4 See Ch.XIV for a comparative study of Bhikkhu and Bhikkhuni Pātimokkhas
1 Pāc. 6, 63-65, 71-73, 76, 77, 79-82
2 Vin.IV. 37-39: Pāc. 69 and 70
1 Ibid.167-73: Pāc. 85-92
3 Ibid.39-46, 91, 155f: Pāc.14-18, 41, 82
2 Vin.III.265; IV.156
3 Vin.III.195-203: Nissaggiya 1-3.
1 Vin.II.288. See Appendix II.
2 M.I.33,355; II.2,134; S.V.187; A. II.14.
1 Whether we use the word ritual with reference to this event or not, it is said to have been performed with definite regularity and with a seriousness of purpose which had a religious significance. When we describe the recital as being ritualistic in character it is at the later stage when the spirit of the old Uddesahad faded away and the recital had come to be burdened with many technicalities of an external character which have hardly any connection with its earlier aims. In contrast to this we use the word ritual with reference to the Pātimokkha recital from its earliest phase.
1 See supra, pp. 2, 7.
1 S. Dutt, The Buddha And Five After-Centuries,p.65f.
1 Vin.I.101. On the adaptation by the Buddhists of this respect for the 8th, 14th and 15th days of every fortnight see Anguttara Nikāya I.142-45
2 See Vin.I.102
1 S. Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism,p.83
3 Vin.I.106-11. See Appendix III.
3 Bhikkhupātimokkhagaṇṭhidīpani, p. 6. A Pali work ascribed to a Thera Nānakitti and printed in Ceylon in 1889.
4 Vin.I.106. See also Appendix III.
2 See also Vin.III.186, 194, 266; IV.174, 184, 206
1 Rhys Davids and Oldenberg seem to find further support for this idea through an etymological analysis of the words Pātimokkha and Prātimokṣa. See Vinaya Texts I. [SBE..XIII ], p.xxvii f.
2 See also D.I.85; M.I.440; III.247; Vin.II.192
1 Gilgit MSS.III.3.p.107f.
1 Further, the Mahāvagga records the state of affairs of a time when disciplinary action against offenders had to be taken after careful consideration of the temperament and mood of the offenders. For they were not only capable of openly expressing their resentment but were also bold enough even to threaten bodily harm to the prosecuting members. (Tena kho pana samayena pesalā bhikkhū chabbaggiye bhikkhū okāsaṃ kārāpetvāāpattiyā codenti. Chabbaggiyā bhikkhū labhanti āghātaṃ labhanti appaccayaṃ vadhena tajjenti. Bhagavato etamatthaṃārocesuṃ. Anujānāmi bhikkhava kate'pi okāse puggalaṃ tulayitvāāpattiyā codetun'ti. Vin.I.114).
2 Ibid.164. Cf. Ibid.125f. See also Oldenberg, Buddha,p.375.n.1.
2 See Pāc.69: Vin.IV.137
2 Note Oldenberg's remarks: `It deserves to be noticed that in the same way as the Pabbājaniya kamma is not mentioned in the Pātimokkha, neither is there any mention of the similar proceedings of the Ukkhepaniyakamma, etc., however much occasion for it might appear.' Vin. I. p.xix. But this does not mean that these two forms of punishment, banishment (Pabbājaniya) and Suspension (Ukkhepaniya) were not known to the Pātimokkha. Saṅgh.13 uses the term pabbājenti with obvious familiarity. Note:...... tādisikāya āpattiyā ekaccaṃ pabbājenti ekaccaṃ na pabbājenti.Vin.III.184. Likewise, Pārājika 7 of the Bhikkhunī Pātimokkha (Pārājika 3 of the Bhikkhunīvibhaṅga) knows not only of Bhikkhus who have been suspended (ukkhittaṃ bhikkhuṃ) but knows also the fact that such disciplinary action has been taken by the collectively responsible body of the Saṅgha (samaggena saṅghena ukkhittaṃ bhikkhuṃ. Vin.IV.218). It should also be pointed out here that in the Bhikkhu Pātimokkha where disciplinary action in terms of Banishment and Suspension appears to be evident it is still left informally in the hands of the Bhikkhus. The responsibility does not seem to be vested in the Saṅgha (So bhikkhu bhikkhūhi evamassa vacanīyo ... pakkamat'āyasmā imamhāāvāsā. Alan te idha vāsenā'ti. Vin.III.184. Also Vin.IV.135).
1 In interpreting the condition bhikkhūhi na sampayojetabbaṃin the manner given above we choose to agree with Miss Horner who translates it as 'He should not quarrel with monks'. This translation is, in fact, supported by the Commentary. Oldenberg renders it as `ought not to associate with the bhikkhus'. Vinaya Texts II. [SBE.XVII] p.339
2 IHQ.Vol.29. No.2. p.174
2 Journal of the Gangānāth Jhā Research Institute,Vol. X. Appendix p.13.
1 For a closer examination of these views the reader is referred to S. Dutt's Early Buddhist Monachism,p.147f.
1 Journal of the Ganganath Jha Research Institute,vol.X. Appendix.
1 D.II.100,154; Vin.II.188
1 See Chapter IV
3 Vin.I.Intr. p.xii. n.2
4 The Book of the Discipline IV.84. n.1 See also Miss Horner's art. Abhidhamma Abhivinaya, IHQ.Vol.XVII.291ff.
1 Vin.I.60, 62, 80. Nissaya: In this context it means the dependence of the pupil on his teacher for guidance and instruction. The Vinaya prescribes a compulsory period of such tutelage for young pupil monks.
1 Altekar, A.S., The Position of Women in Hindu Civilization,p.204-5
1 Altekar, A.S., op.cit.p.208
1 Prabhu, Hindu Social Orgnisation,p.284
1 i.e., 'What, O monks, does that foolish man think that a mother would not feel lustfully attached to her son or the son to his mother.' See Gradual Sayings,III.p.55 for a different translation of this passage which we consider to be incorrect.
1 See Gradual Sayings, III.p.57
1 Jaina Sūtras I [SBE.XXII], p.81
2 Deo, S.B., History of Jaina Monachism, p.493. See supra p.38
1 A.IV.274; Vin.II.253
1 Ibid. The other schools of Buddhism too, besides the Theravādins, do not appear to have challenged the historicity of this incident.
2 Jaina Sūtras II. [SBE.XLV], 122.n.3
1 Taisho Vol.22.p.923 B
1 Ibid.313, 315. See Bhikkhunī Pācittiya 56, 59
1 Vin.IV.127, 216, 239
1 Taisho,Vol.22. p.186. A
3 D.II.14; Vin.II.287. See Appendix. II
1 Taisho, Vol.22.p.927 A
3 Note the Buddha's remarks to Pajāpati Gotami before her passing away at Apadāna II.535.v.79
4 Taisho,Vol.22. p.186. B
1 Vin.II.p.289. See also Ibid.256
2 Taisho, Vol.22. p.186 A
3 Ibid.p.923 C. See also Vin.II.256
1 Miss D.N. Bhagavat, Early Buddhist Jurisprudence,p.164ff.
1 The numbering of the additional rules of the Bhikkhunis here is in accordance with the abridged text of the Bhikkhunīvibhaṅga (Vin.IV.211-251) where only the asādhāraṇa paññattiare listed. Hence these numbers do not indicate the real position of the sikkhāpadain relation to the complete text of the Bhikhunī Pātimokkha.
2 This sikkhāpadais not given in the Suttavibhaṅga as it is only the Bhikkhuni version of a sādhāraṇa paññatti held in common with the Bhikkhus. Hence the number 147 is in terms of the complete text.
1 The real position of this sikkhāpadain the complete Pātimokkha of the Bhikkhunis would be Pācittiya No.115. As this is a sādhāraṇa paññatti it is not listed in the Bhikkhunīvibhaṅga.
1 Vin.IV.226, 231
2 Ibid.227f, 233, 234
1 Vin.III. 06, 209
4 See Nissaggiya Pācittiya No.1 in the Bhikkhunī Pātimokkha. Looked upon as a new rule it is placed in the Bhikkhunīvibhaṅga. Vin.IV.243