In the preceding chapter we pointed out the basic position which sīlaoccupies in the spiritual development of the Buddhist disciple and the manner in which sīla came to be related to sikkhāand sikkhāpada. Besides these, the Suttas also know of a number of other items, which together with the above, contribute to the perfection of a disciple. In the Sāmaññaphala Sutta, for instance, we find an account of what constituted the perfect character of the good monk. `Having thus become a recluse he dwells, 1.disciplined by the restraints of the Pātimokkha, 2.endowed with the propriety of behaviour and conduct, 3.heedful even of the slightest misdeeds, 4.disciplining himself in terms of the moral injunctions, 5.possessed of blameless word and deed, 6.virtuous in his livelihood, 7.full of moral virtue, 8.with well restrained sense organs, 9.endowed with mindfulness and awareness, and 10.full of contentment.' (Evaṃ pabbajito samāno 1.pātimokkhasaṃvarasaṃvuto viharati,2.ācāragocara-sampanno, 3.anumattesu vajjesu bhayadassāvī,4.samādāya sikkhati sikkhāpadesu,5.kāyakammavacīkammena samannāgato kusalena, 6.pari-suddhājīvo,7.sīlasampanno, 8.indriyesu guttadvāro,9.satisampajaññena samannāgato, 10.santuṭṭho. D.I.63).
Explaining further the items which are mentioned here, the Sutta deals first with the concept of sīlasampanno (7), making an exhaustive analysis of its many aspects. The Sutta proceeds thereafter to indriyesu guttadvāro(8), satisampajaññena samannāgato (9) and santuṭṭho (10). In its summing up too, the Sutta is concerned only with these four items (So iminā ca ariyena sīlakkhandhena samannāgato iminā ca ariyena indriyasaṃvarena samannāgato iminā ca ariyena satisampajaññena samannāgato imāya ca ariyāya santuṭṭhiyā samannāgato vivittaṃ senāsanaṃ bhajati. D.I.71). Thus we are naturally led to associate the first six items of the above list from pātimokkhasaṃvarasaṃvuto(1) to parisuddhājīvo(6) with sīlasampanno and consider them as subdivisions of the latter. Of these six items, the first four have already appeared together with sīlavā, in the difinitions of sīlasampanno (Kathañ ca mahānāma ariyasāvako sīlasampanno hoti. Idha mahānāma ariyasāvako sīlavā hoti pātimokkhasaṃvarasaṃvuto viharati ācāragocarasampanno anumattesu vajjesu bhayadassāvī samādāya sikkhati sikkhāpadesu. M.I.355).1 Buddhaghosa helps us to include the remaining two items also under the category of sīla. In the Sumaṅgalavilāsinī he takes these two (kāyakammavacīkammena samannāgato kusalena and parisuddhājīvo) as complementary to each other and points them out to be really amounting to one thing, namely sīla (Yasmā idaṃājīvapārisuddhisīlaṃ nāma na ākāse vā rukkhaggādisu vā uppajjati kāyavacīdvāresu eva pana uppajjati tasmā tassa uppattidvāradassanatthaṃ hāyakammavacīkammena samannāgato kusalenā'ti vuttaṃ. Yasmā pana tena samannāgato tasmā parisuddhājīvo. Mandiyaputtasuttantavasena vā etaṃ. Tattha hi katamañ ca thapati kusalaṃ sīlaṃ. Kusalaṃ kāyakammaṃ vacīkammaṃ. Parisuddhaṃājīvaṃ'pi kho ahaṃ thapati sīlasmiṃ vadāmī'ti vuttaṃ. DA.I.181f.). Buddhaghosa is, no doubt, backed here by the Canonical texts. The Mandiyaputta Sutta which he quotes is none other than the Samaṇamaṇḍikā Sutta of the Majjhima Nikāya2 where ājīvapārisuddhi is recognised as a part of good sīla.
After sīlaand its accessory virtues we are introduced to three further items in the spiritual development of the Buddhist disciple, viz. indriyesu guttadvāratā, satisampajaññaand santuṭṭhī. These together with sīla, are to be achieved and accomplished before the disciple embarks on his inner purification, commencing with the elimination of the five nīvaraṇa.1 Indriyasaṃvara or indriyesu guttadvāratā, restraint of senses referred to above, appears to take the disciple to a stage beyond sīla in that it aims at the discipline of the body as well as of the mind for the sake of further inner development. The disciple begins to regulate, in the light of the instructions of the Master, his responses to the external world through the sense organs so as not to allow evil thoughts which result from excessive desires and dislikes to get the better of him. He needs a cultivated outlook for this purpose. He has to guard his senses with cautions neutrality (So cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā na nimittaggāhī hoti nā'nubyañjanaggāhī yatv'ādhikaraṇaṃ enaṃ cakkhundriyaṃ asaṃvutaṃ viharantaṃ abhijjhā domanassā pāpakā akusalā dhammā anvāssaveyyuṃ tassa saṃvarāya paṭipajjati rakkhati cakkhundriyaṃ. D.I.70f.)2
The significant part indriyasaṃvarathus plays in the religious life of a Buddhist disciple is amply illustrated in the Mahātaṇhāsaṅkhaya Sutta. It points out how unguarded senses upset the poise of mind and enslave one to his sense experiences (So cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā piyaṛūpe rūpe sārajjati appiyarūpe rūpe vyāpajjati anupaṭṭhitakāyasati ca viharati parittacetaso tañ ca cetovimuttiṃ paññāvimuttiṃ yathābhūtaṃ nappajānāti yattha'ssa te pāpakā akusalā dhammā aparisesā nirujjhanti. So evaṃ anurodhavirodhaṃ samāpanno yaṃ kañ ci vedanaṃ vedeti sukhaṃ vā dukkhaṃ vā adukkhamasukhaṃ vā so taṃ vedanaṃ abhinandati abhivadati ajjhosāya tiṭṭhati. M.I.266). This in turn, it is pointed out, leads to the perpetuation of the saṃsāric process which the Buddhist disciple strives to transcend (Tassa tam vedanaṃ abhinandato abhivadato ajjhosāya tiṭṭhato uppajjati nandī yā vedanāsu nandī tadupādānaṃ tassupādānapaccayā bhavo bhapvaccayā jāti jātipaccayā jarāmaraṇaṃ sokaparideva-dukkha-domanassupāyāsā sambhavanti. Evam etassa kevalassa dukkhakkandhassa samudayo hoti. Ibid.). Indriyasaṃvara or restraint over sense-faculties is also valued elsewhere as paving the way to sīla. It is said that in the absence of indriyasaṃvara, sīla would be without support (Indriyasaṃvare bhikkhave asati indriyasaṃvaravipannassa hatūpanisaṃ hoti sīlaṃ. A.III.360). Hirotappa,the sense of shame and fear in doing what is wrong, is sometimes added as a virtue which necessarily precedes indriyasaṃvara.1Satisampajañña or mental alertness and awareness is considered to be the first and foremost in this whole process of acquiring personal discipline.2 Regardless of the order in which they are listed, they all aim jointly at vimutti or the final liberation from saṃsāra.
Besides this, indriyasaṃvarahas a secondary importance in that it contributes to the successful practice of the monastic life. It is said that indriyasaṃvara sustains the life of brahmacariya: Indriyasaṃvaro brahmacariyassa āhāro. A.V.136. Expressed negatively, it is implied that the lack of indriyasaṃvara is an impediment to it: Indriyā'saṃvaro brahmacariyassa paripantho. Ibid. The lure of sensual pleasures which a pabbajitahas to renounce on leaving the household life was a great force against which he had to be constantly armed. On taking to the monastic career, if the pabbajita did not acquire proper control over his senses, temptations of kāmawould not only defile his mind but also wreck his whole monastic life, swallowing him up in the whirl of worldly pleasures (So evaṃ pabbajito samāno pubbaṇhasamayaṃ nivāsetvā pattacīvaraṃādāya gāmaṃ vā nigamaṃ vā piṇḍāya pavisati arakkhiten'eva kāyena arakkhitāya vā vācāya anupaṭṭhitāya satiyā asaṃvutehi indriyehi. So tattha passati gahapatiṃ vā gahapatiputtaṃ vā pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappitaṃ samaṅgībhūtaṃ paricārayamānaṃ. Tassa evaṃ hoti mayaṃ kho pubbe agāriyabhūtā samānā pañcahi kāmaguṇehi samappitā samaṅgībhūtā paricārimha. Saṃvijjante kho kule bhogā. Sakkā bhoge ca bhuñjituṃ puññāni ca kātun'ti. So sikkhaṃ paccakkhāya hīnāyā'vattati. Ayaṃ vuccati bhikkhave āvaṭṭabhayassa bhīto sikkhaṃ paccakkhāya hīnāyā'vatto. M.I.461). Indriyasaṃvara is also sometimes spoken of as an essential monastic virtue necessary for the safeguarding of a disciple's chastity and therefore also of his whole monastic life. In the adsene of such restraint he would succumb to the temptations of the world and would be torn off the moorings of monastic life.1
On the other hand, the insistence on indriyasaṃvarain Buddhist monasticism is given as a reason why Buddhist disciples, most of whom are described as not being mature in years, have successfully completed their monastic careers. They achieved this end through the restraint of their senses (Vuttaṃ kho etaṃ mahārāja tena bhagavatā jānatā passatā arahatā sammā-sambuddhena etha tumhe bhikkhave indriyesu guttadvārā viharatha cakkhunā rūpaṃ disvā ... manindriye saṃvaraṃāpajjathā'ti. Ayaṃ kho mahārāja hetu ayaṃ paccayo yen' ime daharā bhikkhū susukālakesā bhadrena yobbanena samannāgatā paṭhamena vayasā anikīḷitāvino kāmesu yāvajīvaṃ paripuṇṇaṃ parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ caranti addhānañ ca āpādenti - S.IV.112.).
Satisampajañña or mental alertness, which comes next, is very generally described as awareness and deliberation over all bodily activities which range from movement of limbs, bodily ablutions and acts of eating and drinking to speech and silence, sleep and wakefulness (So abhikkante paṭikkante sampajānakārī hoti ālokite vilokite sampajānakārī hoti samiñjite pasārite sampajānakārī hoti saṅghāṭipattacīvaradhāraṇe sampajānakārī hoti asite pīte khāyite sāyite sampajānakaī hoti uccārapassavakamme sampajānakārī hoti gate ṭhite nisinne sutte jāgarite bhāsite tuṇhībhāve sampajānakāri hoti - M.I.181).
Santuṭṭhi which appears as the last virtue in this list, emphasises a disciple's contentment with regard to his food and clothing, which incidentally had to be of the simplest order (Seyyathā'pi mahārāja pakkhī sakuṇo yena yen'eva ḍeti sapattabhāro'va ḍeti evam eva mahārāja bhikkhu santuṭṭho hoti kāyaparihārikena cīvarena kucchiparihārikena piṇḍapātena. So yena yen'eva pakkamati samādāy'eva pakkamati. D.I.71). This virtue of santuṭṭhi or contentment is also used in relation to the wider field of requirements of a Buddhist disciple, viz. the fourfold requisites or catupaccaya (Santuṭṭho hoti itarītaracīvara-piṇḍapāta-senāsana-gilānapaccaya-bhesajjaparikkhārena. A.III.135). The venerable Mahā Kassapa is held out as a perfect embodiment of this virtue and the other disciples are advised to emulate him (Santuṭṭhā'yaṃ bhikkhave kassapo itarītarena....Tasmāt'iha bhikkhave evaṃ sikkhitabbaṃ santuṭṭhā bhavissāma itarītarena cīvarena itarītaracīvarasantuṭṭhiyā ca vaṇṇavādino na ca cīvarahetu anesanaṃ appaṭirūpaṃāpajjissāma. Aladdhā ca cīvaraṃ na paritassissāma laddhā ca cīvaraṃ agadhitā amucchitā anajjhāpannāādīnavadassāvino nissaraṇapaññā paribhuñjissāma. Evaṃ kātabbaṃ..... itarītarena piṇḍapātena.... itarītarena senāsanena...... itarītarena gilānapaccaya-bhesajjaparikkhārena.... Kassapena vā hi vo bhikkhave ovadissāmi yo vā kassapasadiso. Ovaditehi ca pana vo tathattāya paṭipajjitabban'ti. S.II.194f.). The Khaggavisāṇa Sutta echoes a similar refrain:
Cātuddiso appaṭigho ca hoti
parissayānaṃ sahitā achambhī
eko care khaggavisāṇakappo.
'Moving freely in all the four quarters of the world, without any sense of cnflict or hostility, content with meagre provisions, braving all dangers without trepidation, let him wander alone like the rhinoceros.'
Santuṭṭhi also focusses light on the abstemiousness of the disciple which has been praised elsewhere as santussako ca subharo ca appakicco ca sallahukavutti.1 'Contented is he and easily supportable. He is abstemious and has few things that he needs to do.' Commenting on the word santuṭṭho,Buddhaghosa does, in fact, emphasise this aspect of monastic life (Iti imassa bhikkhuno sallahukavuttiṃ dassento bhagavā santuṭṭho hoti kāyaparihārikena cīvarenā'ti ādim āha - DA.I.207). We also witness in the Canonical texts the elaboration of this concept of santuṭṭhi under the name of ariyavaṃsā. The Saṅgīti Sutta1 speaks of cattāro ariyavaṃsāor four noble traditions which according to the Commentary are characteristic of the Buddhas and their disciples.2 The Sutta itself calls them ancient traditions: porāṇā aggaññā ariyavaṃsā. The Aṅguttara Nikāya also knows of the ariyavaṃsā. Describing them in greater detail it claims universal approval and acceptance for them. It is also claimed that they come down from hoary antiquity and have ever since held an unchallenged position. The practice of these it is said, will enable a monk to resist the temptations of the pleasures of the world and derive sufficient inspiration to fight the spiritual lethargy that would impede his progress (Cattāro' me bhikkhave ariyavaṃsā aggaññā vaṃsaññā porāṇā asaṃkiṇṇā asaṃkiṇṇapubbā na saṃkīyanti na saṃkīyissanti appaṭikuṭṭhā samaṇehi brāhmaṇehi viññūhi....Imehi ca pana bhikkhave catūhi ariyavaṃsehi samannāgato bhikkhu puratthimāya ce 'pi disāya viharati sv'eva aratiṃ sahati na taṃ arati sahati....Taṃ kissa hetu. Aratiratisaho hi bhikkhave dhīro'ti - A.II.27f.). The first three of these ariyavaṃsā pertain to a disciple's contentment with regard to his clothing, food and residence respectively. The commentary on the Saṅgīti Sutta points out that being so they fall within the territory of the Vinaya Piṭaka.3 It also tells us that in compressing the four requisites of the catupaccayawithin the first three items of ariyavaṃsā, gilāna-paccayabhesajjaparikkhāra is to be taken as being implicitly included under piṇḍapāta.4The fourth place in the list of ariyavaṃsā is reserved for the disciple's interest and enthusiasm in his spiritual development, both by the elimination of evil traits of his mind and by his inner culture (pahānārāmo and bhāvanārāmo). Hence the commentator suggests that the other two Piṭakas, Sutta and Abhidhamma, play their role here. Thus it should be noted that this concept of ariyavaṃsāis more developed and more comprehensive than the fourfold contentment in relation to the catupaccaya which was ascribed to the venerable Mahā Kassapa.1
As is evident from the text of the Sāmaññaphala Sutta, these virtues of sīla, indriyasaṃvara, satisampajañña and santuṭṭhi undoubtedly constituted the standard pattern of early Buddhist monasticism (Evaṃ pabbajito samāno pātimokkhasaṃvarasaṃvuto viharati ācāragocarasampanno anumattesu vajjesu bhayadassāvī samādāya sikkhati sikkhāpadesu kāyakammavacīkammena samannāgato kusalena parisuddhājīvo sīlasampanno indriyesu guttadvāro satisampajaññena samannāgato santuṭṭho. D.I.63). We also discover in the Canonical texts another list of virtues, somewhat different from the above, which are linked with the disciple's spiritual development under sīla. They are as follows:
As in the former list the cultivation of these virtues here prepares the disciple for the elimination of the five nīvaraṇa. Thus both these lists which start with sīla appear to be similar in their scope. They are in fact identical as far as sīla and indriyasaṃvaraare concerned. The latter list adds thereafter two new items in bhojane mattaññutāand jāgariyānuyoga. It leaves out santuṭṭhi of the former, but agrees with it in retaining satisampajañña.
As we examine the concept of bhojane mattaññutā, it appears as though considerations regarding the acceptance and use of food assumed, in course of time, increasing importance in Buddhist monasticism, and that it led to this special mention of moderation in eating. The broader concept of santuṭṭhi which covers all the needs of a disciple besides food is thus replaced by this narrower one of bhojane mattaññutā, perhaps with the intention of being more specific. In its wider interpretation, however, bhojane mattaññutā was taken to be equivalent to santuṭṭhi as is evident from the comment of Buddhaghosa which says that bhojane mattaññutā brings to light such virtues like contentment: bhojane mattaññū'ti idam assa santosādiguṇaparidīpam. VibhA.323. Heedlessness in eating was considered a danger not only to the physical well-being but also to the mental poise and spiritual development of the disciple. In several suttas like the Kakacūpama, Bhaddāli and Laṭukikopama,1 the Buddha speaks of the physical benefits which result from moderation and regularity in meals. A verse in the Theragāthā almost specifies the quantity of food to be consumed by a monk.
'Let him drink water after his meal while he leaves four or five mouthfuls of food yet uneaten. This is conducive to the ease and comfort of the disciple who is striving for his emancipation.'
It is suggested in the Commentaries that these bounds of propriety apply not only to the quantity of food consumed but also to the amount sought and accepted (Bhojane mattaññutā'ti bhojane yā mattā jānitabbā pariyesana-paṭiggahana-paribhogesu yuttatā. MA.I.152). The Vatthūpama Sutta negatively implies the dangers to spiritual life of the proneness to pleasures in eating.1 A disciple of such virtue and wisdom, even if he were to partake of a delicious and delightful meal, would not thereby bring ruin upon his spiritual life (Sa kho so bhikkhave bhikkhu evaṃsīlo evaṃdhammo evampañño sālīnañ ce'pi piṇḍapātaṃ bhuñjati vicitakālakaṃ anekasūpaṃ anekabyañjanaṃ nev'assa taṃ hoti antarāyāya. M.I.38).
Thus bhojane mattaññutābecame an important item of monastic discipline. True to the injunction under santuṭṭhi (santuṭṭho hoti kucchiparihārikena piṇḍapātena) it not only sets the limit on the quantity of food, but also corrects the disciple's attitude to the use of food in general.2 The disciple is advised to eat his food with the awareness that he does so in order to maintain his physical fitness, free from pain, that he may further his religious pursuit of brahmacariya. He should eschew all desires of physical perfection and adornment (Ehi tvaṃ bhikkhu bhojane mattaññū hohi paṭisaṅkhā yoniso āhāreyyāsi neva davāya na madāya na maṇḍanāya na vibhūsanāya yāvad'ev'imassa kāyassa ṭhitiyā yāpanāya vihiṃsūparatiyā brahmacariyānuggahāya - M.III. 2). The Dhammapada views it from many other angles. Moderation in eating is said to be a great asset in the battle against the forces of evil. The disciple who along with other virtues possesses a sense of moderation in eating shall not easily be swayed by Māra. It is said that the disciple should take his food with the awareness that it should contribute so much to his physical well being as would be needed for the successful completion of his life of brahmacariya. Asubhānupassiṃ viharantaṃ indriyesu susaṃvutaṃ
bhojanamhi ca mattaññuṃ saddhaṃ āraddhavīriyaṃ
taṃ ve nappasahati māro vāto selaṃ'va pabbataṃ.
Dhp. v. 8. It is also listed there among the basic injunctions of the Buddhas.
Anūpavādo anūpaghāto pātimokkhe ca saṃvaro
mattaññutā ca bhattasmiṃ panthañ ca sayanāsanaṃ
adhicitte ca āyogo etaṃ buddhāna sāsanaṃ.
This added emphasis which seems to be centered on the question of food does not appear to have resulted from mere theoretical considerations. Evidence of both the Sutta and the Vinaya Piṭakas show that restrictions on food were constantly being challenged and violated by rebellious disciples even during the time of the Buddha. Bhaddāli tells the Buddha of his inability to practise the habit of one meal a day (Evaṃ vutte āyasmā bhaddāli bhagavantaṃ etad 'avoca. Ahaṃ kho bhante na ussahāmi ekāsanabhojanaṃ bhuñjituṃ - M.I.437). The Laṭukikopama Sutta expresses through the words of Udāyi what might have been the general protest at the prohibition to the monks of the night meal and meals out of hours.1 Similarly, we witness in the Kīṭāgiri Sutta the followers of Assaji and Punabbasu, who being told about the Buddha's abstemious ways relating to food, argue on the merits of plentiful meals.2 We also come across a number of supplementary rules on the acceptance and use of food which were laid down by the Buddha as a result of certain irregularities indulged in by erring disciples. Once a number of monks, fearing that they would get only a frugal meal at the house of a poor man who had invited them. collected an early meal and enjoyed it beforehand. This led to the promulgation of Pācittiya 33.3 In the history of Pācittiya 35 we discover monks taking a second meal elsewhere after they had concluded their meal at one place.4 Pācittiya 37had to be laid down as a special safeguard against eating after hours.5 It should here be observed that all these situations are implicitly guarded against under sīlain the sikkhāpadawhich pertains to food, that the disciple takes only one meal a day, abstaining from the night meal and meals after hours (Ekabhattiko hoti rattūparato virato vikālabhojanā. D.I.64).
Considerig all these dangers which could possibly befall Buddhist monasticism in general and the spiritual life of the disciple in particular through an untutored attitude to food, it is little wonder that bhojane mattaññutā became a special monastic virtue. We notice further a new attitude to food being cultivated by the Buddhist disciples which came to be regarded as one among seven conditions which lead to enlightenment.6 It is an acquired feeling of disgust and detachment towards food which a disciple is called upon to develop gradually, stage by stage (Tasmiṃāhāre paṭikkūlākāraggahaṇavasena uppannā saññāāhāre paṭikkūlasaññā - Vism.341.). What is intended thereby is that a disciple's mind may never be enslaved through his greed for food (Āhāre paṭikkūlasaññā bhikkhave bhāvitā bahulīkatā mahapphalā hoti mahānisaṃsā amatogadhā amatapariyosānā'ti iti kho pan 'etaṃ vuttaṃ kiñc'etaṃ paṭicca vuttaṃ. Āhāre paṭikkūlasaññāparicitena bhikkhave bhikkhuno cetasā bahulaṃ viharato rasataṇhāya cittaṃ paṭilīyati paṭikuṭṭati paṭivattati na sampasārīyati upekkhā vā paṭikkūlyatā vā saṇṭhāti. A.IV.49). The Visuddhimagga considers that the acquisition of this attitude would serve as a prelude to the complete eradication of lust centering on the fivefold pleasures of the senses (Atha 'ssa appakasiren'eva kabaliṅkārāhārapariññāmukhena pañcakāmaguṇiko rāgo pariññaṃ gacchati. Vism.347). The origin of this idea of Buddhaghosa is in fact traceable back to Canonical texts. The Samyutta Nikāya (S.II.98) records a statement by the Buddha himself where he says that once a complete mastery over one's attitude to solid food of daily consumption has been gained (kabaliṅkāra-āhāre pariññāte), one gains restraint over one's attitude to the entire range of fivefold sense pleasures or pañcakāmaguṇika-rāga. It is the vision of such possibilities, no doubt, which set a high premium on āhāre paṭikkūlasaññāand led to its being considered as a factor leading to nibbāna(amatogadhā amatapariyosānā).1
Jāgariyānuyoga too, like bhojane mattaññutā, is a very specific virtue. It refers to both physical wakefulness and mental alertness through control of sleep. Satisampajañña which was referred to earlier, concerns itself with the vigilance of a disciple. But jāgariyānuyoga demands that adisciple should harness that vigilance to bring about the purge of his mind of the defiling traits. We notice that instead of replacing satisampajañña, jāgariyānuyoga augments it by adding this active mind-culture as another important monastic virtue. Thus the second list of monastic virtues is completed with satisampajañña as the last of its items.
Out of the virtues enumerated in this second list three have come to deserve special consideration in that they are often listed together as basic virtues necessary for the successful continuance of monastic life as well as for the attainment of the final goal of Arahantship. The catastrophic failure in spiritual life, resulting from their absence, is relentlessly stated as follows: So vata āvauso bhikkhu indriyesu aguttadvāro bhojane amattaññū jāgariyaṃ ananuyutto yāvajīvaṃ paripuṇṇam parisuddhaṃ brahmacariyaṃ santānessatī'ti n'etaṃṭhānam vijjati. (S.IV.103f.). It is in terms of these monastic virtues that the venerable Mahā Kassapa judged the followers of Ānanda and declared them to be immature and unworthy.1 However, we notice that no mention is made here of sīla. Perhaps it is implicitly taken to be contained within the framework of these three items of indriyasaṃvara, bhojane mattaññutā and jāgariya. They lead to the physical and mental well-being of a disciple in this very life and pave the way for the attainment of Arahantship (Tīhi bhikkhave dhammehi samannāgato bhikkhu diṭṭhe'va dhamme sukhasomanassabahulo viharati yoni ca'ssa āraddhā hoti āsavānaṃ khayāya. Katamehi tīhi. Indriyesu guttadvāro hoti bhojane mattaññū jāgariyam anuyutto. S.IV.175f.). The Aṅguttara reiterates this idea, declaring the infallibility of these virtues.2 There is no doubt that they formed a powerful triad in the development of monastic life. However, we find at times satisampajaññaappended to these as a fourth (Kimaññatra bhikkhave nando indriyesu guttadvāro bhojane mattaññū jāgariyam anuyutto satisampajaññena samannāgato yena nando sakkoti paripuṇṇam parisuddham brahmacariyaṃ carituṃ. A.IV.166).