James Cooke Brown Annotations by M. Randall Holmes



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Run to John Paul Jones, O Mel!



D. Descriptions (11)

(le ne su gu)

D01 Bleka le nirda

bleka (le nirda)

Look at the bird!

D02 Eo penso le nable

eo (penso [le nable])

Please think about the problem.

D03 Eo penso ne nable

eo (penso [ne nable])

Please think about one problem (i.e., exactly one problem).

D04 Eo penso su nable

eo (penso [su nable])

Please think about a problem (i.e., at least one problem).

D05 Ai mi ckano le bunbo

ai (mi [ckano (le bunbo)])

I will be kind to the fool.

D06 Mi driki le purda

mi (driki [le purda])

I remember the word.

D07 La Celdn, godzi le sitci

(la celdn) (godzi [le sitci])

Sheldon goes to the city.

D08 Le rodlu ga gudbi le fitrua

(le rodlu) (ga [gudbi (le fitrua)])

The road is better than the path.

D09 Le ditca ga fundi mi le groda

(le ditca) (ga [fundi (mi )])

The teacher likes me better than (he does) the big one.

D10 Le troli ga plizo la Frenk, ne mipli

(le troli) (ga [plizo )])

The controller uses Frank as one example.

D11 Le tcaro ga djipo le ponsu le kolro

(le tcaro) (ga [djipo ( )])

The car is important to the owner for the color.



E. Questions with he; Demonstratives & Plurals; Replacement with da (18)

(he da na ri ro levi leva)

E01 Tu he

tu he

You're what? (How are you?)



E02 Mi djela

mi djela


I'm well.

E03 Ta he

ta he

That's what? (What's that?)



E04 Da muzgi

da muzgi


It's music.

E05 Le cersi ga he

(le cersi) (ga he)

The chair is what? (How's the chair?)

E06 Da komfu

da komfu


It's comfortable.

E07 Da he komfu

da (he komfu)

It's how comfortable? (How comfortable is it?

E08 Da nurmue komfu

da (nurmue komfu)

It's moderately comfortable.

E09 Le nurci he

le (nurtci he)

The edible what?

E10 Le nurtci herba

le (nurtci herba)

The edible plant.

E11 Le botci ga he sucmi

(le botci) (ga [he sucmi])

The boy is what kind of swimmer?

E12 Le botci ga tarle sucmi

(le botci) (ga [tarle sucmi])

The boy is a tired swimmer.

E13 Leva he tcaro

leva (he tcaro)

That what-kind-of car?

E14 Leva tcaro he

leva (tcaro he)

That car-type-of what?

E15 Levi ri herba ga he

(levi ri herba) (ga he)

These few plants are what?

E16 Da vendu

da vendu


They're poisonous.

E17 Leva ro junti na he

(leva ro junti) (na he)

Those many young ones are now (doing/being) what?

E18 Da na takna

da (na takna)

They're now talking.

F. Identity Questions & Sentences; Replacement with de & dui (25)

(ie bi hu i de dui)

F01 Da mrenu

da mrenu

He's a man.

F02 Ie da

ie da


Which he?

F03 La Bab

la bab

Bob.


F04 Ie la Bab

ie (la bab)

Which Bob?

F05 La Bab, bi le hapci

(la bab) (bi [le hapci])

Bob is the happy one.

F06 Da hapci hu

da (hapci hu)

He's happy about what?

F07 Le ckela

le ckela

The school.

F08 Ie le ckela

ie (le skela)

What school? (Which "the school"?)

F09 Le cninu ckela

le (cninu ckela)

The new school.

F10 Ta bi le cninu ckela

ta (bi [le (cninu ckela)])

That is the new school.

F11 La Selis, cluva

(la selis) cluva

Sally loves. (Sally is in love.)

F12 Da cluva hu

da (cluva hu)

She loves whom?

F13 Da cluva la Pit

da (cluva [la pit])

She loves Pete.

F14 I de cluva hu

i (de [cluva hu])

And he loves whom?

F15 La Alis

la alis

Alice.


F16 Ie la Alis

ie (la alis)

Which Alice?

F17 La Muhamed Alis

la (muhamed alis)

Muhamed Ali.

F18 Da godzi la Italias

da (godzi [la italias])

He goes to Italy.

F19 Da godzi de hu

da (godzi [de hu])

He goes to it from what? (He goes there from where?

F20 Da godzi de la Danmark

da (godzi [de (la danmark)])

He goes to it from Denmark. (He goes there from Denmark.)

F21 Hu matma leva botci

hu (matma [leva botci])

Who is the mother of that boy?

F22 Ti dui

ti dui


This (person) is.

F23 Mi gudbi tu

mi (gudbi tu)

I'm better than you.

F24 Tu gudbi mi hu

tu (gudbi [mi hu])

You're better than me at/for what?

F25 Mi gudbi tu ti

mi (gudbi [tu ti])

I'm better than you are at/for this.



G. Yes/No Questions & Answers; Utterance Demonstratives (12)

(ei ia toi toa)

G01 Ei ti breba

ei (ti breba)

Is this bread?

G02 Ia da breba

ia (da breba)

Yes, it's bread.

G03 Ei ti ckela

ei (ti ckela)

Is this a school?

G04 No. I da hasfa

no . i (da hasfa)

No; it's a house.

G05 Ei ta hasfa

ei (ta hasfa)

Is that a house?

G06 Ia no. I da vemsia

ia no . i (da vemsia)

Certainly not; it's a store.

G07 Ei tu cidja

ei (tu cidja)

Are you awake?

G08 No. I mi sonli

no . i (mi sonli)

No; I'm asleep.

G09 Ei tu cluva mi

ei (tu [cluva mi])

Do you love me?

G10 Ia mi cluva tu

ia (mi [cluva tu])

Yes, I love you.

G11 Ei toi tradu

ei (toi tradu)

Is that true? (Toi refers to the last remark.)

G12 Ei toa logla

ei (toa logla)

Was that Loglan? (Toa refers to an earlier remark.)

H. Tenses; Time Questions & Answers; Local Modification; Punctuation (22)

(pa fa ji ipou nahu)

H01 Ei tu na bleka mi

ei (tu [na (bleka mi)])

Are you now looking at me?

H02 No. Ipou mi fa bleka tu

no . ipou (mi [fa (bleka tu)])

No. But I will look at you.

H03 Ei tu pa tidjo mi

ei (tu [pa (tidjo mi)])

Were you heavier than me?

H04 Ia mi pa mutce tidjo tu

ia (mi [pa ( tu)])

Yes, I was much heavier than you.

H05 Eo tu fa helba mi

eo (tu [fa (helba mi)])

Please, will you (later) help me?

H06 Ai mi fa helba tu

ai (mi [fa (helba tu)])

Yes, I will (later) help you. (Both senses of 'will' are involved.)

H07 Mi groda tu

mi (groda tu)

I'm bigger than you.

H08 Tu nahu groda mi

(tu nahu) (groda mi)

You as of when are, were, or will be, bigger than me?

H09 Mi groda tu fa ti

mi (groda [tu (fa ti)])

I will be bigger than you hereafter (after this).

H10 Mi penso toi fa

mi (penso [toi fa])

I will think about that later.

H11 Na gi mi penso da

(na gi) (mi [penso da])

Now I'm thinking about it.

H12 Na mi, penso da

(na mi) (penso da)

At me, think about it. (When I do, think about it.)

H13 Na mi penso da

(na mi) (penso da)

At me, think about it. (When I do, think about it.)

H14 Na gi la Djan, totco tu

(na gi) ([la djan] [totco tu])

Now John is touching you.

H15 Na la Djan, totco tu

(na [la djan]) (totco tu)

When John (does), touch yourself.

H16 Mi na totco tu

mi (na [totco tu])

I'm now touching you.

H17 Mi ji na, totco tu

(mi [ji na]) (totco tu)

I, as of now, touch you. (I.e., the present-I touches you.)

H18 Mi na fundi tu ji pa

mi (na [fundi (tu )])

I now like you as you were before.

H19 Mi no fundi tu pa

mi ([no fundi] [tu pa])

I didn't like you then.

H20 Ei tu na saadja toi

ei (tu [na (saadja toi)])

Do you now understand this?

H21 Ia mi dui

ia (mi dui)

Yes I do.

H22 No mi dui

no (mi dui)

No I don't.

I. Time Phrases (21)

(pahu fahu fazi pazu tiu)

I01 Ai mi ditca

ai (mi ditca)

I intend to teach. (I'm going to teach.)

I02 Nahu

nahu


At what time/date/period?

I03 Fa la Netomen

fa (la netomen)

After December.

I04 Pa la Torin

pa (la torin)

Before the Second.

I05 Na le monza

na (le monza)

In the morning.

I06 Pahu

pahu


Before when?

I07 Pa le natli

pa (le natli)

Before (the) night.

I08 Fahu

fahu


After when?

I09 Fa le cimra

fa (le cimra)

After the summer.

I10 Fazi

fazi


Right away.

I11 Fa la Nevesonin

fa (la nevesonin)

After 1960.

I12 Na tiu gi mi pa clafo

([na tiu] gi) (mi [pa clafo])

At that (reported event), I laughed.

I13 Fa ta gi ti rodja

([fa ta] gi) (ti rodja)

After that, this (will) grow.

I14 Fa ta, rodja

(fa ta) rodja

After that, grow!

I15 Fa gi ti rodja

(fa gi) (ti rodja)

Later this (will) grow.

I16 Ti fa rodja

ti (fa rodja)

This will grow.

I17 Mi kicmu pazu tu

mi (kicmu [pazu tu])

I was a doctor long before you (were).

I18 Ai mi fa traci na la Nenimen

ai (mi [fa (traci )])

I intend to travel in October.

I19 Na la nenimen gi mi fa traci la Frans

([na (la nenimen)] gi) (mi [fa (traci )])

In October I will travel to France.

I20 Mi fa traci da pa la Netomen

mi (fa [traci (da


)])

I will travel to it before December.

I21 Mi fa traci pa la Netomen da

mi (fa [traci


da)])

I will travel before December to it.



J. Space Questions & Answers; Space Phrases (17)

(vi va vu vihu vahu vuhu)

J01 La Djan, titci vi

(la djan) (titci vi)

John eats here.

J02 Ei tu stolo vi

ei (tu [stolo vi])

Do you stay here?

J03 No. I mi stolo va

no . i (rai [stolo va])

No; I stay there.

J04 Ei tu stude vi

ei (tu [stude vi])

Are you a student here?

J05 No. I mi stude vu

no . i (mi [stude vu])

No; I am a student far away.

J06 Ei tu ji vi, stude

ei ([tu (ji vi)] stude)

Are you, as are here, a student? (I.e., the part of you that is here?)

J07 Vihu tu sonli

vihu (tu sonli)

Where do you sleep?

J08 Va tu

va tu


Near you.

J09 Vi le hasfa

vi (le hasfa)

In the house.

J10 Vahu

vahu


Near where?

J11 Va la Rain

va (la rain)

Near the Rhine.

J12 Vuhu

vuhu


Far from where?

J13 Vu le mursi

vu (le mursi)

Far from the sea.

J14 Vi la Ditroit, gi da pa malbi

([vi (la ditroit)] gi) (da [pa malbi])

In Detroit he was sick.

J15 Da fa zbuma va le vrici

da (fa [zbuma (va )])

It will explode near the

J16 Da na genbalci de vu le

monca


da (na [genbalci (de )])

J17 Da na genbalci de ji vu le monca

da (na [genbalci (de )])

He's now rebuilding the one (that is) far from the mountain.



K. Existentials & Universals; Completion (34)

(ba be bo bu raba rabe rabo nibe ifeu inusoa vina uu)

K01 Ba najda

ba najda

Something is a knife. (There are knives.)

K02 Ei ba smano

ei (ba smano)

Is something smoke? (Is there smoke?)

K03 Ia ba smano

ia (ba smano)

Yes, something is smoke. (Yes, there is smoke.)

K04 Ei ba breba

ei (ba breba)

Is something bread? (Is there any bread?)

K05 Ia. I ba breba vi

ia . i (ba [breba vi])

Yes; something is bread here. (There's bread here.)

K06 Ei ba bukcu vi

ei (ba [bukcu vi])

Is something a book here? (Are there any books here?)

K07 Uu no ba bukcu vi

uu (no [ba (bukcu vi)])

Sorry, nothing is a book here. (There are no books here.)

K08 No ba cutri vina

no (ba [cutri vina])

Nothing is water here now. (There is no water here now.)

K09 Vihu ba najda

vihu (ba najda)

Where is something a knife? (Where are there knives?)

K10 Ba najda vi levi drara

ba (najda [vi (levi drara)])

Something is a knife in this drawer. (There are knives in this drawer.)

K11 Nahu ba nilboi

nahu (ba nilboi)

When is something a child? (When were there/will there be children?)

K12 Ba nilboi na la Nevevonin

ba (nilboi [na (la nevevonin)])

There are children in 1980. (There were /will be children in 1980.)

K13 Ei raba cninu

ei ([ra ba] cninu)

Is everything new?

K14 No. I ba no cninu

no . i (ba [no cninu])

No; something is not new. (No; some things are not new.)

K15 Ei raba cluva rabe

ei ([ra ba] [cluva (ra be)])

Does everybody love everybody else?

K16 No. I ba no cluva rabe

no . i (ba [(no cluva) (ra be)])

No; there are some who don't love everyone else.

K17 Ifeu ba no cluva be

ifeu (ba [(no cluva) be])

In fact, there are some who don't love anyone else.

K18 Ei raba kunci be

ei ([ra ba] [kunci be])

Is everyone related to someone else?

K19 No. I ba kunci nibe

no . i (ba [kunci (ni be)])

No; some are related to no one else (to zero somethings).

K20 Raba gudbi be bo

(ra ba) (gudbi [be bo])

Everyone is better than someone at/for something.

K21 Ba paslinkui rabe bo

ba (paslinkui [(ra be) bo])

Someone is an ancestor of everyone through someone.

K22 Ba vegri be rabo

ba (vegri [be (ra bo)])

Something is greener than something else to everyone.

K23 La Djan, godzi la Frans

(la djan) (godzi [la frans])

John goes to France.

K24 Inusoa de godzi da ba

inusoa (de [godzi (da ba)])

Therefore he goes there from somewhere.

K25 Ti groda

ti groda

This is big.

K26 Inusoa da groda ba be

inusoa (da [groda (ba be)])

Therefore it's bigger than something by some amount.

K27 Ti bitsa

ti bitsa

This is in between.

K28 Inusoa da bitsa ba be

inusoa (da [bitsa (ba be)])

Therefore it's between something and something else.

K29 Ti vedma

ti vedma

This (person) is a seller.

K30 Inusoa da vedma ba be bo

inusoa (da [vedma ( bo)])

Therefore he sells something to someone at some price.

K31 Ti racketpi ti

racketpi

This is a travel-ticket.

K32 Inusoa da ketpi ba be bo bu

inusoa (da [ketpi (<(ba be) bo> bu)])

Therefore it is a ticket to somewhere from somewhere on some carrier for some price.

K33 Mi no vizka

mi (no vizka)

I do not (i.e., cannot) see.

K34 Inusoa mi no vizka raba rabe

inusoa (mi [(no vizka) «ra ba> )])

Therefore I do not see anything against any background.

L. Predicate Strings; Grouping, Hyphenation, Connection & Inversion (22)

(ge go ci ce ke ki)

L01 La Frans, grada gunti

(la frans) (grada gunti)

France is a great country.

L02 Da he grada gunti

da ([he grada] gunti)

It's how great a country? (I.e., what kind or degree of greatness is involved?)

L03 Da bilca grada gunti

da ([bilca grada] gunti)

It's a militarily great country.

L04 La Spat, simba janto kangu

(la spat) ([simba janto] kangu)

Spot is a lion-hunting dog.

L05 Da he simba janto kangu

da ([(he simba) janto] kangu)

He's a what-kind-of-lion hunting dog? (Used for what kind of lions?)

L06 Da frika simba janto kangu

da ([(frika simba) janto] kangu)

He's an African-lion-hunting dog.

L07 Da cmalo ge janto kangu

da (cmalo [ge (janto kangu)])

He's small for a hunting dog.

L08 Da cmalo janto ci kangu

da (cmalo [janto ci kangu])

He's a small hunting-dog.

L09 La Mbelis, dorja cefli

(la mbelis) (dorja cefli)

Mbeli is a war chief.

L10 Da he dorja cefli

da ([he dorja] cefli)

He's what-kind-of-war chief? (A chief for what kind of wars?)

L11 Da he ge dorja cefli

da (he [ge (dorja cefli)])

He's what kind of a war-chief? (What's he like as a war-chief?)

L12 Da ckano ge dorja cefli

da (ckano [ge (dorja cefli)])

He's kind for a war-chief.

L13 Da junti ge terla famva bilra

da (junti [ge bilra)])

He's young for a world-famous billiard-player.

L14 Da kusti ge slano torkrilu ci dampa

da (kusti [ge (slano )])

It's expensive for a slow bicycle- pump. (I.e., a slow-acting pump.)

L15 Da junti famva ce terla ci sadji

da (junti [famva ce (terla ci sadji)])

He's young to be famous and worldly-wise.

L16 Da junti ke famva ki terla ci sadji

da (junti [ke famva ki (terla ci sadji)])

He's young to be both famous and worldly-wise.

L17 Da junti ce terla ci famva sadji

da ([junti ce (terla ci famva)] sadji)

He's a young (and) world-famous sage.

L18 Da kubra kanpi ci tcaro rodlu

da ([kubra (kanpi ci tcaro)] rodlu)

It's a wide race-car road. (I.e., a road for wide race-cars.)

L19 La Djan, prano go kukra la Djek

(la djan) ([prano go kukra] [la djek])

John runs faster than Jack.

L20 Da botsu go vedji groda

da (botsu go [vedji groda])

It's a boat that is very large.

L21 Da slano takna go staryfoa

da ([slano takna] go staryfoa)

He's a slow talker who is full of surprises.

L22 Da ge slano takna go staryfoa

da ([ge (slano takna)] go staryfoa)

He's, for a slow talker, full of surprises.

M. More Connections & Groupings in Predicate Strings (26)

(gue cui canoi ka kanoi)

M01 Da bilti cmalo ce nirli

da (bilti [cmalo ce nirli])

She's (a) beautifully small (thing) and a beautiful girl.

M02 Da bilti ke cmalo ki nirli

da (bilti [ke cmalo ki nirli])

She's beautifully both small and a girl.

M03 Da bilti ge cmalo nirli gue ckela

da ([bilti (ge gue)] ckela)

It's a beautiful small-girls' school.

M04 Da bilti cmalo ge nirli ckela

da ([bilti cmalo] [ge (nirli ckela)])

It's beautifully small for a girls' school.

M05 Da bilti cmalo nirli ci ckela

da ([bilti cmalo] [nirli ci ckela])

It's a beautifully small girls-school.

M06 Da bilti ge cmalo ge nirli ckela

da (bilti [ge (cmalo )])

It's beautiful for a small type of girls' school, i.e., for a girls' school which is small.

M07 Da bilti cmalo ci nirli ci ckela

da (bilti [cmalo ci (nirli ci ckela)])

It's a beautiful small-girls-school.

M08 Da bilti ce cmalo nirli ckela

da ([(bilti ce cmalo) nirli] ckela)

Its a beautiful-and-small girls' school, i.e., for girls who are both beautiful and small.

M09 Da bilti cmalo ca nirli ckela

da ([bilti (cmalo ca nirli)] ckela)

It's a beautifully small and/or a (beautiful) girls', school.

M10 Da bilti ka cmalo ki nirli ckela

da ([bilti (ka cmalo ki nirli)] ckela)

It's a beautifully either small and/or a girls', school.

M11 Da bilti cmalo nirli ce ckela

da ([bilti cmalo] [nirli ce ckela])

It's a beautifully small girl-and-school, i.e, it's both a beautifully small girl and a beautifully small school (!).

M12 Da bilti ge cmalo ce nirli ckela

da (bilti [ge «cmalo ce nirli> ckela)])

It's beautiful for a small, and for a girls', school, i.e., for a school which is small and for girls.

M13 Da bilti ge cmalo nirli ce ckela

da (bilti [ge (cmalo )])

It's beautiful for a small girl and for a small school.

M14 Da cui bilti cmalo ce nirli ckela

da ([cui (bilti cmalo) ce nirli] ckela)

It's a beautifully small, and a girls', school.

M15 Da bilti ci cmalo ce nirli ckela

da ([(bilti ci cmalo) ce nirli] ckela)

It's a beautifully-small and a girls' school.

M16 Da bilti canoi cmalo ci nirli ckela

da ([bilti canoi (cmalo ci nirli)] ckela)

It’s a beautiful if for small-girls school.

M17 Da bilti ce cmalo ge nirli ckela

da ([bilti ce cmalo] [ge (nirli ckela)])

It's beautiful and small for a girls' school.

M18 Da bilti ce cmalo nirli ci ckela

da ([bilti ce cmalo] [nirli ci ckela])

It's a beautiful, and a small, girls-school.

M19 Da bilti cui cmalo nirli ce ckela

da (bilti [cui (cmalo nirli) ce ckela])

It's a beautiful small-girl and (a beautiful) school.

M20 Da bilti cmalo ci nirli ce ckela

da (bilti [(cmalo ci nirli) ce ckela])

It's a beautiful small-girl and school.

M21 Da bilti cmalo ce ge nirli ckela

da (bilti [cmalo ce (ge )])

It's (a) beautifully small (thing) and (beautiful for a) girls' school.

M22 Da bilti ce cmalo ca nirli ckela

da ([(bilti ce cmalo) ca nirli] ckela)

It's a beautiful and a small, or it's a girls', school.

M23 Da bilti ce kanoi cmalo ki nirli ckela

da ([bilti ce (kanoi cmalo ki nirli)] ckela)

It's a beautiful, and, if a small then a girls', school.

M24 Da bilti ce cmalo nirli ce ckela

da ([bilti ce cmalo] [nirli ce ckela])

It's a beautiful-and-small girl-and-school.

M25 Da bilti cmalo ce nirli ca nirli

da (bilti [(cmalo ce nirli) ca nirli])

It's a beautifully small thing and a beautiful girl, or it's a beautiful school.

M26 Da bilti cmalo ce ka nirli ki ckela

da (bilti [cmalo ce (ka nirli ki ckela)])

It's a beautifully small thing, and either a (beautiful) girl or a (beautiful) school.

N. Event/State Predicates; Other Abstractions (16)

(po pu zo di)

N01 Da zbuma

da zbuma

It explodes (is an explosive).

N02 Da po zbuma

da (po zbuma)

It's an explosion (an event of exploding).

N03 Da pa clado po zbuma

da (pa [clado (po zbuma)])

It was a loud explosion.

N04 Da po mrenu

da (po mrenu)

It's a manhood (a state of being a man).

N05 Da pa corta po mrenu

da (pa [corta (po mrenu)])

It was a short manhood.

N06 Da pa corta po mrenu bukcu

da (pa [(corta


) bukcu])

It was a short-manhood book. (A book about short manhoods?)

N07 Da pa corta ge po mrenu bukcu

da (pa [corta (ge <(po mrenu) bukcu>)])

It was short for a manhood book.

N08 Da po ge corta mrenu

da (po [ge (corta mrenu)])

It's an event, state, or case of being a short man.

N09 Da po, corta mrenu

da (po [corta mrenu])

It's a case of being a short man.

N10 Da pa mutce po ge corta mrenu

da (pa [mutce (po )])

It was an extreme case of being a short man.

N11 Da po mi corta la Djan

da (po [mi (corta )])

It's a case of my being shorter than John.

N12 Da po la Pit, mutce corta la Djan

da (po [(la pit) )])

It's a case of Pete's being much shorter than John.

N13 Da pu de fotli di

da (pu [de (fotli di)])

X is a (the) property of Y being stronger than W.

N14 Da pu de fotli

da (pu [de fotli])

X is an instance of Y's strength.

N15 Da zo de blanu di

da (zo [de (blanu di)])

X is an (the) amount by which Y is bluer than W.

N16 Da zo de blanu

da (zo [de blanu])

X is an (the) amount of blue in Y.



O. Mass & Event Descriptions; Mass Event Descriptions (27)

(lo lovi lepo lopo)

O01 Ei da fundi lo malna

ei (da [fundi (lo malna)])

Is he fond of milk? (Does he like milk?)

O02 Ei tu pa titci lo nikri

ei (tu [pa (titci )])

Did you eat cheese?

O03 Ei tu fa janto lo simba

ei (tu [fa (janto )])

Will you (be) hunt(ing) lions? (Are you going to hunt lions?)

O04 Ia mi fa janto da

ia (mi [fa (janto da)])

Yes, I'll (be) hunt(ing) them. (Yes, I'm going to hunt them.)

O05 Ei lo nirda vi sucmi

ei ([lo nirda] [vi sucmi])

Do birds here-swim? (I.e., swim here, in this place?)

O06 Ei lo nirda vi, sucmi

ei ([(lo nirda) vi] sucmi)

Do birds here swim? (More global; does the event of birds swimming take place here?)

O07 Ei lo nirda ji vi, sucmi

ei ([(lo nirda) (ji vi)] sucmi)

Do (the) birds here swim? (I.e., the local birds?)

O08 Ei lovi nirda ga sucmi

ei ([lovi nirda] [ga sucmi])

Do local birds (here-birds) swim?

O09 No. I da fleti

no . i (da fleti)

No; they fly.

O10 Leva sonda ga he

(leva sonda) (ga he)

That sound was what?

O11 Lopo zbuma

lopo zbuma

Explosion(s).

O12 Ei tu pa hirti lepo zbuma

ei (tu [pa (hirti )])

Did you hear the explosion?

O13 Ia mi pa hirti da. I lopo zbuma ga clado

ia (mi [pa (hirti da)]) . i ([lopo zbuma] [ga clado])

Yes, I heard it. Explosions are loud.

O14 Ei tu pa hirti le clado po zbuma

ei (tu [pa (hirti )])

Did you hear the loud explosion?

O15 Ei tu hirti lo clado po zbuma

ei (tu [hirti (lo )])

Do you hear loud explosions?

O16 Ei tu fundi lopo sucmi

ei (tu [fundi (lopo sucmi)])

Do you like swimming?

O17 Ei lepo prano pa nardu

ei ([lepo prano] [pa nardu])

Was the run difficult?

O18 Ei lopo nilboi ga treci

ei ([lopo nilboi] [ga treci])

Is childhood interesting?

O19 Ei lopo mormao lo simba ga nardu

ei ([lopo (mormao )] [ga nardu])

Is killing lions difficult?

O20 Lo ficli ga spalii lo mursi

(lo ficli) (ga [spalii (lo mursi)])

Fish live in the sea.

O21 Lo tongu ga trime lopo takna

(lo tongu) (ga [trime (lopo takna)])

The tongue is the tool of speech.

O22 Lo tcina ga hasfa lo tongu

(lo tcina) (ga [hasfa (lo tongu)])

The chin is the house of the tongue.

O23 Lopo takna ga proju lo sonda

(lopo takna) (ga [proju (lo sonda)])

Speech produces sound.

O24 Lopo dirlu ga ckozu lopo kecri

(lopo dirlu) (ga [ckozu (lopo kecri)])

Loss is a cause of sadness.

O25 Lepo kanpi sucmi pa valna

(lepo [kanpi sucmi]) (pa valna)

The swimming-meet (event of competitive swimming) was violent.

O26 Le, po kanpi sucmi pa valna

(le [(po kanpi) sucmi]) (pa valna)

The competition swimmer was violent.

O27 Lo, po kanpi sucmi ga valna

(lo [(po kanpi) sucmi]) (ga valna)

Competition swimmers are violent.



P. Specified & Nested Event Descriptions (22)

(No new LWs.)

P01 Ei tu djano lepo mi stude

ei (tu [djano (lepo )])

Do you know that I am a student?

P02 Tu danza lepo jmite hu

tu (danza [lepo (jmite hu)])

You want to meet whom?

P03 Le nirli pa takna mi lopo da traci

(le nirli) (pa [takna (mi )])

The girl talked to me about her travels.

P04 Le farfu pa takna le detra lepo nu fatru

(le farfu) (pa [takna ( )])

The father talked to the daughter about his being troubled.

P05 Ei tu danza lepo mi tcihea tu

ei (tu [danza (lepo ) ])

Do you want me to feed you? (I.e., help you eat?)

P06 Mi krido lepo la Paris, garsitci la Frans

mi (krido [lepo ( )])

I believe that Paris is the capital of France.

P07 Mi djacue lepo la Marz, redro levi carta

mi (djacue [lepo ( Credro (levi carta)>)])

I claim that Mars is redder than this shirt.

P08 Le stude pa djadou le surva lepo da pluci de

(le stude) (pa [djadou ( )])

The student informed the servant that he/she (the servant) pleased him/her (the student).

P09 La Ruprt, djacue lepo la Denvr, bitsa le vrici lepo kamda

(la ruprt) (djacue [lepo )])

Rupert claims that Denver is between the river and the fighting.

P10 La Dag, furmoi lepo trati lepo skesa la Meris

(la dag) (furmoi [lepo (trati )])

Doug intends to try to kiss Mary.

P11 Ei la Degol, pa krido lepo kanmo lepo rilnamdou la Frans

ei ([la degol] [pa (krido )])>)])

Did de Gaulle believe that (he) could glorify France?

P12 Lepo le mrenu pa trati ga fekto

(lepo [(le mrenu) (pa trati)]) (ga fekto)

That the man tried is a fact.

P13 Lepo le botci pa fundi lopo sucmi ga gudcae

(lepo [(le botci) (pa )]) (ga gudcae)

That the boy was fond of swimming is lucky.

P14 Lepo lepo le matma pa kamla pa tradu pa fatru

(lepo [(lepo <(le matma) (pa kamla)>) (pa tradu)]) (pa fatru)

The fact that the mother came was true was troubling.

P15 Mi pa viadja lepo lepo prano pa kukra

mi (pa [viadja (lepo <(lepo prano) (pa kukra)>)])

I observed (saw-knew) that the running was fast.

P16 Mi jupni lepo lepo mi danza lepo helba la Meris, pa gudcae

mi (jupni [lepo (



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