions as commanded, whether by day or by night.''


Chaitra Sudi 15, 1855: Amar Simha Thapa (father of Bhimsen Thapa) was appointed as Sardar with a Khangi of 71 khets of rice-lands and a khuwa revenue of Rs 1600. He was placed under the obligation of maintaining 22 fusiliers and one piece of connon. (Chittaranajan Nepali, Janaral Bhimsen Thapa ra Tatkalina Nepal, (General Bhimsen Thapa and contemporary Nepal), Kathmandu: Nepal Samskriti Sangh, 2013 (1956), pp. 253-54.

Baisakh Sudi 7, 1861: Bhimsen Thapa was appointed as Kaji with a Khangi of 116 khets of rice-lands and a khuwa revenue Rs 3,500. He was placed under the obligation of maintaining 45 fusiliers and two pieces of cannon. In addition, he was required to impress compulsory labor from his jagir tenants to transport cannon and other military supplies during war.



Ibid, pp. 252-53.
Kartik Badi 2, 1881: Bakhat Simha Basnyat, son of Badal Simha Basyat and grandson of Birabhadra Basnyat, was appointed Sardar with the command of Sri Aridaman Company. His obligations were to maintain 22 fusiliers and 1 piece of cannon.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 35, pp. 20-21.
Magh Sudi 7, 1881: Bhaktabir Thapa, son of Ambar Simha Thapa and grandson of Bhimsen Thapa, and Ripumardan Thapa, son of Ranadhwaj Thapa, were appointed Kajis with command of the Naya Sri Gorakh Company. Their Khangi assigement consisted of 116 khets of rice-land and Rs 3500 as khuwa revenue. They were required to maintain 45 fuliliers and 1 piece of cannon.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 35, p. 28.
Marga Sudi 11, 1881: Bhaktwar Simha Thapa, son of Ambar simha Thapa and grandson of Birabhadra Thapa, was appointed Kaji with command of the Sabuj Paltan. His Khangi assignment comprised 116 khets o rice-land and khuwau revenue amounting to Rs 3500. His obligations included the maintenance of 45 fusiliers and one piece of cannon.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 35, pp. 25-26.

172.
Magh Sudi 12, 1881: Jan Shah and Daksha Shah, sons of Bam Shah, were appointed Chautariyas with the command of Sribarakh Paltan. Their Khangi assignment consisted of 125 khets of rice-lands and a khuwa revenue of Rs 4001. They were required to maintain 46 fusiliers and 1 piece of cannon.


Regmi Research Collecction, vol. 35, p. 30.

(The appointment was renewed on the same terms on Magh Sudi 12, 1883. Regmi Research Collection, vol. 31, pp. 332-33).


Marga Badi 4, 1883: Ranabir Simha Basnyat was appointed Sardar with the command of Aridaman Company. His Khangi assignment counsisted of 80 khets of rice-lands and a khuwa revenue of Rs 1,600. He was required to maintain 22 fusiliers and one piece of cannon.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 31, pp. 311-12.


Falgun Badi 3, 1883: Ajambar Pantha, grandson of Bali Pantha and son of Dubal Pantha, was appointed Kaji, with command of Sri Simhanath Paltan. His Khangi assignment consisted of 116 khets of rice-lands and Rs 3500 as khuwa revenue. He was required to maintain 45 fusiliers and 1 piece of connon.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 39, p. 33.
Falgun Badi 3, 1883: Dirgha Simha Bhandari, grandson of Kalu Bhandari and son of Chamu Bhandari, was appointed Sardar, with command of Sri Shardul Jung Company. His Khangi assignment consisted of 80 khets of rice-land and khuwa revenue amounting to Rs 1,600. He was required to maintain 22 fusiliers and one piece of cannon.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 35, pp. 33-34.

Chaitra Sudi 11, 1883: Balabhanjan Pande, son of Bhotu Pande was appointed Sardar with a Khangi of 80 khets of rice-lands and a khuwa revenue of Rs 1,600. He was required to maintain 22 fusiliers and 1 piece of connon.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 31, p. 333.

On the other hand, the jagir assignments of officers of lower ranks carried no such obligations.

Marga Sudi 1, 1883: Simhabir Pande, son of Jagajit Pande and grandson of Tularam Pande, was appointed Captain in Srinath Kampu. His Khangi assignment consisted of 40 khets of rice-lands and khuwa revenue amounting to Rs 3,000. His duties were only ''to remain in constant attendance during war or hunting expeditions, as well as during parades or other special occasions as command, whether by day or by night, and obey promptly the orders of General Bhimsen Thapa.''
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 31, p. 317.

173.
Marga Badi 4, 1883: ''Appointment of Bhaktiram Thapa as Subedar in Ranabhim Company.''

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 31, p. 313.

Kartik Sudi 3, 1881: ''Appointment of Karbir Pande as Captain of Sri Nanabhima Company.''

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 35, p. 17.

Marga Badi 6, 1881: ''Appointment of Birabhadra Kunwar as Captain of Kalijung Company.''

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 35, p. 20.
Magh Sudi 30, 1881: ''Appointment of Ranabir Simha Thapa as Commanding Colonel in Srinath Kampu.''

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 35, p. 27.

Magh Sudi 30, 1881: ''Appointment of Mathbar Simha Thapa as Colonel in Srinath Kampu.''

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 35, pp. 25-27.


Faglun Badi 1, 1881: ''Appointment of Balabhanjan Pande, as Captain of Sri Chandan Nath Paltan.''
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 35, p. 32.

Chaitra Badi 1, 1881: ''Appointment of Ranabir Simha Thapa as Commanding Colonel in Srinath Kampu.''


Regmi Research Collection, vol. 35, p. 35.

Chaitra Badi 1, 1881: ''Appointment of Mathbar Simha Thapa Colonel in Srinath Kampu.''

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 35, p. 35.

Chaitra Badi 1, 1881: ''Appointment of Sher Jung Bahadur Thapa as Captian in Srinath Kampu.''

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 35, p. 36.

New Policy

In any case, the practice of using jagirs as military fiefs entailing the obligation to maintain troops and cannon appears to have come to an end after Prime Minister Bhimsen Thapa.

Chaitra Badi 11, 1899: Abhiman Simha Rana, son of Shamshere Rana and grandson of Bhaskar Rana, was appointed Kaji with a Khangi assignment of 116 khets of rice lands and a khuwa revenue of Rs 3500. His duties were specified as follows: ''Remain in constant attendance during war, as well as wherever so commanded, and remain true to our salt.''
Regmi Research Collections, vol. 21, p. 87.

174.
Chaitra Badi 11, 1899: Deriyawar Simha Basnyat, son of Badal Simha Basnyat and grandson of Birabhadra Basnyat, was appointed Sadar with the command of Sri Chandanath Company (in Jumla). His Khangi assignment comprised 80 khets of rice lands and a khuwa revenue of Rs 1600. His duties were the same as those mentioned above for Abhiman Simha Rana.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 31, p. 87.
Chaitra Badi 1, 1898: ''Appointment of Ranabhadra Simha Basnyat as Sardar.''

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 31, p. 49.

Ashadh Sudi 15, 1899: ''Appointment of Dalakesar Pande as Kaji.''
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 31, p. 60.
Falgun Badi 30, 1899: ''Appointment of Dalabhanjan Pande as Kaji.''
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 31, p. 80.
Chaitra Badi 1, 1899: ''Appointment of Dal Bahadur Shah as Sardar.''
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 31, p. 68.
Falgun Badi 4, 1900: Jan Shah was appointed Chautariya with 125 khets of rice lands and Rs 4,000 as khuwa revenue in his Khangi assignment.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 26, p. 13.
Falgun Badi 4, 1900: Gapan Simha, grandson of Bhotu Bhandari, and son of Jagajit Khawas, was appointed Kaji, with 116 khets of rice-land and khuwa revenue amounting to Rs 3,500 as Khangi assignment.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 26, p. 11.
Falgun Badi 4, 1900: Trivikrama Simha Thapa, grandson of Ambar Simha Thapa and son of Bakhatwar Simha Thapa, was appointed Kaji with Khangi assignments and mentioned above.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 26, p. 12.

Poush Sudi 4, 1902: Bhima Bikram Shah, Jung Bahadur Kunwar and Kalu Shahi were appointed Kajis, each with 116 khets of rice-lands and khuwa revenue amounting to Rs 3,500 in this Khangi assignment.



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