Kathmandu: December 1982

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7. The Magarant region comprises settlements north of the Mahabharat mountains from Upardang to Dahaban, as well as settlements in the south. A sub-range of the main Himalayan range branches off from the Dhaulagiri toward the south-west and touches the Mahabharat range at a point known as the Sakhiko-Lek, and this branch forms the western boundary of Magarant. The Budhi river, originally in the main Himalayn range west of the Trishuli river, was formerly known as the Gandi. Accordingly, three other rigers flowing in the west, the Marsyangdi, the Seti, and the Kali, are also known as Gandaki. The Kali, the main river of the Gandaki system flows toward the south as far as Ridighat, and then turns toward the east and joins the Trishuli river at Devaghat. It then cuts through the Mahabharat mountains and flows on as a single Gandaki river. The Budhi, the Marsyangdi, and The Seti also join the Trishuli river near Devaghat. The southern course of the Kali-Gandaki river has separated the the hill regions of Magarant into two parts. The eastern part

comprises Gorkha, Lamjung, Kaski, Tanahu, Bhirkot, etc., and the westner part, Palpa, Parbat, Pyuthan, and other well-known settlements. Nawalpur in the inner Tarai is situated on the right bank of the Gandaki river. But in this part of the Tarai region, the Chure mountains gradually lose altitude and mingle in the plains, hence the division between the inner Tarai and the outer Tarai is not marked in the area west of Nawalpur. The entire Tarai area is there called Butwal. This part of the Tarai comprises such well-known settlements as Parasi, Bhairahawa, Taulihawa, and Sheoraj.

8. Settlements situated on both the northern and southern sides of the Mahabharat and Teliya mountains in the region west of Dahaban up to the Mahakali river are collectively known as Khasant. The Karnali is the main river of this region, with the Bheri in the east, and the Seti and the Mahakali in the west as its tributaries. The Seti river has divided the Khasant region into two parts. The hill region of the eastern part comprise such important settlements as Salyana, Jajarkot, Dailekh, Achham, and Bajhang. (Bajhang is situated on the westner banks of the Seti river in the eastern part, and Chauki-Garkha on the eastern banks, in the western part. The main settlements of that Gorkha, Silgadi, forms a part of Doti). Toward the north the Karnali has two tributaries the Magu and the Humla, and settlements in that area, which form a part of the western region, comprise Jumla. The Himalayan and Pahar regions west of the Seti river are known as Doti. The main settlements of this part are Silgadi, Dadeldhura, and Baitadi. In the Tarai region, the boundary line runs along the Siwalik range (Koilabas) in the east, hence only the inner Tarai areas of Dang and Deukhuri comprise Nepali territory, and Nepal has no Tarai territory in that area. Because this inner Tarai territor is mostly covered by forests, population is very thin. In the outer Tarai region on the western side, Banke, Bardiya, Kailali, and Kanchanpur are well-known settlements. These are all districts, and density of population is low in the last two districts.
9. There are a number of main routes running from east to west in both the Pahar region and the outer Tarai region throughout the length of Nepal. for the inhabitants of each region of Nepal, trade with the United Provinces in India is more essential than with other provinces. To travel to Tibet, one has to taken advantage of the rivers flowing from that region in order to cross the lofty Himalayan mountains. There are several passes situated along the banks of these rivers which serve as main routes between Nepal and Tibet. It is not possible to enumerate the inaccessible passes used by salt traders through the sources of rivers originating in the Himalayas. The main passes are as follows:-
(a) The Arun is the only river which flows from Tibet to the Kirant region. As such, there is a major pass at the source of that river. There is a settlement known as Khartang on the other side of the border,

in Tibet, hence the route is known as the Khartang route. on the Nepali side, there is a settlement known as Hatiya, hence it is also known as the Hatiya route.

(b) There are three main passes in the Sesant region. One is the Phalak route, so called after the Tibetan settlement of Phalak along the banks of the Tamakosi river. Dolakha town has been established to take advantage of trade flowing through this route. the Kuti pass, situated on the banks of the Sunkosi river, and the Kerung pass, situated on the banks of the Trishuli river, are more popular. Traders from the capital of Nepal use these two passes.
(c) In the Magarant region, there is only one route through Mustang near the source of the Kali-Gandaki river. But it is not much used because it is not suitable for horses.
(d) In the Khasant region, a route proceeds along the banks of the Karnali river up to Yari-Bhanjyang, and then to the well-known settlement of Taklakhar on the Tibetan side. The route is therefore known as the Humla route.
The Mahabharat and Teliya mountains, which constitute the boundary between the Pahar region and the Tarai region, are not inaccessible. Even then, passes have been opened at convenient points of these mountains linking them with those (on the Nepal-Tibet route) mentioned above. The Hatiya Pass, for example, is connected with Sanguri-Bhanjyang on the banks of the Arun river in the Kirant region. Sindhuli-Bhanjyang is connected with the Phalak and Kuti passes, and Upardang with Kerung, all located in the Sesant region. In the Magarant region, Nuwakot-Gadhi is connected with the Mustang pass, and in the Khasant region, Malika-Bhajyang and Ranimatta-Bhanjyang are connected with the Humla pass. Because these passes are situated at a distance from the western part of the Khasant region, there are two other passes. Jarayal and Sathatta. The pass leading from the capital of Nepal across the Mahabharat mountains it situated on the banks of the Bagvati river. But because the Nigale-Bhanjyang pass (Chisapani-Gadhi) was opened subsequently, it has fallen into disuse. Routes through these passes lead to the outer Tarai throughthe Chure or Siwalik range.
10. No gold or silver deposits have been discovered in Nepal. however, some quantities of gold are extracted from the sands of rivers flowing from the main Himalayan range. Deposits of coper, iron, lead and manganese are found everywhere in the hill region. Deposits of a valuable mineral called cinnabar are found in the Magarant region. These are forests everywhere, hence durable timbers such as agrakh and sissau and thousands of varieties of medicinal herbs are found. Rice is grown to some extent only in the Jumla area of the Himalayan region. Elsewhere, Uwa, barley; karu, and other crops are grown in limted quantities. People therefore live mostly on yak-meat and mutton. Wool is used to weave cloth. Musk and yak-tails are exported. The Pahar region abounds with animals of different kinds, foodgrains, oil-bearing materials, fruits, tubers, jute (pat) and cotton. There are no mineral deposits in the Tarai regin, but rice and other foodgrains are grown in large quantities. Since everywhere necessary for life is produced locally, people do not have to depend upon other countries.
End of Chapter I
Regmi Research (Private) Ltd ISSN: 0034-348X
Regmi Research Series

Year 14, No. 10

Kathmandu: October 1982
Edited by

Mahesh C. Regmi

Contents Page

1. Saptari and Mahottari Affairs, A.D. 1810-11 … 145

2. Labor Obligations in Baglung … 149

3. Forest Protection … 150

4. A Short History of Nepal … 152

5. Land Grants of 1874 Vikrama … 158


Regmi Research (Private) Ltd

Lazimpat, Kathmandu, Nepal

Telephone: 16927

(For private study and research only, not meant for public sale, distribution and display).

Saptari and Mahottari Affairs,

A.D. 1810-11
(Continued from the August 1982 issue)
Administrative Ragulations

Royal order to Subba Jayafar Adhikari: We hereby promulgate the following regulations for ijara functions in Saptari and Mahottari districts from 1868 to 1870 Vikrama.

1. In case any enemy intrudes into our frontiers from any quarter, and in case there is no time to obtain instructions from here, recruit additional troops and repulse the enemy, and thus defend the country. Report the matter to us. after the enemy is repulsed, pay salaries to the troops and disband them. Obtain receipts for such payments; remissions will be granted accordingly in the course of audit.
2. Recommend steps which will promote our interest and bring prosperity to the country. We shall sanction such steps if we consider them appropriate.
3. In case any ryot, jimidar, mahaldar, mokaddam, jagirdar or birtawar from the districts submits any complaint against you, we shall not listen to one side alone. Rather we shall listen to both sides, and inflict punishment according to the nature of the offense on any one who confesses his guilt.
4. In case any person is guilty of homicide, burglary, cow slaughter, rebellion, or lawless activities, and in case he confesses his guilt before the local adalat, refer the matter to us, and inflict punishment as ordered.
5. Offer hospitality to any English officer, envoy (wakil) of any Nawab or Raja, or any other respectable person, who may visit the district for any purpose to our interest, and transmit to us the gifts and presents that he may bring. Reasobale expenses incurred for such hospitality shall be remitted.
6. In case a thief is caught and confesses his crime, refer the matter to us, and behead him, hang him, amputate his limbs, or brand him, according to the status of his caste as ordered by us.
7. Do not allow unpaid labor (beth, begar) to be impressed indiscriminately in the country. For the requiremenets of the palace, impress such labor from the inhabitants of jagir, birta, manachamal, and bekh-bunyad villages. Do not permit others to impress unpaid labor.
8. Reconfirm the land allotments and the land tax assessment rates that had been sanctioned in 1850 Vikrama. make arrangements for the reclamation of waste and forest lands. Procure ryots from India, as well as from jagir and birta villages, for this purpose, and settle them on such lands. Make five-year allotments according to the nature of the land, submit drafts of allotment certificates according along with your signature, and we shall affix our seal thereon.
9. Yu may dismiss any Chaudhari, Kanugoye, mokaddam, mahaldar, ijaradar, or jamadar of the two forts who does not obey your orders, or fails deliver supplies, and replace him by another person who obeys your orders and can deliver supplies. We hereby grant you authority to make such dimmissals and appointments.
10. In case any Chaudhari or kanugoye in the districts who has been assigned lands under Phikdar or bekh-bunyad tenure does not obey your orders or fails to deliver supplies, report the matter to us along with the versions of both sides. We shall listen to both sides and punish such Chaudhari or kanugoye in case you are able to obtain a confession from him.
11. In case the owner of birta, jagir, or bekh-banyad lands had encroached upon raikar lands, make an inquiry in the presence of the Chaudhari, the kanugoye, the jaiwar, and respectable persons, confiscate the area that is proved to have been encroached upon, refer the matter to us, and take action as ordered.
12. The boundaries of the districts of Saptari and Mahottari had been demarcated by kazis in 1850 Vikrama. in case any person has obtained a royal grant of jagirl, birta, chhap, mamachamal, or ijara by making a false representative of these boundaries, do not let him take possession. Refer the matter to us and take action as ordered.
13. In case our boundaries in Saptari and Mahottari districts have been encroached upon from the Indian side, consult knowledgeable persons, as well as old documents, and in case it is proved inhabited areas or forest lands have been encroached upon, make inquiries there and report the matter to the palace. Do not let the boundaries to be encroached upon in the future, and do not so from our side.
14. In case we make any birta, jagir, bekh-bunyad, or manachamal grant in these districts after the Vikrama year 1868, we shall issue orderes in your name: apportion such lands from villages other than those assigned for the supply of portors to transport our goods, the nankar lands of Chaudharis and kanugoyes, and forest lands allotments on whch the initial period of tax-exemption has not yet expired. We shall grant remissions in the payment due on your ijara for the lands so apportioned on the basis of statements signed by Chaudharis, kanugoyes, and jaiwars, in the same manner as granted to Raghav Simha Khadak in the year 1866-67 Vikrama.
15. Transmit three installments, in addition to the initial advance payment, to the Tosakhana in silver Patna rupees; make payments from the fourth installment to the bearers of disbursement orders. Such persons shall have no claim to amounts due on the first three installments, but shall be piad only from the amount due on the fourth installment.
Chaitra Badi 9, 1867.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, pp. 37-41.

Appointment of Chaudhari

(1) Royal order to Subba Jayafar Adhikari:

Ankhidas had been appointed as Chaudhari of the parganna of Jagdar-Sodhpur in the district of Saptari from the Vikrama year 1867 under a Phikdar order. Subba Achal Thapa reported that he died without leaving any heirs. We had therefore appointed Kamal Chaudhari as his successor from the Vikrama year 1868. If Kamal Chaudhari has assumed charge of his post, and started discharging his functions, confirm him in that post. Otherwise, select one of his nephews who is more capable, either Kamal Chaudhari or Dhaul Chaudhari, and appoint him as Chaudhari from the Vikrama year 1868.
Chaitra Badi 8, 1867

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, pp. 15-16.

(2) Royal order to Dhaul Chaudhari:
Because you were dismissed from the post of Chaudhari with an entitlement of bunyad lands, and because our officials (amil) oppressed you in different ways, you have fled to India. Have no boubts on any account, but come back and reoccupy your bunyad lands with full assurance. Subba Jayafar Adhikari will reinstate you as Chaudhari. Represent your hardships and grievances, as well as measures which will encourage settlement in the country, through the Subba, and we shall take appropriate action.
Chaitra Sudi 11, 1867

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, p. 59.

Unpaid Labor

Royal order to Subba Jayafar and Subba Achal Thapa:

We hereby exempt ryots belonging to the raikar villages of Saptari and Mahottari from the obligation to provide unpaid labor (jhara, beth, begar) services. In case such services are required for the transportation of commodities purchased by the (Bhangaruwa) market, or of supplies procured

by us from abroad, impress them from the royts of jagir, birta, manachamal, and bekh-bunyad lands. Any person who impresses such services from the ryots of raikar lands shall be punished.

Chaitra Badi 8, 1867

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, p. 16.

Administrative Highhandedness

1. Royal order to Subba Achal Thapa:

We have assigned the moujas of Gobindpur and Mahuwa in the Jagdar-Sodhpur Parganna of Saptari district as jagir to Dware Bhawananda. Because you have exacted Jabtana payments at the rate of 1½ annas each from the inhabitants of these moujas, impressed unpaid labor (beth, begar) indiscriminately , and also collected daily payments (roj talabana) on behalf of the (Bhangaruwa market), many of them have fled to India, while others have come here to submit complaints through Dware Bhawananda. We have not grnated you authority to collect such payments or impress such labor. Instead, we have only permitted to throaty regulations issued in your name to collect 1 anna in the rupee from the purchaser on the basis of the value of commercial transactions other than those meant for personal consumption. Refund all unauthorized collections to the ryots, and do not make such collections in the future. Do not oppress the ryots in any way, lest such complaints should again reach us.
Chaitra Sudi 6, 1867

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, pp. 55-56.

2. Royal order to the Subba, Fouzdars, Peshkars, Chaudharis, Kanugoyes, companies under the control of functionaries of the Bhangaruwa-gola, and the Daroga, Rauts, and Mahawats of the Hattisar in Saptari and Mahottari districts.
''If you need to purchase any goods from traders, merchants, hewkers, and others who visit Janakpur in Mahottari district during the Sri Rama Nawami festival, do so at reasonable prices. In case any one does not pay reasonable prices for his purchases, but forcibly appropriates goods, he shall be punished.''
Chaitra Sudi 11, 1867

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, pp. 58-59.

Irrigation Problems

Royal order to royal priests, Chautariyas, Kazis, Sardars, Khajanchi, and owners of birta, jagir, bekh-bunyad, and manachamal lands:

We have received report that you are holding up water on your lands in Saptari and Mahottari districts, and do not make it available for irrigating raikar lands. You have no right to withhold irrigation water from raikar lands in this manner. In the future, make such water available to all lands, jagir, birta, and raikar, according to the area. In case any one holds up the supply of water to raikar lands, such lands, and shall also be punished.
Chaitra Sudi 11, 1867

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 41, p. 58.

Labor Obligations in Baglung
During the revenue settlement of 1893 Vikrama (A.D. 1836), the Mukhiyas of Baglung had submitted the following complaint:
Jaisi Brahmans have been granted exemption from the obligation to provide Hulak (porterage) services for the transportation of goods. Subsequently, a royal order was promulgated ordering the Khas and Jogi inhabitants of Baglung to construct (buildings for) the Baglung Mint, and Praja inhabitants to provide Thaple-Hulaku services for the transportation of goods at the Bihun outpost. As sucn, dual obligations have been imposed on the same households.''
The complaint was forwarded to Kathmandu by the survey officials.
The following royal order was then issued in the names of Mukhiyas Harkadeo Khadka, Sriharka Bhandari, and Janmya Rokaya of Baglung.
''The inhabitants of Baglung, including, Praja, Khas and Magar, and all (tenants) of Khuwa (villages), shall work in the construction of (building for) the Baglung Mint. The inhabitants of Bihun, and Pauni (untouchable) households, shall provide porterage services at the Bihun Hulak outpost.''
Bhadra Sudi 12, 1895

(August 1838)

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 27, pp. 590-91.
Forest Protection
1. Bhadgaun

Vrishadhwaj Thapa of Bhadgaun submitted the following petition to the palace: ''A royal order had been issued previously for the protection of forests at Tindol in Bhadgaun. The order is not lost, hence the forest is being indiscriminately destroyed.''

A royalorder was therefore issued appointing Vrishadhwaj Thapa as caretaker of the forests in the area (boundaries specified) north of Maligaun. The order authorized him to protect the forest, seize the weapons and tools of poachers, and inflict appropriate punishment on them.
Marga Sudi 3, 1886

(November 1829)

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 27, p. 41.
2. Sisneri

(1) The following royal order was issued in the names of specified Brahmans of Sisneri Village in Lalitpur on Chaitra Sudi 15, 1884 (March 1828):

''Protect forests carefully on your birta lands in Majhuwa as well as on raikar lands in Patale in order to conserve water for irrigating Sera (Crown) lands in
Lubhu as well as for protecting black pheasants (Kalij) and black partridges (titra). Do not let black pheasants be hunted with dogs, hawks, snares, etc. Any person who kills hen birds shall be punished with a fine of ten rupees; the fine shall amount ot five rupees if he kills the chicks, and 2½ rupees if the destroyes the eggs. Similarly, a fine of ten rupees shall be imposed on any person who cuts a tree, and of five rupees per load on any person who cuts firewood. Protect the forest with full care.''
The order was addressed to Dinakar Padhya, Ranganath Padhya, Shiromani Padhya, Brajmohan Padhya, Ekasurya Padhya, Govinda Padhya, Ramu Padhya, Prayag Datta Padhya, Raghunath Padhya, Biju Padhya, Ganapati Padhya, Chhabu Padhya, Shrilal Padhya, and other members of the Poudyal clan.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 27, pp. 78-79.
(2) Another royal order was issued on the same day in the names of the following Poudyal Brahmans of Sisneri:
Dinakar Padhya, Ranganath Padhya, Shiromani Padhya, Brajmohan Padhya, Ekasurya Padhya, Shiva Padhya, Nilakantha Padhya, Harivamsha Padhya, Govinda Padhya, Ramu Padhya, Prayag Datta Padhya, Laxminarayan Padhya, Raghunath Padhya, Ramadatta Pandit, Shrilal Padhya, Biju Padhya, Ganapati Padhya, Purnabhadra Padhya, Dinanath Padhya, Dasharath Padhya, and Bhawanishankar Padhya. The order permitted them to cultivate their jafati lands (i.e. birta lands which had been make taxable in A.D. 1806 and protect forest in Sisneri on the following terms and conditions:
1. Any rents on kut or adhiya basis, as the case may be, to your landlords, and also a share of the wheat crops and the ghiukhani tax and the chardam fee.
2. Provide loans to your landlords, if so asked, upto the value of rents.
3. Jagirdar-landlords shall not evict Poudyal Brahmans from their jafati rice-land holdings.
4. Protect the Majhuwa-Patale forest carefully in order to conserve water for irrigating Sera lands in Lubhu.
5. Do not let anyone kill black pheasants and black partridges, or cut trees.
6. Apportion the rice-lands among yourselves for cultivation.
Regmi Research Collection, vol. 27, pp. 79-80.
3. Tanahu, Lamjung, and Kaski

on Kartik Sudi 14, 1888 (October 1831), Shobhananda Banda was granted authority to protect forests in the region situated west of the Chepe river and east of the Kali (Gandaki) river, north of Gaighat and south of the Tingaun hills. He had earlier submitted a petition to the palace complaining that Sal and Sallo trees were being cut indiscriminately in Tanahu, Lamjung, and Kaski, so that timber might become scarce for meeting governmental needs and for the construction of roadside shelters, fords, and forts. A royal order issued in in the name of Shobhakar Banda warned that any person who cut trees without permission would be severly punished.

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 27, pp. 116-17.
4. Sarangkot (Kaski)

The Saunepani forest in Kaski district had been reserved for the supply of timber to construct embankments along the Pardi canal. A chataidar (caretaker) was appointed for tht forest, with authority to cut timber for this purpose and impose a fine of five rupees on any person who did so forcibly for his personal use. The chitaidar was paid remuneration in the form of five muris of paddy every year from rents on lands assigned for that purpose.

Poush Badi 30, 1890

(December 1833)

Regmi Research Collection, vol. 27, pp. 245-246.
5. Bhirkot

(1) On Poush Badi 3, 1889 (December 1832), Shakti Padhya was granted authority to protectthe Kharibote forest (boundaries specified) at Khilung in Bhirkot, as well as a bamboo grove at Phusremata. Timber and bamboo from that forest were allowed to be cut only for the construction of embankments on dams and irrigation channels meant for irrigating jagir lands of the army, as well as of fords on streams and rivers.

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