James Cooke Brown Annotations by M. Randall Holmes



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go korfro) (liu me)])

There was a hole in the language which had the shape of 'me'.

FF. Argument Ordinals (HB-tags) (25)

(pua pue pui puo puu)

FF01 Da sanpa de di do du

da (sanpa [ do) du])

X is a sign of Y to W disposing behavior/action H under circumstances Q.

FF02 Pua da sanpa

(pua da) sanpa

X is a sign.

FF03 Pue de sanpa

(pue de) sanpa

Y is a (referential) meaning.

FF04 Pui di sanpa

(pui di) sanpa

W is a sign-interpreter, something that finds meaning in a sign.

FF05 Puo do sanpa

(puo do) sanpa

H is a (behavioral) meaning, i.e., whatever a sign disposes some interpreter to do.

FF06 Puu du sanpa

(puu du) sanpa

Q is a situation or set of circumstances which releases a disposition created by some sign.

FF07 Puu lopo tcaro bapra ga sanpa pua lo redro litla pue lo humni

(puu [lopo (tcaro bapra)]) (ga [sanpa (

)])


Operating a car is a circumstance making signs out of red lights to humans.

FF08 Lopo tcaro bapra ga nufe sanpa pua lo redro litla pue lo humni

(lopo [tcaro bapra]) (ga [(nufe sanpa) (

)])


Operating a car is a circumstance making signs out of red lights to humans.

FF09 Pue lo denro ga danri sanpa pui lo nimla

(pue [lo denro]) (ga [(danri sanpa) (pui )])

Danger is a common sign-referent among animals.

FF10 Lo denro ga danri nu sanpa pui lo nimla

(lo denro) (ga [(danri ) (pui )])

Danger is a common sign-referent among animals.

FF11 Puo lopo prano ga danri sanpa pue lo denro

(puo [lopo prano]) (ga [(danri sanpa) (pue )])

Running is a response commonly disposed by danger.

FF12 Lopo prano ga danri ju sanpa pue lo denro

(lopo prano) (ga [(danri ) (pue )])

Running is a response commonly disposed by danger.

FF13 Lo nimla ga fu sanpa puu lopo do clivi

(lo nimla) (ga [(fu sanpa) (puu )])

Animals exhibit behaviors that have been disposed by signs under circumstances of their being alive.

FF14 La Miniapolis, danri nu godzi pui la Seint Pol

(la miniapolis) ([danri (nu godzi)] [pui (la )])

Minneapolis is a common destination in going from Saint Paul.

FF15 Ba godzi la Miniapolis, la Seint Pol

ba (godzi [(la miniapolis) (la )])

Someone goes to Minneapolis from Saint Paul.

FF16 Puo ta vedma

(puo ta) vedma

That is a price.

FF17 Ta ju vedma

ta (ju vedma)

That is a price.

FF18 Ba vedma be bo ta

ba (vedma [(be bo) ta])

Someone sells something to someone else for that.

FF19 Le farfu je pui la Meris

le (farfu [je (pui )])

The father through (of offspring out of mother) Mary.

FF20 Le farfu je ba jue la Meris

le (farfu [(je ba) (jue )]

The father of someone through Mary (of at least 1 of Mary's children).

FF21 Le farfu je raba jio nu matma la Meris

le (farfu [je (ra )])

The father of all who are mothered by Mary (all of Mary's children).

FF22 Da kukra je pui lio nenimeikuasei tcaro

da ([kukra (je


)] tcaro)

It's a faster-(than-something)-by-10-meters-per-second type of car.

FF23 Pui lio nenimeikuasei kukra

(pui [lio nenimeikuasei]) kukra

Ten meters-per-second is a speed differential.

FF24 Lio nenimeikuasei fu kukra

(lio nenimeikuasei) (fu kukra)

Ten meters-per-second is a speed differential.

FF25 Ba kukra be lio nenimeikuasei

ba (kukra [be (lio nenimeikuasei)])

Something is faster than something else by ten meters-per-second.

GG. Compound & Connected Tenses (11)

(-fa- -pa- -na- ra- ne- ni- -noi-)

GG01 Mi fapa sucmi

mi (fapa sucmi)

I will have swum.

GG02 Mi nepa sucmi

mi (nepa sucmi)

I swam once (i.e., one time).

GG03 Mi nipa sucmi

mi (nipa sucmi)

I never swam (i.e., zero times in the past).

GG04 Mi nina sucmi

mi (nina sucmi)

I never swim (i.e., zero times in any present time).

GG05 Mi rana sucmi

mi (rana sucmi)

I always swim (i.e., at all present times).

GG06 Mi noina sucmi

mi (noina sucmi)

I don't now swim.

GG07 Mi pacenoina sucmi

mi (pacenoina sucmi)

I used to swim but don't any longer.

GG08 Mi noipacenoina sucmi

mi (noipacenoina sucmi)

I never have, and do not now, swim.

GG09 Mi pacefa bragai

mi (pacefa bragai)

I was once, and will again be, a king.

GG10 Mi noipacenoinacenoifa bragai

mi (noipacenoinacenoifa bragai)

I never have been, am not now, and never will be a king.

GG11 Facenoina mi, garni levi landi

(facenoina mi) (garni [levi landi])

After but not during me (i.e., my lifetime), rule this land.



HH. Logically Connected Clauses (13)

(inoca icanoi ica Ice)

HH01 Kanoi no tu fa kamla, ki no mi hijra va

kanoi (no [tu (fa kamla)]) ki (no [mi (hijra va)])

If you do not come, then I will not be there (i.e., be present there).

HH02 No tu fa kamla, inoca no mi hijra va

(no [tu (fa kamla)]) inoca (no [mi (hijra va)])

You will not come only if I'm not there.

HH03 No mi fa hijra va, icanoi no tu kamla

(no [mi (fa )]) icanoi (no [tu kamla])

I won't be there if you don't come.

HH04 Kanoi no tu fa kamla ki ke no mi hijra va ki tu fa kecdri

kanoi (no [tu (fa kamla)]) ki (ke [no (mi )] ki [tu (fa kecdri)])

If you don't come, then I'll not be there and you'll be sorry.

HH05 No mi fa hijra va, icanoi no tu fapa kamla

(no [mi (fa )]) icanoi (no [tu (fapa kamla)])

I won't be there if you have not come.

HH06 Tu fapa kamla, icanoi mi hijra va

(tu [fapa kamla]) icanoi (mi [hijra va])

You will have come if I am there.

HH07 Mi fa hijra va, inoca tu fapa kamla

(mi [fa (hijra va)]) inoca (tu [fapa kamla])

I will be there only if you will have come.

HH08 Kanoi mi fa hijra va ki tu pa kamla

kanoi (mi [fa (hijra va)]) ki (tu [pa kamla])

If 1 am there, then you came.

HH09 Ka no mi fa hijra va ki tu pa kamla

ka (no [mi (fa )]) ki (tu [pa kamla])

Either I will not be there or you came (and possibly both).

HH10 No mi fa hijra va, ica tu pa kamla

(no [mi (fa )]) ica (tu [pa kamla])

I will not be there, and/or you came.

HH11 Tu fapa kamla, ica no mi hijra va

(tu [fapa kamla]) ica (no [mi (hijra va)])

You will have come, and/or I won't be there.

HH12 Tu fapa kamla, ica ke no mi hijra va ki tu kecdri

(tu [fapa kamla]) ica (ke [no (mi )] ki [tu kecdri])

You will have come, and/or both I'm not there and you are sorry.

HH13 Ice mi sui fa hijra va

ice ([mi sui] [fa (hijra va)])

And I, too, will be there.



II. Causally-Connected Clauses (7)

(i- ki-)

II01 Ti pa rodja, ikou tu cuidru da

(ti [pa rodja]) ikou (tu [cuidru da])

This grew because you watered it.

II02 Nukouki ti pa rodja, ki tu cuidru da

nukouki (ti [pa rodja]) ki (tu [cuidru da])

Therefore this grew, you watered it.

II03 Tu pa cuidru ti, inukou da rodja

(tu [pa (cuidru ti)]) inukou (da rodja)

You watered this; therefore it grew.

II04 Mi pa cuidru da, imoi da pafa rodja

(mi [pa (cuidru da)]) imoi (da [pafa rodja])

I watered it so that it would grow.

II05 Kouki tu pa cuidru ti, ki da rodja

kouki (tu [pa (cuidru ti)]) ki (da rodja)

Because you watered this, it grew.

II06 Mi pa danza ti, imoi mi pafa ponsu ta

(mi [pa (danza ti)]) imoi (mi [pafa (ponsu ta)])

I wanted this so that I could have that.

II07 Mi ditca, imoi mi bremao lo junti

(mi ditca) imoi (mi [bremao (lo junti)])

I teach so that I may prepare the young.



JJ. Indirect Designation; Foreign Quotation (14)

(lae sae lie)

JJ01 Eo kambei mi laeli, Loglan Nen lu

eo (kambei [mi (lae

  • ])

    Please bring me "Loglan 1". (Please bring me the thing of which 'Loglan Nen' is a sign.)

    JJ02 Eo kambei mi laelie gai, War and Peace, gai

    eo (kambei [mi (lae )])

    Please bring me "War and Peace". (Please bring me the thing of which 'War and Peace' is a sign.)

    JJ03 La Djan, melaelie gai, stingy, gai

    (la djan) (me [lae (lie )])

    John is whatever the word 'stingy' means in English.

    JJ04 Ei tu pa ridle laeli, Loglan Nen, lu

    ei (tu [pa (ridle )])

    Have you read "Loglan 1"?

    JJ05 Ei tu fundi lae laeli, Loglan Nen, lu

    ei (tu [fundi (lae )])

    Do you like the referent of the referent of 'Loglan Nen' (i.e., Loglan)?

    JJ06 Da pa cutse sae lepo la Djan, pa prano

    da (pa [cutse (sae ])

    He said some signs meaning that John ran.

    JJ07 Ei tu vizka sae la Djan

    ei (tu [vizka (sae )])

    Do you see signs of John?

    JJ08 Ei tu vizka laeli. La Djan, lu

    ei (tu [vizka (lae

  • )])

    Do you see (any) referents of 'La Djan' (i.e., John)?

    JJ09 Ei tu vizka lae la Djan

    ei (tu [vizka (lae )])

    Do you see meanings of John?

    JJ10 Ei tu vizka lo sanpa je la Djan

    ei (tu [vizka (lo )])

    Do you see signs of John?

    JJ11 Ei tu vizka lo nu sanpa je la Djan

    ei (tu [vizka (lo <(nu sanpa) (je [la djan])>)])

    Do you see referents of John?

    JJ12 Ei tu vizka sae sae sae la Djan

    ei (tu [vizka (sae )])

    Do you see signs of signs of signs of John?

    JJ13 Ei tu vizka lo sanpa je lo sanpa je lo sanpa je la Djan

    ei (tu [vizka (lo )])>)])>)])

    Do you see signs of signs of signs of John?

    JJ14 Ei tu vizka lae sae lae la Djan

    ei (tu [vizka (lae )])

    Do you see referents of signs of referents of John?

    KK. Metaphor-Marking or "Figurative Quotation" (9)

    (ja)

    KK01 Mi farfu jo la loglan

    mi ([farfu jo] [la loglan])

    I am the "father" of Loglan.

    KK02 Ia no. I tu matma jo la Loglan

    ia no . i (tu [(matma jo) (la loglan)])

    Certainly not; you are the "mother" of Loglan.

    KK03 I la Uorf, pa farfu jo de

    i ([la uorf] [pa «farfu jo> de)])

    And Whorf was its "father", (...the "father" of it.)

    KK04 Da smina huigro tojo

    da (smina [huigro tojo])

    He's a "mental giant".

    KK05 De smina huicma jo

    de (smina [huicma jo])

    He's a mental "dwarf".

    KK06 La Djan, pa brahea rajo na lepo la Loglan, brana

    (la djan) (pa [(brahea rajo) (na )])

    John midwifed, in a manner of speaking, at the birth of Loglan.

    KK07 Ia no. I la Djan, pa bremao ckela ditca tejo la Loglan

    ia no . i ([la djan] [pa <(bremao ckela) (ditca tejo)> )])

    Certainly not; John was a "prep-school teacher" of Loglan.

    KK08 La Djan, pa bremao ckela ditca la Loglan, rajo

    (la djan) (pa [ ditca) (la )])

    John was a prep-school teacher of Loglan, in a manner of speaking.

    KK09 La Djan, pa rajo bremao ckela ditca la Loglan

    (la djan) ([pa rajo] [ ditca) (la loglan)])

    John was, speaking figuratively, a prep-school teacher of Loglan.



    LL. Letter-Variables and Acronyms (17)

    (-z-)

    LL01 Le mrenu pa vedma le kangu le cmalo nirli

    (le mrenu) (pa [vedma ( )])

    The man sold the dog to the little girl.

    LL02 Nei fa cluva kei

    nei (fa [cluva kei])

    n (the girl) will love k (the dog).

    LL03 La Ned, farfu nei

    (la ned) (farfu nei)

    Ned is the father of n.

    LL04 Nai cluva nei, e fundi lo kangu, enumoi fa cluva kei

    nai ([(cluva nei) e (fundi )] enumoi [fa (cluva kei)])

    N (Ned) loves n, likes dogs, and therefore will love k.

    LL05 Nai merji la Meris, ice Mai no fundi lo kangu

    (nai [merji (la meris)]) ice (mai [(no fundi) (lo kangu)])

    N is married to Mary; and M doesn't like dogs.

    LL06 Bai merji la Alis, ice Ama fundi lo kangu

    (bai [merji (la alis)]) ice (ama [fundi (lo kangu)])

    B is married to Alice; and A likes dogs.

    LL07 Inusoa ba nu dakli lepo Mai no fa cluva kei

    inusoa (ba [(nu dakli) (lepo )])

    Therefore it is likely that M will not love k.

    LL08 Nai nu perpli laelie gai, Central Intelligence Committee, gai

    nai ([nu perpli] [lae (lie )])

    N is employed by (works for) the "Central Intelligence Committee".

    LL09 Nai nu perpli la CailzA

    nai ([nu perpli] [la caiiza])

    N works for the CIA.

    LL10 Mai nu perpli, la UNai

    mai ([nu perpli] [la unai])

    M works for the UN.

    LL11 Nei danza lepo fa nu perpli, la UNaiESaiCaiO

    nei (danza [lepo (fa <(nu perpli) (la unaiesaicaio)>)])

    n (the little girl) wants eventually to work for (the) UNESCO.

    LL12 Ipou nei danza lepo na nu perpli la SaiPaiCaiA

    ipou (nei [danza (lepo )])

    However, n wants to work now for the SPCA.

    LL13 Mao ponsu ba jio kasni

    mao (ponsu [ba (jio kasni)])

    M' (Marvin) owns a cow.

    LL14 Lo HaitoO bi lo cutri

    (lo haitoo) (bi [lo cutri])

    (The) H20 is water.

    LL15 Lo HaitoSaiOfo bi lo melaelie gai, sulphuric acid, gai (/haitosaiOFo/)

    (lo haitosaiofo) (bi [lo (me )])

    (The) H2S04 is whatever 'sulphuric acid' means in English.

    LL16 Ta HaitoSaiOfo

    ta haitosaiofo

    That's sulphuric acid.

    LL17 asi groda bei cei

    asi (groda [bei cei])

    a is bigger than b by c.



    MM. Predicates as Names & Vocatives (7)

    (No new LWs.)

    MM01 Hoi Mrenu

    hoi mrenu

    Hi, Man!


    MM02 Hoi Ganfua go Redro nu Herfa

    hoi ganfua go redro nu herfa

    Hail, Lady with the Red Hair!

    MM03 Ei tu vizka Hoi Ganbra, lepo mi pana nu ganble turka letu fothaa

    ei (tu [(vizka ) (lepo turka) (letu fothaa)])>)])

    Do you see, O Noble One, that I have worked admirably on your castle?

    MM04 Ei tu pa vizka la Mrenu

    ei (tu [pa (vizka )])

    Did you see (the) Man?

    MM05 La Garfua go Redro nu Herfa ga matma mi

    (la [garfua go (redro )]) (ga [matma mi])

    (The) Lady with Red Hair is my mother.

    MM06 La Blabi Garfua pa korji la Redro Garfua lepo godzi la Hatro Sitfa

    (la [blabi garfua]) (pa [korji )])

    (The) White Queen told (ordered the) Red Queen to go to (the) Hot Place.

    MM07 La Musmu pa djadou la Ratcu lepo de fa damgoo la Vrici

    (la musmu) (pa [djadou ( )])>)])

    Mouse told (informed) Rat that he (Mouse) was going to go down River.



    NN. Grouped & Ungrouped Afterthought Connections (12)

    (i- -ge -ci)

    NN01 Mi pa prano. Ifa mi sucmi. Ifa mi fleti. Ifa mi dzoru

    mi (pa prano) . ifa (mi sucmi) . ifa (mi fleti) . ifa (mi dzoru)

    I ran. Then I swam. Then I flew. Then I walked.

    NN02 Mi pa prano, e sucmi, e fleti, e dzoru

    mi ([
    e sucmi) e fleti] e dzoru)

    I ran and swam, and flew, and walked.

    NN03 Mi pa takna da, e de, e di, efa do

    mi (pa [takna (<(da e de) e di> efa do)])

    I talked to X and Y, and to W, and then to Q.

    NN04 Muvdo, icanoi da redro, icaci de nigro

    muvdo icanoi ([da redro] icaci [de nigro])

    Move if (either) X is red or Y is black.

    NN05 Muvdo, icanoi da redro, ica de nigro

    (muvdo icanoi [da redro]) ica (de nigro)

    (Either) Move if X is red, or Y is black.

    NN06 Muvdo, icanoige da redro, ica de nigro, ica di vegri

    muvdo icanoige ([(da redro) ica (de nigro)] ica [di vegri])

    Move if (either either) X is red or Y is black, or W is green.

    NN07 Da muvdo, anoi redro, aci nigro

    da (muvdo anoi [redro aci nigro])

    X moves if (either) red or black.

    NN08 Da muvdo, anoi redro, a nigro

    da ([muvdo anoi redro] a nigro)

    X (either) moves if (it is) red, or (it is) black.

    NN09 Da muvdo, anoige redro, a nigro, epa vegri

    da (muvdo anoige [(redro a nigro) epa vegri])

    X moves if (it is both, either) red or black, and before that, green.

    NN10 Mi godzi da, anoi de, e di

    mi (godzi [(da anoi de) e di])

    I go to X if Y, and (to) W.

    NN11 Mi godzi da, anoi de, eci di

    mi (godzi [da anoi (de eci di)])

    I go to X if to (both) Y and W.

    NN12 Mi godzi da, anoifage de, a di, a do

    mi (godzi [da anoifage a do)])

    I go to X if earlier to (either, either) Y or W, or Q.

    OO. Spelling (8)

    (No new LWs)

    OO01 Liu artomi purkaa liu atom, e nu leasri li, a. rei. tei. o. mei. i, lu

    (liu artomi) ([purkaa (liu atom)] e [(nu leasri) (li a . rei . tei . o . mei . i lu)])

    The word 'artomi' is derived from the word 'atom', and is spelled 'eigh. are. tee. oh. em. eye'.

    OO02 Liu atmo sui purkaa liu atom, e nu leasri li, a. tei. mei. o, lu

    ([liu atmo] sui) ([purkaa (liu atom)] e [(nu leasri) (li a . tei . mei . o lu)])

    The word 'atmo' also is derived from the word 'atom', and is spelled 'eigh. tee. em. oh'.

    OO03 Ie le to po purkaa ga nu fundi tu

    (ie [le to (po purkaa)]) (ga [(nu fundi) tu])

    Which of the two derivations do you like better?

    OO04 Liu protoni purkaa liu proton, e nu leasri li, pei. rei. o. tei. o. nei. i, lu

    (liu protoni) ([purkaa (liu proton)] e [(nu leasri) (li pei . rei . o . tei . o . nei . i lu)])

    The word 'protoni' is derived from the word 'proton', and is spelled 'pea. are. oh. tee. oh. en. eye'.

    OO05 Liu purkaa purkaa li purda kamla lu, e nu leasri li, pei. u. rei. kei. a. a, lu

    (liu purkaa) ([purkaa (li purda kamla lu)] e [(nu leasri) (li pei . u . rei . kei . a . a lu)])

    The word 'purkaa' is derived from 'purda kamla', and is spelled 'pea. you. are. keigh. eigh. eigh'.

    OO06 Artomi. a. rei. tei. o. mei. i

    artomi . a . rei . tei . o . mei . i

    Artomi. eigh. are. tee. oh. em. ee.

    OO07 Atmo. a. tei. mei. o

    atmo . a . tei . mei . o

    Atmo. eigh. tee. em. oh.

    OO08 Protoni. Pei. Rei. O. Tei. O. Nei. I

    protoni . pei . rei . o . tei . o . nei . i

    Protoni. pea. are. oh. tee. oh. en. eye.

    PP. Sentences in VOS Order (4)

    (goa)

    PP01 Goa seidjo lue no nu trecymro bekti ji vi lo rardza goa lea surpernova

    goa (seidjo [(lue <(no [nu trecymro]) bekti>) (ji )]) goa (lea surpernova)

    Among the most interesting objects in the universe (all-existence) are the supernovae.

    PP02 Goa gudbi lo cutci lopo pueblo lo naldi goa lo mroza

    goa (gudbi [(lo cutci) (lopo


    )]) goa (lo mroza)

    Better than shoes for driving (push-hitting) nails are hammers.

    PP03 Goa gudbi lo cutci lopo pueblo lo naldi goa lo mroza

    goa (gudbi [(lo cutci) (lopo


    )]) goa (lo mroza)

    Better than shoes for driving (push- hitting) nails are hammers.

    PP04 Na levi delnai goa bilti lo blabi flora goa rui re lea floryclu lo redro

    (na [levi delnai]) (goa [bilti (lo )] goa [(rui ) (lo redro)])



    These days, more beautiful than white flowers, are, according to most flower-lovers, red ones.

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