The Buddhist Monastic Order is the earliest corporate organisation in the world where within a framework of a flexible organisation there was evolved ancilary bodies, rules, regulations and codes of conduct of the most minute detaill. Every aspect of a monk's life, living in society and together with other monks as well as nuns, has been gone into in the ancient texts. The author has brought to life the ancient organisational forms, rules and codes and the methods adopted to enfforce them without the charge of tyranny being levelled against the Elders. He has shown how the Buddhist concept of ceaseless change has made inroads into the organisation and has been dextrously handled so as to safeguard the doctrine and the organisation.
The author draws extensively from the original ancient Pali, Sanskrit, and Chines texts.
This book is felt to be of great value to students of Buddhism, students of Asian History and Indologists.
The book will be of value also to students of political theory whose sources have so far been confined to Greek, Roman and Sanskrit material. It throws new light on ancient Buddhist social organisation.
1 Conventionalization and Assimilation in Religious Movements in Social Psychology with special reference to the development of Buddhism and Christianity, p. 24, Riddell Memorial Lectures, Twelfth Series, O.U.P. London, 1940
1 Monier Williams, Buddhism., p.75.
1 See S. Dutt, Buddha And Five After-Centuries, p.66 and Further Dialogues, II. SBB.VI.p.160.
2 Given by Mrs. Rhys Davids as occurring at Vinaya Texts,SBE. XIII (edition not given), p.112. [ See her Outlines of Buddhism,p.74 where she has made use of this translation.]. But the 1881 edition of the text which we have used has the following translation which we consider to be reliably accurate : `They will understand the doctrine.'
3 For the correct and complete quotation see D.I.85; M.I.440; Vin.I.315.
2 M.II.11. lists it under the four sammappadhāna. Ibid.pp.95, 128 list it under the five padhāniyaṅga.
1 Monier Williams, Buddhism,pp.74-75.
2 M.I.80, 82, 237f; Ud.65.
3 Oldenberg, Buddha, pp.60-70.
4 S.Dutt, Ealy Buddhist Monachism, pp.30-56.
1 Rhys Davids, Buddhism (Non-Christian Religious Systems) 1886, p.152. Note: This is a revised edition and is the earliest edition available to us.
2 Even the reprint which was made 26 years afterwards of this learned treatise has not witnessed a change of his view. See 1912 ed. p.152.
1 Mrs. Rhys Davids, Buddhism,(Home University Library) 1912 ed.p.204.
2 See Mrs. Rhys Davids, Buddhism (Revised edition, 1934), p.198f.
3 Mrs. Rhys Davids, Outlines of Buddhism, p.63. See her Buddhism, (1934 ed.) p.201.
1 Ibid. p.75.
2 Miss Horner, The Book of the Discipline, I. pp.xviii.
1 Monier Williams, Buddhism,p.72.
1 S. Dutt, Buddha And Five After-Centuries,p.61.
1 S.Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism, p.91. Rhys Davids and Oldenberg too translate it as `Let not two of you go the same way' at Vinaya Texts I, SBE. XIII (1881), p.112. But Mrs. Rhys Davids quotes SBE.XIII (edition not given) as translating this statement as `Go not singly but in pairs.' (See Outlines of Buddhism, p.74.). Neither the grammar of this sentence nor the spirit in which it was made would allow us to accept this latter translation.
2 Miss Horner, Women Under Primitive Buddhism, p.115.
1 S. Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism,p.113.
2 Ibid. p.110. n.84. and Buddha And Five After-Centuries,p.109. n.1.
3 S. Dutt, Buddha And Five After - Centuries,p.66.
2 M.I.24f, 95f.
3 S.Dutt, Buddha And Five after-Centuries,p.69. The word nissayais used to refer to the minimum requirements of a Bhikkhu on which he depends and subsists. They include food (piṇḍapāta), clothing (cīvara), shelter (senāsana) and medicaments (gilānapaccaya-bhesajja-parikkhāra) and are referred to as the Four Nissayas (cattāro nissayā). See Vin.I.58.
4 S. Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism,p.92.
2 S.Dutt, Buddha And Five After-Centuries,p.96.
3 S. Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism,p.96.
2 S.Dutt, Buddha And Five After-Centuries, p.70.
3 S. Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism, p.13.
4 Ibid. p.67.
2 See S. Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism, p.13.
1 Vinaya Texts I. SBE. XIII. xii.
2 Oldenberg, Buddha,p.331.
3 S. Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism,p.13.
3 See Ch.IV.
1 S.Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism,p.36.
2 S.Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism, p.65.
3 Evam eva pana udāyi idh'ekacce moghapurisā idaṃ pajahathā'ti mayā vuccamānā te evam āhaṃsu. Kim pan'imassa appamattakassa oramattakassa. adhisallikhatevā'yaṃ samaṇo'ti - M.I.449.
Ko nu kho bhante hetu ko paccayo yena pubbe appatarāni c'eva sikkhāpadāni ahesum bahutarā ca bhikkhū aññāya saṇṭhahiṃsu. Ko pana bhante hetu ko paccayo yena etarahi bahutarāni c'eva sikkhāpadāni honti appatarā ca bhikkhū aññāya saṇṭhahantī'ti - M.I.445. See also S.II.224.
4 Wiṅternitz, History of Indian Literature II, p.24.
1 Vin.II.96. It is important to maintain the distinction between these suttas (sutta) and the texts of the Sutta Piṭaka which are referred to as Suttas or Suttantas, and are viewed as belonging to a sphere outside the Vinaya and Abhidhamma Piṭakas. Note: Anāpatti na vivaṇṇetukāmo iṅgha tvaṃ suttante vā gāthāyo vā abhidhammaṃ vā pariyāpuṇassu pacchā vinayaṃ pariyāpuṇissasī'ti bhaṇati - Vin.IV.144.
4 Rhys Davids, Buddhism (American Lectures), p.54.
1 Ch.IX. See also Ch.VIII.
2 Vinaya Texts. I.SBE.XIII.p.xi.
3 S.Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism,pp.81-84.
2 M.II.8; III.10; A.I.230; Vin.I.102; IV.143,144.
3 S. Dutt, Early Buddhist Monachism,p.81.
3 S.Dutt, op.cit.p.75.
1 S.Dutt, op.cit.p.85.
2 Miss Horner, The Book of the Discipline,I.p.ix.
1 Rhys Davids, Buddhism,(American Lectures) p.55.
3 Winternitz, History of Indian Literature,II.p.24.
4 Vinaya Texts I.SBE.XIII.P.xx.
1 E.J.Thomas, History of Buddhist Thought,p.21.
2 Vin.I. p. xxii.
1 But it is our belief that these observations on the Dhamma and the Vinaya do not justify the following remarks of B.C. Law with regard to the relation of the Vinaya to the Sutta Piṭaka:
`The consideration of all these facts cannot but lead one to surmise that the treatises of the Vinayapiṭaka point to a sutta background in the Vinaya materials traceable in the nikāyas particularly in the Aṅguttara. The sutta background of the Vinaya texts is clearly hinted at in the concluding words of the Patimokkha. Ettakaṃ tassa bhagavato suttāgataṃ suttapariyāpannaṃ anvaddhamāsaṃ uddesaṃāgacchati. *
This is far from being true. The word sutta in this context has been unfortunately misunderstood. What it means is that the contents of the Pātimokkha recital exists as a collection of sutta or rules (note the name Suttavibhaṅga) which the Buddha has laid down. As for the relation of the Aṅguttara to the Vinaya, it is the Aṅguttara which draws freely and extensively from the Vinaya. In places, the Aṅguttara looks like an anthology of Vinaya material. Law's own reference to A.I.98-100 should prove a sufficient indication of this tendency. The Vinaya contents of the Aṅguttara show more signs of development and editing than in the Vinaya Piṭaka. The reasons for laying down sikkhāpada for the disciples as given at A.I. 98 total up to 12 while the standard lists in the Vinaya Piṭaka have only 10. (See Vin.III.21) The two additional items are: 1. Consideration for laymen - gihīnaṃ anukampāya and 2. To break up the power of miscreant groups - pāpicchānam pakkhūpacchedāya. These evidently are additions to the original list of the Vinaya Piṭaka.
* See B.C. Law, History of Pali Literature,I.p.19.
1 W. Pachow, Comparative study of the Prātimokṣa, p.11.
1 See Śaṅkara's comment on Chānd.6.1.1 He ṭvetaketo'nurūpaṃ gurum kulasya no gatvā vasa brahmacaryaṃ. Na caitadyuktaṃ yadasmatkulīno he somyananūcyānadhītya brahmabandhuriva bhavatīti brāhmaṇān bandhūn vyapadisati na svayaṃ brāhmaṇavṛtta iti.
3 Ā samāpteh śarīrasya yastu śuśrūsate gurum sa gacchatyañjasā vipro brahmaṇah sadma śāsvataṃ - Manu.2.244. The point of special interest here is Medhātithi's comment on `brahmanah sadma śāsvataṃwhich reads as na punah samsāraṃ pratipadyata iti yāvat - Ibid.
1 Ibid. The commentary of Medhātithi countenances the possibility of explaining Brahman here either as a personal god or as the Paramātman. Brahmaśabdena c'etihāsadarśane devaviśesaś caturvaktrah tasya sadma sthānaviśesah divi vidyate. Vedāṃtavādināṃ tu brahma paramātmā tasya sadma svarūpam eva tadbhāvāpattih.
3 Belvalkar and Ranade, History of Indian Philosophy,vol.2.p.135.
4 Hume, The Thirteen Principal Upaniṣads, p.380. Tesāmevaisa brahmaloko yesāṃ tapo brahmacaryaṃ yesu satyaṃ pratiṣṭhitaṃ. Tesāmasau virajo brahmaloko na yeṣu jihmamanṛtaṃ na māyā ceti - Praśna.1.15.16.
1 He svetaketo'nurūpaṃ gurum kulasya no gatvā vasa brahmacaryaṃ. Na caitadyuktaṃ yadasmatkulīno he somyānanūcyānadhītya brahmabandhuriva bhavatīti brāhmaṇān bandhūn vyapadiśati na svayaṃ brāhmaṇavṛtta iti.
1 Yo kho bhikkhave rāgakkhayo dosakkhayo mohakkhayo idaṃ brahmacariyapariyosānan ti - S.V.8,16,26.
2 yassa kassaci bhikkhave bhikkhussa vā bhikkhuniyā vā cakkhu - viññeyyesu rūpesu uppajjeyya chando vā rāgo vā doso vā paṭighaṃ vā'pi cetaso tato cittaṃ nivāraye ..... Na tvaṃ arahasī'ti tato cittaṃ nivāraye cakkhuviññeyyehi rūpehi ... pe - S.IV.195.
3 Bloomfield, The Atharva-veda,p.89.
4 Griffith, The Hymns of the Atharva-veda,vol.II.p.68. n.
5 The term Bodhisatta is used throughout this thesis to refer only to Buddha Gotama during the thirtyfive years of his early life, prior to his enlightenment. This covers both the princely life of twentynine years under the name of Siddhatta and the six years of mendicancy during which he came to be called Samaṇo Gotamo. Referring to this earlier period prior to his enlightenment, the Buddha calls himself the Bodhisatta: Pubbe'va me bhikkhave sambodhā anabhisambuddhassa bodhisattassa sato - M.I.24; S.II.10.