Jerusalem or Religious Power and Judaism



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  • Frederick the Great of Prussia examines the potato harvest
  • Who in his most influential work, Jerusalem (or Religious Power and Judaism) argued for both religious toleration and the importance of Jewish self-identification?
    • Barthélemy d’Herbert
    • Baruch Spinoza
    • Moses Mendelshon
    • Johann Joachim Winkelmann
  • Who wrote Essay on Criticism in 1709 which gave advice to writers on the new literary styles?
  • Alexander Pope
  • Give three clichés found in Essay on Criticism?
  • Fools Rush in Where Angels Fear to Tread
  • To err is human, to forgive divine
      • Voltaire said, Ecrasez l’infame (____________________). To whom or what was he referring?
      • The Prussian Court
      • Alexander Pope’s Essay on Criticism
      • The Roman Catholic Church
      • The Philosophes
      • Immanuel Kant
  • Crush the damned thing
  • The Philosophes strongly endorsed progress and tolerance; and distrusted organized religion. But what caused them to fade away?
  • The violence of the French Revolution
  • The Philosophes were never an organized group and often disagreed among themselves. But what was the name of the grand family to which they believed they belonged and which transcended political boundaries?
  • The Republic of Letters
  • High and Low Print Cultures created increasingly literate populations. As a result, what increasingly influential force came into existence by the mid eighteenth century?
      • Books and Pamphlets
      • Coffeehouses
      • Public Opinion
      • Deism
  • Enlightenment thinkers generally opposed __________, were inspired by the scientific revolution and believed that the same _________ that led to greater understanding in the physical nature of the universe could also be used to achieve similar growth in ___________________, moral improvement, economic growth and conduct of _____________________.
  • tradition
  • principles
  • material advancement
  • Who was a Dutch Jew who pioneered the secularization Judaism and who preached tolerance and benevolence?
  • Baruch Spinoza
  • Who described the origins of religion in naturalistic terms and taught that the Hebrew Bible provided the Jews with rules and regulations (legislation) but not theological knowledge.
  • Baruch Spinoza
  • Who said that God is Nature and Nature is God?
  • Baruch Spinoza
  • What group of intellectuals held that a powerful god set the universe in motion and established natural laws to govern it but did not take a personal interest in its development or intervene in its affairs. ?
      • Muslims
      • Physiocrats
      • Enlightened Despots
      • Deists
      • Polygamists
  • What three factors are usually attributed to the rise of the Enlightenment?
  • First, the intellectual achievements and ideas of Sir Isaac Newton and __________;
  • John Locke
  • Second, the example of British toleration and political stability;
  • Third, the emergence of a ___________.
  • Print Culture
  • Who is considered the Father of Liberalism?
  • Isaac Newton
  • Edward Gibbon
  • Francis Bacon
  • John Toland
  • John Locke
  • In Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy , ________ proved that ancient and medieval scientific ideas were often incorrect and needed to be __________. He also built the first practical _________________ and was knighted by Queen Anne in 1705. The bottom line was that his emphasis on __________________ became a key feature of Enlightenment thought.
  • Newton
  • challenged
  • reflecting telescope
  • concrete experience
  • What was the pen name of François-Marie Arouet who was a famous (perhaps the most famous) of the Philosophes?
      • Isaac Newton
      • Edward Gibbon
      • Francis Bacon
      • John Toland
      • Voltaire
  • What is the basis of John Locke’s Social Contract?
  • The basis of the Social Contract is the relationship between individuals and government
  • Newton and Locke were natural philosophers. What is a natural philosopher?
  • A natural philosopher is one who studies nature and the universe
  • Define Behaviorism.
  • Human behavior can only be understood in what can be scientifically observed and described
  • Who in his Essay Concerning Human Understanding argued that the human mind at birth was a blank slate (tabula rasa – Latin for blank slate) which is filled (written on) during life through experience.
  • Edward Gibbon
  • Francis Bacon
  • John Toland
  • John Locke
  • Isaac Newton
  • What vision did Great Britain’s political stability and widespread toleration produce?
  • A society that appeared to benefit most of its people
  • What is the basic premise of the Doctrine of Original Sin?
  • That all people are flawed
  • What result did Great Britain’s example of political stability and general toleration produce?
  • An enduring (stable) order in society, which produced economic prosperity, political stability and loyal citizens
  • The result of Gutenberg's printing press was that books and pamphlets became __________ (common place), ____________ began to climb and new ideas began to spread: humanistic, secular and personal. Without the printing press, the fruits of the Renaissance would have been stunted; the Protestant Reformation might have taken a _____________________________, the Counter Reformation ___________and the Scientific Revolution delayed by centuries.
  • ubiquitous
  • literacy rates
  • much more conservative direction
  • unnecessary
  • As a result of the emergence of Print Culture and the replacement of Oral and ________ Cultures, what popular literary genre gained popularity?
  • Poetry
  • The Novel
  • The Classics
  • Religious Tracts
  • Scribal
  • With the emergence of Print Culture both aristocrats and the ____________were expected to be knowledgeable with popular books and secular ideas. Which two men published The Spectator whose purpose was to foster the value of polite conversation and encourage the reading of books?
      • Richard Steele
      • Alexander Pope
      • Immanuel Kant
      • Joseph Addison
  • middle class
  • During the Enlightenment, which two of the following became popular places where ideas and social values were discussed and debated ?
      • Churches
      • Coffeehouses
      • Masonic Lodges
      • Universities
      • Law Courts
  • What were successful authors of the Enlightenment wrote for monarchs, the nobility, the upper middle classes and professional groups called?
  • High Culture authors
  • What were authors who were not able to write for upper society but who made a marginal living writing for whatever newspapers or journals that would pay for their efforts called?
  • Low Culture authors
  • High and Low Print Cultures created increasingly literate populations. As a result, what increasingly influential force came into existence by the mid eighteenth century?
      • Books and Pamphlets
      • Coffeehouses
      • Public Opinion
      • Deism
  • What did David Hume believe was the greatest miracle in religion?
  • …that anyone believed in miracles at all
  • Who wrote Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire and argued that Christianity came into being and evolved not because of piety and the influence of miracles but because of natural causes and human achievements?
  • Edward Gibbon
  • Who wrote a 1793 treatise that summed up the radical attack on religion, Religion within the Limits of Reason Alone?
  • Immanuel Kant
  • The word philosophe comes from the French word for ____________. In fact however how can most Philosophes be correctly classified?
  • Scientists
  • Novelists
  • Poets
  • Intellectuals
  • Theologians
  • philosopher
  • What Latin phrase did the German philosopher Immanuel Kant use to describe the Enlightenment? Translate.
  • Sapere aude; dare to think
  • Kant meant that the Philosophes should dare to have the courage to use their reasoning ability
  • Who was a leading figure of the Enlightenment and known as the Jewish (or German) Socrates?
    • Barthélemy d’Herbert
    • Baruch Spinoza
    • Cesare Beccaria
    • Johann Joachim Winkelmann
    • Moses Mendelsohn
  • For what purpose did Voltaire write Letters on the English (Lettres philosophiques sur les Anglais)?
  • Voltaire wanted to explain the climate of intellectual and ________tolerance he found in England along with the _____________________ and economic prosperity; but most of all, the _________ freedom he had not known in France.
  • How did the Parlement of Paris react to this book? And Voltaire?
  • The Parlement of Paris had the book condemned and burned. Voltaire was harassed and fled to Cirey, a town near the still independent Lorraine.
  • religious
  • scientific achievements
  • political
  • Who wrote Turkish Embassy Letters which noted many of the good points about Ottoman society such as the wide use of vaccination against smallpox?
    • Barthélemy d’Herbert
    • George Sale
    • Voltaire
    • Mary Wortley
    • John Toland
  • What term is used for the incorporation of all forms of printed texts and printed visuals such as woodcuts?
  • A Print Culture
  • What is genre?
  • A category or type of art or literature
  • What replaced (or is trying to replace) the printed word in the our current age?
  • The Electronic Revolution
  • In 1755, a terrible earthquake struck Lisbon, killing 60,000 people. Voltaire wrote a dark poem, (Poème sur le désastre de Lisbonne), for which he was criticized for his __________. What was his response?
      • Ecrasez l’infame
      • Candide
      • Letter Concerning Toleration
      • Pensées
      • Essay on Criticism
  • pessimism
  • What term is used for most Philosophes who, like Voltaire, agreed with Newton that, since nature was rational, God must also be rational ?
  • Deists
  • god
  • What is the difference between God and god?
  • God implies a knowable (real, rational), personal God but god implies a real but impersonal god.
  • What is an alternate name for the Age of the Enlightenment?
  • The Age of Reason
  • What group of people drove the Enlightenment?
      • The higher clergy
      • Intellectuals
      • Monarchs
      • The Bourgeoisie
  • What was the favorite simile of the Deists?
  • A watchmaker
  • Who wrote Christianity not Mysterious?
  • John Toland
  • What was Toland’s point?
  • that divine revelation found in the Bible contained no real mysteries because they could be understood by the examination of nature and the use of _______.
  • reason
  • Who associated Islamic society with a passivity (or political acquiescence) which he felt was the result of political repression and despotism?
    • Barthélemy d’Herbert
    • Edward Gibbon
    • John Toland
    • Mary Wortley
    • Baron de Montesquieu
  • Some Philosophes openly attacked the Church and its clergy with great vehemence. The leader was ________ who hated of the ______________. In 1764, he finished his _____________________ which really wasn’t a dictionary, although its articles were arranged alphabetically. In it, he used humor and sarcasm to point out the inconsistencies in Biblical history and immoral acts of many Biblical _______.
  • Voltaire
  • Catholic Church
  • Philosophical Dictionary
  • heroes
  • Who was the Scottish philosopher who wrote On Miracles in which he claimed that there was no empirical evidence for the miracles that were foundational to Christianity?
      • Jean Calas
      • David Hume
      • Edward Gibbon
      • Emile de Chatlet
      • Immanuel Kant
  • Who was the Huguenot merchant who had been viciously put to death, supposedly because he had murdered his son for wanting to convert to Catholicism?
  • Jean Calas
  • Voltaire
  • Who wrote the play Nathan the Wise which was plea for religious tolerance?
  • Gotthold Ephraim Lessing
  • Who was the English poet (known for his satire and translation of Homer), who grew wealthy by showing other writers how to make a living by writing?
    • Alexander Pope
    • John Toland
    • Richard Steele
    • James Wolfe
    • Joseph Addison
  • Although Moses Mendelsohn was a practicing Orthodox Jew, his Enlightenment values have caused many historians to refer to him as the father of what?
  • Reformed Judaism
  • Who, in his Pensées, illustrated European thought by stating that Islam was a false religion and that Muhammad was both an imposter and false prophet because he had performed no miracles.
  • Blaise Pascal
  • Both François Quesnay and Pierre DuPont de Nemours were:
  • Phisocrats
  • Who was the German Jew who was a pioneer for the assimilation of Jews into modern European life and was the model for Lessing’s Nathan the Wise?
    • Barthélemy d’Herbert
    • Baruch Spinoza
    • Cesare Beccaria
    • Johann Joachim Winkelmann
    • Moses Mendelsohn
  • What did Muhammedanism imply?
  • …that Muhammad thought he was divine
  • Who was the English scholar who first translated the Quran into English?
  • George Sale
  • Who wrote Oriental Library in 1697 ?
  • Barthélemy d’Herbert
  • Simon Ockley
  • Into what two groups were the Enlightenment Philosophes divided as concerning Islam and the Muslim World?
  • Hostile and tolerant
  • What historian wrote favorably about Muhammad’s leadership and Islam’s successes in conquering such a vast territory in its first century?
    • David Hume
    • Edward Gibbon
    • Edmund Burke
    • Sir Isaac Newton
    • John Toland
  • What French philosopher, art critic, and writer is best known as the as co-founder, chief editor and a contributor to the Encyclopedia (Encyclopédie). ?
    • François-Marie Arouet
    • Denis Diderot
    • Francois Boucher
    • Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    • Julie de Lespinasse
  • Who argued - long before his time - that Islam was derived from early Christian writings and therefore was a form of Christianity?
    • Barthélemy d’Herbert
    • George Sale
    • Voltaire
    • Mary Wortley
    • John Toland


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