James Cooke Brown Annotations by M. Randall Holmes



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I think that my desire to help Mary was fortunate.

P17 Mi penso lopo firpa lopo crina

mi (penso [lopo (firpa )])

I think about fear of (the) rain.

P18 Mi pa rulkao lepo santi gu, lepo helba la Bab

mi (pa [rulkao ( )])

I was obliged to be silent in order to help Bob.

P19 Lo nimla ga cnida lopo cluva gu, lopo clivi

(lo nimla) (ga [cnida )])

Animals need to love in order to live.

P20 Lo humni ga cnida lopo nu cluva gu, lopo hapci clivi

(lo humni) (ga [cnida )])

Humans need love (i.e., to be loved) in order to live happily.

P21 Da pa djano lepo fa crina gu, pa lepo le neri drida fa felda

da (pa [djano (


) (fa felda)])>])

He knew it was going to rain before the first drops fell.

P22 Da pa djano lepo fa nicfea pa lepo le neri clife fa felda

da (pa [djano (lepo ])>])

He knew it was going to snow before the first leaves fell.

Q. Attitude Indication; Conversion, Negation & Superlatives (33)

(uo ue ua uu ui nu fu)

Q01 Uo, la Keit, pa dupma mi

uo ([la keit] [pa (dupma mi)])

Damn, Kate deceived me! (Annoyance.)

Q02 Ue tu nu dupma

ue (tu [nu dupma])

Well, so you're deceivable! (Surprise.)

Q03 Ua tu no nu dupma

ua (tu [no (nu dupma)])

Thank goodness you're not deceivable! (Satisfaction.)

Q04 Da nu vegri de di

da ([nu vegri] [de di])

X is less green than Y to W.

Q05 Da gutra nu begco de

da ([gutra (nu begco)] de)

It's a strange request by him. (A strange thing for him to request.)

Q06 Uu tu nu fatru

uu (tu [nu fatru])

I'm sorry you're troubled.

Q07 Eo no nu fatru mi

eo ([no (nu fatru)] mi)

Please don't be troubled by me! (Don't let me bother you!)

Q08 Ui tu no nu fatru

ui (tu [no (nu fatru)])

I'm glad you're not troubled.

Q09 Da nu gudbi de ba

da ([nu gudbi] [de ba])

X is bettered by (worse than) Y for some purpose x.

Q10 Di no nu gudbi raba rabe

di ([no (nu gudbi)] [(ra ba) (ra be)])

W is not betterable by anything for any purpose, i.e., is best.

Q11 No nu gudbi

no (nu gudbi)

Don't be betterable! (Be the best!)

Q12 No ge kukra prano

no (ge [kukra prano])

Don't run fast!

Q13 No, kukra prano

no (kukra prano)

Don't run fast!

Q14 No kukra prano

(no kukra) prano

Not fast run! (Run but not fast!)

Q15 Da fu ge briga stuci

da (fu ge [briga stuci])

X is a teller of brave stories.

Q16 Da fu brigystuci

da (fu brigystuci)

X is a teller of bravestories.

Q17 Ei da nu kamla de

ei (da [(nu kamla) de])

Is X where Y comes from? (Is X the departure-point of Y's coming?)

Q18 Da fu lerci de

da ([fu lerci] de)

X sends letters to Y. (X corresponds with Y.)

Q19 Ei da sanpa de di

ei (da [sanpa (de di)])

Does X mean Y to W? (Is X a sign of Y to W?)

Q20 Ia de nu sanpa da di

ia (de [(nu sanpa) (da di)])

Yes, Y is the meaning of X to W.

Q21 Ia di fu sanpa de da

ia (di [(fu sanpa) (de da)])

Yes, W assigns meaning Y to X. (Or: W sees significance Y in X.)

Q22 No fu sanpa mi ta

(no [fu sanpa]) (mi ta)

Don't think I'm meant by that! (Don't interpret that sign as meaning me!)

Q23 No nu takna

no (nu takna)

Don't be talked to! (Don't let yourself be talked to.)

Q24 No fu takna

no (fu takna)

Don't be talked about. (Don't be someone people talk about.)

Q25 Da fu gudbi

da (fu gudbi)

It's a purpose for which some things are better than others.

Q26 Mi fu namci da

mi ([fu namci] da)

I can name him. (I know him by name.)

Q27 Ta fu garti

ta (fu garti)

That's something to be grateful for.

Q28 Nu garti mi ta

(nu garti) (mi ta)

Be the recipient of my gratitude for that!

Q29 Uu no ba nu hompi vi

uu (no [ba vi)])

Alas, there's nothing potable here.

Q30 Da nu vizka ba be

da ([nu vizka] [ba be])

X is visible to someone or something against some background.

Q31 De no nu vizka raba rabe

de ([no (nu vizka)] [(ra ba) (ra be)])

Y is invisible to everything against every background.

Q32 Da no nu kukra rutma de ti raba

da ([(no ) rutma] [(de ti) (ra ba)])

X is the fastest route to Y from here by any path.

Q33 Da no nu plizo raba lopo roadru

da ([no (nu plizo)] [(ra ba) (lopo roadru)])

X is unusable by anyone for hammering. (X is useless for hammering.)



R. Counting, Quantifying & Numerical Questions (21)

(to te fo fe so se vo ve iesu iene ho hoba toba teba foba soba)

R01 Konduo le batpi

konduo (le batpi)

Count the bottles!

R02 Ne. I to. I te. I fo. I foba batpi

ne . i to . i te . i fo . i ([fo ba] batpi)

One. Two. Three. Four. There are four bottles.

R03 Ne. To. Te. Fo. Foba batpi

ne . to . te . fo . (fo ba) batpi

One. Two. Three. Four. There are four bottles.

R04 Bleka le fo batpi

bleka (le fo batpi)

Look at the four bottles!

R05 Totco to le fo batpi

totco (to [le fo batpi])

Touch two of the four bottles! (Any two.)

R06 Kambei mi ne le to batpi

kambei (mi [ne (le to batpi)])

Bring me (either) one of the two bottles!

R07 Su levi fe batpi ga veslo lo viski

(su [levi fe batpi]) (ga [veslo (lo viski)])

At least one of these five bottles contains whiskey.

R08 Iesu de dui

(iesu de) dui

Which one (or more) of them do?

R09 Levi to de dui

(levi to de) dui

These two of them do. (Should this ,really be ternary?)

R10 Foba tugle levi tobme

(fo ba) (tugle [levi tobme])

There are four legs on this table. (This table has four legs.) Literally, 'Four somethings x are legs of this table.'

R11 Hoba tugle leva tobme

(ho ba) (tugle [leva tobme])

How many legs has that table?

R12 Leva tobme ga nu tugle soba

(leva tobme) (ga [(nu tugle) (so ba)])

That table is belegged with six. (...is six-legged.)

R13 Mi nu tugle ho ba

mi ([nu tugle] [ho ba])

I am belegged by how many? (I have how many legs?)

R14 Ne uu

ne uu


One, alas!

R15 Ho mu nu tugle toba

(ho mu) ([nu tugle] [to ba])

How many of us are belegged with two? (...are two-legged?)

R16 Ho le se tobme ga nu tugle soba

(ho [le se tobme]) (ga [(nu tugle) (so ba)])

How many of the seven tables are six-legged?

R17 Iene da

iene da

Which one of them?



R18 Ho le bekti ji vi levi kruma, ga nu

(ho (le bekti) (ji )) (ga [(nu tugle) (te ba)])

How many of the objects in this room are three-legged?

R19 Ho le bekti ji vi, nu tugle

(ho [(le bekti) (ji vi)]) (nu tugle)

How many of the objects here are legged (have legs)?

R20 Ho le bekti vi nu tugle

(ho [le bekti]) (vi [nu tugle])

How many of the objects are here legged (have legs here)?

R21 Ho le bekti vi levi kruma ga nu tugle foba

([ho (le bekti)] [vi (levi kruma)]) (ga [(nu tugle) (fo ba)])

How many of the objects (while) in this room are four-legged?



S. Quantified Descriptions & Questions (18)

(iete iefo ieho)

S01 Ne mrenu pa kamla

(ne mrenu) (pa kamla)

One man came.

S02 Su mrenu pa kamla

(su mrenu) (pa kamla)

At least one man came. (Some men came.)

S03 Ru mrenu pa kamla

(ru mrenu) (pa kamla)

Enough men came.

S04 Le fo mrenu pa kamla

(le fo mrenu) (pa kamla)

The four men came.

S05 Te le fo mrenu pa kamla

(te [le fo mrenu]) (pa kamla)

Three of the four men came.

S06 Ru le fo mrenu pa kamla

(ru [le fo mrenu]) (pa kamla)

Enough of the four men came.

S07 To le te le fo mrenu pa kamla

(to [le te (le fo mrenu)]) (pa kamla)

Two of the three of the four men came.

S08 Le to le te le fo mrenu pa kamla

(le to [le te (le fo mrenu)]) (pa kamla)

The two of the three of the four men came.

S09 Ho le te mrenu

ho (le te mrenu)

How many of the three men?

S10 Le ho mrenu

le ho mrenu

The how many men? (How many men were there?)

S11 Te le ho mrenu

te (le ho mrenu)

Three of the how many men?

S12 Iete le mrenu

iete (le mrenu)

Which three of the men?

S13 Te le iefo mrenu

te (le iefo mrenu)

Three of the which four men?

S14 Ie le ho mrenu

ie (le ho mrenu)

Which (set of) the how many men? (Two questions.)

S15 Iesu le ho mrenu

iesu (le ho mrenu)

Which (one or more) of the how many men?

S16 Ieho le ho mrenu

ieho (le ho mrenu)

Which how many of the how many men? (Three questions.)

S17 Se sorme pa mercea le se brudi

(se sorme) (pa [mercea (le se brudi)])

(Each of some) Seven sisters married (each of) the seven brothers. (This doesn't say what the literal translations seems to say in English.)

S18 Se sorme pa mercea ne le se brudi

(se sorme) (pa [mercea (ne ])

(Each of some) Seven sisters married (some) one of the seven brothers. (Better, but not quite.)

T. Measurement, Dimensioned Numbers & Numerical Description (10)

(lio lepa -ma -mei -dai)

T01 Ti dalri lio te

ti (dalri [lio te])

This measures in dollars the number 3. (This is worth 3 dollars.)

T02 Ti dalri

ti dalri


This is a dollar. (I.e., a dollars-worth of something, e.g., money).

T03 Ta gramo lio tema

ta (gramo [lio tema])

That measures in grams the number 300. (That weighs 300 grams.)

T04 Ti langa ta lio tomeimei

ti (langa [ta (lio tomeimei)])

This is longer than that by 2mm (by the number 2 millimeters).

T05 Ti skakubra lio mei

ti (skakubra [lio mei])

This measures in width the number m. (By default, m = lm. So, this is one meter wide.)

T06 La Djan, pa donsu le botci le to dalri

(la djan) (pa [donsu «le botci> )])

John gave the boy the two dollars (the two things worth a dollar, e.g., one-dollar bills or silver dollars).

T07 La Djan, pa penti lio totodai le mrenu le torkrilu

(la djan) (pa [penti <(lio totodai) (le mrenu)> )])

John paid 22 dollars (worth of money) to the man for the bicycle.

T08 Lepa ckemo pa sekmi lio to

(lepa ckemo) (pa [sekmi (lio to)])

That (former) time-interval measured in seconds the number 2. (That was two seconds.)

T09 Lepo da clivi pa nime lio voto

(lepo [da clivi]) (pa [nirne (lio voto)])

His life measured in years the number 82. (He lived 82 years.)

T10 Ta pa miksekmi lio to

ta (pa [miksekmi (lio to)])

That measured in microseconds the number 2. (That was 2 microseconds.)

U. Linked Description; Identity Clauses; Replacement with Letter-Words; Mixed Predicates and Arguments (24)

(je jue ze sui -mo -ai -ei (dai/dei, etc.))

U01 Mi pa takna da ta

mi (pa [takna (da ta)])

I talked to X about that.

U02 Hu bi da

hu (bi da)

Who is X?

U03 Da bi le fremi je le botci

da (bi [le (fremi )])

X is the friend of the boy.

U04 Ie le botci

ie (le botci)

What (the) boy?

U05 Le botci ji le brudi je le merfua je le furvea

(le botci) (ji [le (brudi )])>)])

The boy who is the brother of the wife of the buyer.

U06 Le furvea je hu

le (furvea [je hu])

The buyer of what?

U07 Le furvea je le hasfa jue la Djonz, jue lio nemomodai

le (furvea [(je ) ( )])

The buyer of the house from Jones for (the) one-million dollars.

U08 Ie la Djonz

ie (la djonz)

Which Jones?

U09 La Djonz, ji le farfu je la Meris, ze la Selis

(la djonz) (ji [le (farfu )])

The Jones who is the father of Mary and Sally jointly. (I.e., of the sib composed of Mary and Sally.)

U10 La Djonz, ji le farfu je la Meris, e je la Selis

(la djonz) (ji [le (farfu <(je [la meris]) e (je [la selis])>)])

The Jones who is the father of Mary and of Sally (independently).

U11 Dai bi le farfu sui je le matma je la Bab, jue le ditca

dai (bi [le )])>)])

D is also the father of the mother of Bob by the (male) teacher. (I.e., grandson Bob's father was a teacher.)

U12 Dai bi le farfu sui je le matma je la Bab gu, jue le ditca

dai (bi [le ( <(je [le (matma <(je [la bab]) gu>)]) (jue [le ditca])>)])

D is also the father of the mother of Bob, through the (woman) teacher. (I.e., Bob's maternal grandmother was a teacher too.)

U13 Dai bi le farfu je Mai, jue le sorme je la Pidr

dai (bi [le (farfu <(je mai) (jue [le (sorme )])>)])

D is the father of M through the sister of Peter.

U14 Le sorme je Pai jue hu

le (sorme [(je pai) (jue hu)])

The sister of P through whom?

U15 Jue la Rabrt, ze la Celis

jue ([la rabrt] ze [la celis])

Through (parents) Robert and Shelly jointly.

U16 Inusoa Dai bi le farfu je Mai jue le sorme je Pai jue Rai ze Cai

inusoa (dai [bi (le )])>)])

So D is the father of M by thesister of P through R and C jointly.

U17 Inusoa Dai bi le farfu je Mai jue le sorme je Pai jue Rai e jue Cai

inusoa (dai [bi (le )])>)])

So D is the father of M by the sister of P through R and through (Independent claims.)

U18 Dai bi le farfu je Mai jue le sorme je Pai jue Rai, e la Celis

dai (bi [le (farfu <(je mai) (jue [le (sorme <(je pai) (jue [rai e (la celis)])>)])>)])

D is the father of M by the sister of P through R and Shelly.

U19 Dai bi le farfu je Mai jue le sorme je Pai jue Rai gu, e je Cai

dai (bi [le (farfu <(je mai) (jue [le (sorme <([je pai] [jue rai] gu) e (je cai)>)])>)])

D is the father of M through the sister of P through (parent) R, and (she is also the sister) of C.

U20 Dai bi le brudi je Mai jue le sorme je Pai jue Rai, e jue Cai

dai (bi [le (brudi <(je mai) (jue [le (sorme <(je pai) ([jue rai] e [jue cai])>)])>)])

D is the brother of M through (one parent who is) the sister of P through (parent) R and through (parent) C. (This last jue is redundant.)

U21 Eo vedma mi le ketpi je la Paris, jue la Romas, jue le kukra trena jue lio fenidai

eo (vedma [mi (le ) ( )])>)])

Please sell me the ticket to Paris from Rome by the fast train for (the price of) fifty dollars.

U22 Da nigro ze redro bakso

da ([nigro ze redro] bakso)

It's a black-and-red box.

U23 Da nigro ze no nigro

da (nigro ze [no nigro])

It's black-and-non-black.

U24 Da po nigro ze no nigro

da (po [nigro ze (no nigro)])

It's a condition of being a mixture of black and non-black.

V. Identifying vs. Claiming Subordinate Clauses (7)

(jio jia)

V01 Le mrenu jio pa merji na la Somen, haimro de jio pa merji na la Nenimen

([le mrenu] [jio (pa )]) (haimro [de (jio
)])

The man who was married in June is happier than the one who was married in November.

V02 Mi ji la Djan, merji la Meris, ji le detra je la Solomon

(mi [ji (la djan)]) (merji [(la meris) (ji

I, who am John, am married to (the) Mary who is the daughter of Solomon.

V03 Mi jia ditca ga merji la Meris, jia detra je la Solomon

(mi [jia ditca]) (ga [merji ( )]

I, who am a teacher, am married to Mary, who (incidentally) is a daughter of Solomon.

V04 La Meris, jia ditca la Franses, di

(la meris) (jia [ditca ( di)])

Mary, who teaches French to her.

V05 La Meris, jia La Pit, ditca la Franses, di

(la meris) (jia [(la pit) (ditca <(la franses) di>)])

Mary, such that Pete teaches French to her.

V06 Raba jio katma ga titci be jio ratcu

(ra [ba (jio katma)]) (ga [titci (be )])

Everything which is a cat eats something else which is a rat.

V07 Raba jio redro nu herfa, e pa brana na la Nenemen Nevovoton, pa cenja be jio narmykoi

(ra [ba (jio <(redro [nu herfa]) e (pa [brana (na )])>)]) (pa [cenja (be )])

Everyone who is red-haired and was born in November 1882 became a general.



W. Sentence, Predicate & Argument Negation (18)

(ni)

W01 La Djan, pa no gudbi prano

(la djan) (pa [(no gudbi) prano])

John was a non-good runner (i.e., a runner but not a good one).

W02 La Djan, no pa gudbi prano

(la djan) (no [pa (gudbi prano)])

John was not a good runner.

W03 La Djan, no pa godzi la Paris

(la djan) (no [pa (godzi )])

John did not go to Paris.

W04 La Djan, no pa titci le pligo

(la djan) (no [pa (titci )])

John did not eat the apple.

W05 La Djan, pa titci ni le pligo

(la djan) (pa [titci (ni )])

John ate none of the apple(s). (I.e., zero (of the) apples.)

W06 La Djan, pa godzi ni la Paris

(la djan) (pa [godzi (ni )])

John went to no Paris. (I.e., to zero of Paris.)

W07 Ni la Djan, pa godzi la Paris

(ni [la djan]) (pa [godzi (la paris)])

No (zero) John went to Paris.

W08 No la Djan, pa godzi la Paris

no ([la djan] [pa (godzi )])

It is not the case that John went to Paris.

W09 La Djan, no pa kukra godzi

la Paris (la djan) (no [pa )])

John didn't go quickly to Paris.

W10 La Djan, pa no kukra godzi la Paris

(la djan) (pa [( godzi) (la paris)])

John went non-quickly to Paris. (I.e., he went, but slowly.)

W11 La Djan, pa kukra no godzi la Paris

(la djan) (pa [(kukra ) (la paris)])

John quickly didn't go to Paris. (But he did something else quickly!)

W12 La Djan, pa kukra godzi la Paris, ni la Romas

(la djan) (pa [(kukra godzi) )])

John went quickly to Paris from no Rome. (But from somewhere else?)

W13 Ni la Djan, pa kukra godzi la Paris, la Romas

(ni [la djan]) (pa [(kukra godzi) ( )])

No John went quickly to Paris from Rome. (But did someone else?)

W14 No la Djan, pa kukra godzi la Paris, la Romas

no ([la djan] [pa ( <(la paris) (la romas)>)])

It is not the case that John went quickly to Paris from Rome.

W15 La Djan, no pa kukra godzi la Paris, la Romas

(la djan) (no [pa ( <(la paris) (la romas)>)])

John didn't go quickly to Paris from Rome.

W16 La Djan, no ga kukra godzi la Paris, la Romas

(la djan) (no [ga <(la paris) (la romas)>)])

John doesn't go quickly to Paris from Rome.

W17 La Djan, no ga kukra godzi la Paris, la Romas

(la djan) (no [ga <(la paris) (la romas)>)])

John doesn't go quickly to Paris from Rome.

W18 La Djan, no kukra godzi la Paris, la Romas

(la djan) ([(no kukra) godzi] [(la paris) (la romas)])

John non-quickly goes to Paris from Rome.

X. Quotation of Loglan; Fronted Arguments (9)

(li lu liu gi)

X01 La Djan, pa cutse li, Ai, lu la Tam

(la djan) (pa [cutse (

  • )])

    John said 'Yes I will!' to Tom.

    X02 La Tam, gi la Djan, pa cutse liu Ai

    ([la tam] gi) ([la djan] [pa (cutse )])

    To Tom, John said 'Yes I will!'

    X03 Liu Ai, la Tam, gi la Djan, pa cutse

    ([(Liu ai) (la tam)] gi) ([la djan] [pa cutse])

    'Yes I will!' to Tom, John said.

    X04 La Tam, gi la Djan, pa cutse

    ([la tam] gi) ([la djan] [pa cutse])

    To Tom, John said (something).

    X05 La Frans, gi la Djan, pa takna

    ([la frans] gi) ([la djan] [pa takna])

    About France, John talked (to someone).

    X06 La Frans, gi la Djan, pa takna da

    ([la frans] gi) ([la djan] [pa (takna da)])

    About France, John talked to himself.

    X07 La Tam, la Frans, gi la Djan, pa takna

    ([(la tam) (la frans)] gi) ([la djan] [pa takna])

    To Tom about France, John talked.

    X08 Ti gi lo redro litla ga sanpa lo denro raba

    (ti gi) ([lo (redro litla)] [ga (sanpa <(1o denro) (ra ba)>)])

    Under these circumstances, red lights are a sign of danger to everyone (Here the 4th argument of a 5-place structure has been dropped, namely the behavior disposed by the sign.)

    X09 Lopo stise gu, ti gi lo redro litla ga sanpa

    ([(lopo ) ti] gi) ([lo (redro litla)] [ga sanpa])

    Stopping under these circumstances, red lights mean.



    Y. Predicates from Arguments and Prenex Quantifiers (11)

    (me me- goi)

    Y01 Liu tcemu mela Djenis, rutma purda, e sackaa liu mutce

    (Liu tcemu) ([( rutma) purda] e [sackaa (liu mutce)])

    'Tcemu' is a "Jenny-route" word and derived from 'mutce'.

    Y02 Liu tcemu jia sackaa liu mutce mela Djenis, rutma purda

    ([liu tcemu] [jia (sackaa )]) ([(me ) rutma] purda)

    The word 'tcemu' which derives from 'mutce' is a "Jenny-route" word.

    Y03 Ba pa meliu me forma holdu le lengu

    ba (pa [<(me [liu me]) forma> holdu) (le lengu)])

    There was a 'me'-form hole in the language.

    Y04 Raba ra bua goi, ko ba melo bua, ki ba bua

    ([(ra ba) (ra bua)] goi) (ko [ba (me )] ki [ba bua])

    For every something x and every predicate P, if and only if x is a manifestation of P-hood, then x is P.

    Y05 Raba ra bua goi, ko ba melea bua, ki ba bua

    ([(ra ba) (ra bua)] goi) (ko [ba (me )] ki [ba bua])

    For every something x and every predicate P, if and only if x is a manifestation of the class of all that are P, then x is P.

    Y06 Raba ra bua goi, ko ba bie lea bua, ki ba bua

    ([(ra ba) (ra bua)] goi) (ko [ba (bie )] ki [ba bua])

    For every something x and every predicate P, if and only if x is a member of the class of all that are P, then x is P.

    Y07 Li, Da melo preda, lu durduo snola li, Da preda, lu

    (li da me lo preda lu) ([durduo snola] [li da preda lu])

    'Da melo preda' reciprocally entails 'Da preda'.

    Y08 Ta meda po muvdo

    ta ([me da] [po muvdo])

    That's an X-type move. (Said of a chess-player, dancer, etc.)

    Y09 Ta memi tcaro

    ta ([me mi] tcaro)

    That's a "me"-car. (Expresses me, belongs to me, etc.)

    Y10 Le kangu pa meli, Mi danza lepo hasfa godzi, lu bleka mi

    (le kangu) (pa [ bleka) mi]).

    The dog "I want to go home"-looked at me. (I.e., gave me that "I want to go home" look.)

    Y11 Le kangu pa bleka je mi go meli, mi danza lepo hasfa godzi, lu

    (le kangu) (pa [(bleka ) go (me

  • )])

    The dog looked at me in an "1 want to go home" sort of way.



    Z. Prenex Quantifiers (7)

    (goi)

    Z01 Raba be goi, be matmaa ba

    ([(ra ba) be] goi) (be [matmaa ba])

    For every something x there is a y such that y is the maternal grandmother of x.

    Z02 Be raba goi, be matmaa ba

    ([be (ra ba)] goi) (be [matmaa ba])

    There is something y such that for every x, y is x's grandmother.

    Z03 Ba lea humni goi, ba paslinkui da

    ([ba (lea humni)] goi) (ba [paslinkui da])

    There is something x such that for every human, x is his or her ancestor.

    Z04 Raba goi, cluva ba

    ([ra ba] goi) (cluva ba)

    For every something x, love x!

    Z05 Lea humni goi, cluva da

    ([lea humni] goi) (cluva da)

    For every human, love him or her!

    Z06 Lea humni go clivi goi, cluva da

    ([lea (humni go clivi)] goi) (cluva da)

    For every human who is alive, love him or her!

    Z07 Lea clivi humni goi, da gi cluva

    ([(lea ) goi] da gi) cluva

    For every living human, him or her love.



    AA. Connected Arguments & Predicates; Joint Argument Sets (32)

    (a anoi onoi noa efa epa gugu do)

    AA01 La Djan, e la Meris, fundi la Bab

    ([la djan] e [la meris]) (fundi [la bab])

    John and Mary like Bob.

    AA02 La Djan, efa la Meris, fundi la Bab

    ([la djan] efa [la meris]) (fundi [la bab])

    John, and later Mary, liked Bob.

    AA03 Ke la Djan, ki la Meris, fundi la Bab

    (ke [la djan] ki [la meris]) (fundi [la bab])

    Both John and Mary like Bob.

    AA04 Di, e de ke fundi da ki tsodi la pit

    (di e de) (ke [fundi da] ki [tsodi (la pit)])

    He and she both like him and hate Pete.

    AA05 Di, e de fundi da, epa tsodi la Pit

    (di e de) ([fundi da] epa [tsodi (la pit)])

    He and she like him, and before that, hated Pete.

    AA06 Di, e de fundi da, e tsodi gu, la Pit

    (di e de) ([(fundi da) e (tsodi gu)] [la pit])

    He and she like him better than, and hate, Pete.

    AA07 Di, e de fundi, e tsodi gu, la Pit

    (di e de) ([fundi e (tsodi gu)] [la pit])

    He and she (both) like and hate Pete.

    AA08 Di, e de ke fundi ki tsodi gu, la Pit

    (di e de) ([ke fundi ki (tsodi gu)] [la pit])

    He and she both like and hate Pete.

    AA09 La Pol, farfu la Bab, efa la Pit

    (la pol) (farfu [(la bab) efa (la pit)])

    Paul is the father of Bob and later Pete.

    AA10 La Pol, farfu la Bab, la Selis, onoi la Bet

    (la pol) (farfu [(la bab) onoi )])

    Paul is the father of Bob by Sally or by Beth. (But not by both.)

    AA11 La Pol, farfu la Bab, la Selis, gu, onoi la Bet

    (la pol) (farfu [(<(la bab) (la selis)> gu) onoi (la bet)])

    Paul is the father of Bob by Sally, or of Beth (but not of both).

    AA12 La Pol, jia farfu la Bab, e la Pit

    (la pol) (jia [farfu ( e )])

    Paul, who is the father of Bob and Pete.

    AA13 La Pol, jia farfu la Bab, gu, e la Pit

    (la pol) (jia [farfu <(la bab) gu> e )])

    Paul, who is the father of Bob and Pete. (This gu is redundant and insufficient to alter the meaning of All.)

    AA14 La Pol, jia farfu la Bab, gugu, e la Pit

    ([la pol] [jia (farfu <(la bab) gu>) gu]) e (la pit)

    Paul, who is the father of Bob; and Pete. (It takes a double gu to say this. Perhaps we should introduce a guu for this? One that would dissolve into two gu's before the parse?

    AA15 La Pol, farfu, e perdia la Bab, e la Pit

    (la pol) (farfu e [perdia ( e )])

    Paul is a father, and (he) tutors Bob and Pete.

    AA16 La Pol, farfu, e perdia gu, la Bab, e la Pit

    (la pol) ([farfu e (perdia gu)] [(la bab) e (la pit)])

    Paul is the father of, and the tutor of, Bob and Pete.

    AA17 Da farfu ke la Bab, ki la Pit, la Meris

    da (farfu [(ke ki ) (la meris)])

    He is the father of both Bob and Pete by Mary.

    AA18 Da farfu kanoi la Bab gu, ki la Pit, la Meris

    da (farfu [kanoi gu) ki ( )])

    He is the father if of Bob (by someone) then of Pete by Mary.

    AA19 Da farfu kanoi la Bab, ki la Pit, la Meris

    da (farfu [(kanoi ki ) (la meris)])

    He is the father of if Bob then Pete by Mary.

    AA20 Da farfu la Bab gu, e la Pit, la Meris, a la Betis

    da (farfu [( gu) e ( <(la meris) a (la betis)>)])

    He is the father of Bob (by someone), and of Pete by Mary or Betty.

    AA21 Da farfu la Bab, anoi la Pit, la Meris, a la Betis

    da (farfu [( anoi ) a )])

    He is the father of Bob if of Pete, by Mary or Betty.

    AA22 Da farfu la Bab, e la Pit, la Meris, gu, a la Betis

    da (farfu [«([la bab] e [la pit]) (la meris)> gu) a (la betis)])

    He is the father of (both) Bob and Pete by Mary, or of Betty.

    AA23 Da farfu la Bab, e la Pit, ka la Meris, ki la Betis

    da (farfu [ e ) (ka ki )])

    He is the father of (both) Bob and Pete by either Mary or Betty.

    AA24 Da farfu ke la Bab, ki la Pit, ka la Meris, ki la Betis

    da (farfu [(ke ki ) (ka ki )])

    He is the father of both Bob and Pete by either Mary or Betty.

    AA25 Da farfu la Bab, gu, e la Pit, la Meris, e lendia

    da ([farfu <(la bab) gu> e <(la pit) (la meris)>)] e lendia)

    He is the father of Bob, and of Pete by Mary, and teaches languages.

    AA26 Da farfu la Bab, e la Bet, e ditca la Franses, di, e do

    da ([farfu ( e )] e [ditca ( )])

    He is the father of Bob and Beth and teaches French to her and him.

    AA27 Da farfu, e ditca la Franses, gu, di, e do

    da ([farfu e (ditca <(la franses) gu>)] [di e do])

    He is the father of, and teaches French to, her and him.

    AA28 Da farfu, e ditca la Franses, di, e do

    da (farfu e [ditca ( )])

    He is a father, and teaches French to her and him.

    AA29 Da farfu, e ditca la Franses, di gu, e do

    da (farfu e [ditca <([la franses] di) gu> e do)])

    He is a father, and teaches French to her, and (teaches) him (as a language).

    AA30 Da farfu ba be, noa ditca la Franses, ba, e be

    da (farfu (ba be) noa [ditca )])

    He is the father of someone by somebody only if (he) teaches French to that someone and that somebody.

    AA31 Da kanoi farfu ba be, ki ditca la Franses, ba, e be

    da (kanoi [farfu (ba be)] ki [ditca ( )])

    He, if the father of someone by somebody, then teaches French to that someone and that somebody.

    AA32 Liu tcemu kanoi sackaa liu mutce ki mela Djenis, rutma purda

    (liu tcemu) (kanoi [sackaa (liu mutce)] ki [( rutma) purda])

    'Tcemu', if derived from 'mutce', is a "Jenny"-route word.

    BB. Causal Inflectors, Modifiers & Phrases (31)

    (moi soa kou moipa numoi kouhu moihu nukouhu)

    BB01 Mi pa godzi moi

    mi (pa [godzi moi])

    I went with a purpose, i.e., because of some motive.

    BB02 Mi moipa godzi

    mi (moipa godzi)

    I purposefully went.

    BB03 Mi ji moi, pa godzi

    (mi [ji moi]) (pa godzi)

    I, as someone with a purpose, went.

    BB04 Mi ji moipa, godzi

    (mi [ji moipa]) godzi

    I, as someone with a purpose then, go.

    BB05 Moi mi, godzi

    (moi mi) godzi

    To get me, go. (I.e., using me as a goal or purpose.)

    BB06 Moi gi mi godzi

    (moi gi) (mi godzi)

    Purposefully, I go.

    BB07 Soa ta gi da bi de

    ([soa ta] gi) (da [bi de])

    It follows from that that X = Y.

    BB08 Soa lepo da bi de gi, da tsidru

    ([soa (lepo )] gi) (da tsidru)

    Since X is the same as Y, X is guilty.

    BB09 Da tsidru soa lepo da bi de

    da (tsidru [soa (lepo )])

    X is guilty because X is Y.

    BB10 Mi pa tokna ti moi ta

    mi (pa [tokna (ti )])

    I took this so that that (goal would be reached).

    BB11 Moi ta gi mi pa tokna ti

    ([moi ta] gi) (mi [pa (tokna ti)])

    So that that (goal would be reached) I took this.

    BB12 Mi pa danza ta numoi ti

    mi (pa [danza (ta )])

    I wanted that (goal) therefore this (act).

    BB13 Ti pa rodja kou lepo tu cuidru da

    ti (pa [rodja (kou )])

    This grew because of the fact that you watered it.

    BB14 Da pa rodja kou lepo cuidru

    da (pa [rodja (kou )])

    It grew because of the watering.

    BB15 Da pa rodja kou lo cutri

    da (pa [rodja (kou )])

    It grew because of water.

    BB16 Ti pa rodja kouhu

    ti (pa [rodja kouhu])

    This grew because of what? (This grew why?)

    BB17 Tu pa cuidru da moihu

    tu (pa [cuidru (da moihu)])

    You watered it why? (For what purpose?)

    BB18 Ti pa rodja nukouhu

    ti (pa [rodja nukouhu])

    This grew with what consequences? (A converse 'why'.)

    BB19 Kouhu da pa rodja

    kouhu (da [pa rodja])

    Because of what did it grow?

    BB20 Nukouhu da pa rodja

    nukouhu (da [pa rodja])

    With what consequences did it grow?

    BB21 Moihu tu pa cuidru da

    moihu (tu [pa (cuidru da)])

    Why did you water it? (For what purpose?)

    BB22 Moihu tu pa danza lepo da rodja

    moihu (tu [pa (danza )])

    Why did you want it to grow?

    BB23 Kou ta gi ti pa rodja

    ([kou ta] gi) (ti [pa rodja])

    Because of that, this grew.

    BB24 Mi moi ditca

    mi (moi ditca)

    I purposefully teach.

    BB25 Moi gi mi ditca

    (moi gi) (mi ditca)

    Purposefully I teach.

    BB26 Moi mi, ditca

    (moi mi) ditca

    With me as a goal or prize, teach!

    BB27 Moi ba gi mi ditca

    ([moi ba] gi) (mi ditca)

    With something as a goal, I teach.

    BB28 Mi ditca moi ba

    mi (ditca [moi ba])

    I teach in order to have, be or do something.

    BB29 Mi ditca moi lepo mi snire lo junti

    mi (ditca [moi (lepo )])

    I teach in order to be near the young, i.e., with that motive.

    BB30 Mi ditca kou lepo mi cluva lo junti

    mi (ditca [kou (lepo )])

    I teach because I love the young, i.e., from that cause.

    BB31 Mi ditca rau lepo mi bremao lo junti lopo clivi

    mi (ditca [rau (lepo )])

    I teach in order to prepare the young for life, i.e., for that reason.



    CC. Compound Term Connectives (8)

    (enumoi enukou efa eva epa)

    CC01 Mi, enumoi la Djan, pa godzi

    mi enumoi [la djan]) (pa godzi)

    I and therefore John went.

    CC02 Mi, efa la Djan, pa godzi

    (mi efa [la djan]) (pa godzi)

    I and then John went.

    CC03 Mi pa vizka la Meris, enukou la Pit

    mi (pa [vizka «la meris > enukou )])

    I saw Mary and, as a consequence, Pete.

    CC04 Da farfu la Djek la Meris, enukou ni la Selis

    da (farfu [(la djek) enukou )])

    He is the father of Jack through Mary and, as a consequence, not through Sally.

    CC05 Mi pa godzi, enukou, pa vizka la Djan

    mi ([pa godzi] enukou [pa (vizka )])

    I went and, as a consequence, saw John.

    CC06 Mi pa godzi, eva, pa vizka la Djan

    mi ([pa godzi] eva [pa (vizka )])

    I went and there saw John.

    CC07 Mi pa godzi, epa, vizka la Djan

    mi ([pa godzi] epa [vizka (la djan)])

    I went, and, beforehand (i.e., before going), saw John.

    CC08 Mi pa godzi, enumoi, vizka la Djan

    mi ([pa godzi] enumoi [vizka (la djan)])

    I went and, as intended, saw John.

    DD. Connective Questions (8)

    (ha enoi noenoi)

    DD01 Tu danza lo skafi ha lo tcati

    tu (danza [(lo skafi) ha (lo tcati)])

    You want coffee how-connected to tea? (Do you want coffee, tea, both or neither?)

    DD02 Enoi eo

    enoi eo


    And-not, please. (Coffee but not tea, please.)

    DD03 Tu farfu la Djein, ha la Alis

    tu (farfu [(la djein) ha (la alis)])

    You are the father of Jane how-connected to Alice? (Are you the father of Alice or Jane?)

    DD04 E

    e

    And. (Both. I.e., of both Jane and Alice.)



    DD05 Tu farfu la Djein, e la Alis, la Meris, ha la Betis

    tu (farfu [ e ) ha )])

    You are the father of Jane and Alice, through Mary how-connected to Betty?

    DD06 Noenoi. I mi farfu la Djein, la Meris, gu, e la Alis, la Betis

    noenoi . i (mi [farfu (<([la djein] [la meris]) gu> e <(la alis) (la betis) >)])

    Neither. I am the father of Jane through Mary, and of Alice through Betty.

    DD07 Inusoa tu farfu la Djein, a la Alis, la Meris, e la Betis

    inusoa (tu [farfu <(la djein) a (la alis)> <(la meris) e (la betis)>)])

    Therefore you are the father of Jane or Alice, by Mary and Betty.

    DD08 Ipou no tu farfu la Djein e la Alis la Meris a la Betis

    ipou (no [tu (farfu <([la djein] e [la alis]) ([la meris] a [la betis]) >)])

    However, it is not the case that you are the father of Jane and Alice through Mary or Betty.



    EE. Internal Arguments (12)

    (No new LWs.)

    EE01 Da grobou go kukra lo litla

    da ([grobou go kukra] [lo litla])

    It's a ship that is faster than light.

    EE02 Da kukra je lo litla gu, grobou

    da ([kukra (je <(lo litla) gu>)] grobou)

    It's a faster than light, ship.

    EE03 Da penso go kukra mi

    da ([penso go kukra] mi)

    He thinks faster than I do.

    EE04 Da kukra je mi penso

    da ([kukra (je mi)] penso)

    He's a faster-than-I thinker.

    EE05 Ta rutma je la Mineapolis, go kukra ti

    ta ([(rutma ) go kukra] ti)

    That's a route to Minneapolis that is faster than this.

    EE06 Ta rutma je la Mineapolis, jue la Cikagos, go kukra ti

    ta ([(rutma <(je [la mineapolis]) (jue [la cikagos])>) go kukra] ti)

    That's a route to Minneapolis from Chicago that is faster than this.

    EE07 Ta kukra je ti rutma la Mineapolis, la Cikagos

    ta ([(kukra ) rutma] [(la mineapolis) (la cikagos)])

    That's a faster-than-this route to Minneapolis from Chicago.

    EE08 Ta no nu kukra rutma la Mineapolis, la Cikagos

    ta ([(no ) rutma] [(la mineapolis) (la cikagos)])

    That's an "unfasterable" route to Minneapolis from Chicago. (I.e., unbetterable in speed.)

    EE09 Da farbru je la Djan, go plumro la Pit, la Djan

    da ([(farbru ) go plumro] [(la pit) (la djan)])

    He's a paternal uncle of John's who is more pleasing (as an uncle) than Pete to John.

    EE10 Da plumro je la Pit, jue la Djan, farbru la Djan

    da ([(plumro <(je [la pit]) (jue [la djan])>) farbru] [la djan])

    He's a more pleasing-than-Pete-to-John type of paternal uncle to John.

    EE11 Ba pa korfro je liu me holdu le lengu

    ba (pa [ holdu) (le lengu)])

    There was shape-of-'me' hole in the language. (There was a 'me'- shaped hole in the language.)

    EE12 Ba pa holdu je le lengu gu, go korfro liu me

    ba (pa [



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