After the second technological revolution, oil has become the main energy source instead of coal. “Oil is a dominant source of energy in the United States supplying the Nation with approximately 40 percent of its energy needs” ("Impact”). Oil is the fuel for the transportation, industrial, and residential sectors. Ocean oil drilling is a main way to gather oil resource, and in this situation, oil spill occurs sometime. You have thesis statement, but you need to use the thesis statements to cover all content of your essay.
However, oil spill has no benefit at all, and oil spill will cause a complex damage to the environment, wildlife, and economy. In the article "Impact of Oil Spills" in Congressional Digest, it laid down in detail the damages such as “Acute Impacts, Chronic Impacts, Ecosystem Recovery, Cleanup Costs, and Natural Resources Damages” (“Impact”). Work one your paragraphing , or just merge the first and second paragraph as your introduction.
In the event of oil spill, government, oil drilling company, local residents, and environmentalist all play an important and special role. Local residents are suffering in oil spill event. Oil spill will indirectly affect their healthy by directly affect environment. Also, if local residents are living on fishery, their economies perhaps use other words that is better. will be greatly damaged by the oil spill. Oil drilling company is responsible for the oil spill because their irresponsible production. Environmentalists are the defenders of ocean ecological system, and they offer the science and data to prove how oil spill should be treated seriously. Government institution plays a dual role. Considering the partnership between government and oil drilling company, government should also be responsible for oil spill because of weak supervision; however, government is also suffering of oil spill because oil spill causes many unstabilizing factors to the society. Good to mention the all role who involved this issue.
There are several oil spill events are known by the huge damage such as Exxon Valde oil spill, and the recent BP oil spill. In my research, the earliest oil spill is “Amoco Cadiz— The Amoco Cadiz ran aground off the coast of Brittany, France, on March 16, 1978”, but “The largest spill in the United States so far was the Exxon Valdez spill into Prince William Sound, Alaska in March 1989” (“Background”), and “When the Exxon Valdez ran aground in March 1989, there were multiple Federal statutes. State statutes and international conventions that dealt with oil discharges” (“Impact”). Also, there are many small oil spills when compared with big oil spill. From 1990 to 2010, there are almost none oil spill occur, and people seem has forgotten the hurt of oil spill. Then, the worst oil spill occurs, “Deepwater Horizon oil spill on April 20 creating the worst oil spill in U.S. history” (Walsh). Deepwater Horizon oil spill is also called BP oil spill because BP oil drilling company made this oil spill. BP oil spill cause serious damage to the U.S. Gulf of Mexico. The discussion of oil spill is becoming intense again, and different aspects are trying to debate for their benefit. background
One most important group in oil spill topic is the people who concern the environmental aspects of oil spill. Environmentalists are the key players surrounding oil spill issue. They are experts who study in ocean, animal and environment. They study how oil spill causes damages to ocean, ocean animals, and ocean environment. They did many science research and statistics. After that, they spread their idea that oil spill because much more damages than people thought by all kinds of media. They are ecologists who are the experts of how oil will affect the ecological system including the ocean, wildlife, ocean plants, and the last affect for humans. Environmentalists are the defenders of nature, and they will show up wherever the environment is destroyed. They focus on oil spill because oil spill brings irrecoverable damage. Also, this group concerns this issue because the nature of their career makes them care the issue. This is exactly what they do for life. They study how oil spill directly or indirectly cause damages to oceans, ocean animals and birds. Their stand is to against oil spill, and they appeal to protect ocean and ocean animals. They may have different political motivations, but they have the same goal which is to protect the environment.
The article "WHAT THE SPILL WILL KILL. (Cover story)." by Begley, Sharon, Ian Yarett, and Daniel Stone is published in Newsweek. It can be the example of rhetoric that best illustrate environmentalists’ position. Newsweek is owned by the Washington Post Company. The Washington Post Company is a famous American education and media company. Newsweek has a large circulation so that their article and their ideas can be known by more people. Also, this magazine has good reputation which makes their article more credible. In this article, the argument is one sentence which is “I’m not too worried about oil on the surface” says one scientist, “it's the things we don't see that worry me the most”(Begley). They ask people think more the unseen damage of oil spill.
This article uses Ethical Appeal, and Emotional Appeal to enhance its argument.
There is an example how this article use ethical appeal. "The biggest biological component of the global carbon cycle is in the deep sea," says marine biologist Jeffrey Baguley of the University of Nevada(Begley). The article uses the biologist’s word to prove its argument because biologist’s word is more authoritative. “Without deep-sea organisms, dead marine creatures would accumulate like bottles and cans in places without deposit laws. That would deprive the rest of the living seas of the nutrients they need to keep life going. If a large enough area in the depths of the gulf becomes a kill zone, organic matter would accumulate in the sediment and be cut off from the rest of the ecosystem”, says marine scientist Mahlon Kennicutt of Texas A&M (Begley). We can see that this article introduce the expert in detailed such as their career, their name, their university. All these evidences make audiences believe the article. In this way, the authors of article are trying to tell people that they are scientists, and their articles are credible and s academic.
There is also an example of emotion appeal. In this article, one scientist said: "It's going to cause very substantial and noticeable damage--marsh loss and coastal erosion and impact on fisheries, dead birds, and dead turtles--but we'll know what that is. It's the things we don't see that worry me the most. What happens if you wipe out all those jellyfish down there? We don't know what their role is in the environment. But Mother Nature put them there for a reason," (Begley). After reading this sentence, I felt the sad and hopeless for what we have done to the environment. Yes, this is emotion appeal because this word let us worry and feel guilty. This word tries to touch people’s feelings. When people are touched, they will be more awareness of the damage of oil spill.
I also find a visual form to against oil spill from environmentalists. It is a video from YouTube.com. Its name is Oil Spill by StrangerToTheWorld. The overall effect of the design is complex. It shows pictures and words of oil spill slowly, and then the pollution, dead birds, and animals show up with powerful music which hit audiences’ heart. And last, it goes back quiet and slow, but the video makes people to think. The video gets my attention by its music and picture. The music is deep and quiet, and the picture is eye-catching. The audiences of this video will be the teenagers and Netizens. The whole video is like a story. It has introduction, climax, and conclusion. It is a perfect show in logical way. Also, this video has many emotion appeals. By the way, music is the most powerful emotion catalyst. The music of this video is successful. When it gives the picture how animals and birds are killed by oil spill, we can hear the music becomes angry and regret. When we see the river and ocean become black, the music is also deep and sad. The music gives the pictures and words life. When the video finish, audience will feel that they should do something to oil spill.
After the examination, this video gives me much shock than the article. Words are so were cold and flat when compared to picture and music. That’s why now many people tend to watch TV rather than go to library. People can gather much more information in their favor way. If you don’t like reading, you better do not go to read. Colorful picture and contagious music are much more effective than dead data and words. In the integrate paper, video will be a better way to present students’ research. you need to add the conclusion.